Marketing Notes Essay, Research Paper
Chapter 1 – Marketing In a Changing World
What is marketing?
- Creating customer value and stratification are at the very heart of modern
marketing thinking and practice.
- Markets always focus at satisfying customers needs
- Marketing: A social and managerial process by which individuals and groups
obtain what they need and want through creating exchanging products and value
- Needs: States of felt deprivation
- Wants: Are the form taken by human needs as they are shaped by culture and
individual personality. Wants are described in terms of objects that will
- Demands: Human wants that are backed by buying power
- Products: Anything that can be offered to a market for attention,
acquisition, use, or consumption that might satisfy a want or need it. It
includes physical objects, services, persons, places, organizations, and ideas.
- ?Marketing myopia? Sellers may suffer from ?Marketing myopia? they
are so taken with their products that they focus only on existing wants and lose
sight f underlying customer needs. They forget that a physical product is only a
tool to solve a consumer problem.
Value, Satisfaction, and quantity
- Customer Value: The difference between the values the customer gains from
owning and using a product and the cost of obtaing the product.
- Customer Satisfaction: The extent to which a product?s perceived
performance matches a buyer?s expectations.
- If the product?s performance falls short of the customer?s
expectations, the buyer is dissatisfied. If the performance matches expectation,
the buyer is satisfied. If performance excesses expeditions, the buyer is
delighted. Outstanding marketing companies go out of their way to keep their
- Total quantity management (TQM): Programs designed to constantly improve
the quantity of products, services and marketing processes.
Exchange, Transactions, and Relationship
- Exchange: The act of obtaining a desired object from someone by offering
something in return.
- Transaction: A trade between two parties that involves at least two things
of value, agreed-upon conditions, a time of agreement, and a place of agreement.
- Relationship Marketing: The process by creating, maintaining, and enhancing
strong, value, -laden relationships with customers and other stakeholders.
- A market network consists of the company and all of its surrounding
stakeholder: customers, employees, suppliers, distributions, retailers,
advertising, agencies, and others with whom it has built mutually profitable
- Market: The set of all actual and potential buyers of a product or service.
- Figure 1-2 (13)
- Marketing means managing markets to bring about exchanges for the purpose
of satisfying human needs and wants.
- Marketing Management: The analysis, planning, implementation, and control
of programs designed to create, build, and maintain beneficial exchanges with
target buyers for the purpose of achieving organizational objectives.
- De-marketing: Marketing to reduce demand temporarily or permantely-the aim
is not to destroy demand, but only to reduce or shift it.
Building profitable customer relationship
- A company demand comes from two groups: 1. New customers and 2. Repeat
- It costs five times as much to attract new customers as it does to keep an
existing customers satisfied.
Marketing Management Philosophies
- There are five alternatives concepts under which organizations conduct
their marketing activities: the product, selling, marketing, and societal
- Production Concept: The philosophy that consumers will favour products that
are available and highly affordable and that management should therefore focus
on improving production and distribution efficiency.
- Product Concept: The philosophy that consumers will favour producers that
offer the most quality, performance, and innovative features.
- Selling Concepts: The idea that consumers will not buy enough of the
organization?s products unless the organization undertakes a large-scale
selling and promotion effort.
- Marketing Concept: The marketing management philosophy that holds the
achieving organizational goals depends on determining the needs and wants of
target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions more effectively and
efficiently than competitors do.
- Internet: A vast and burgeoning global web of computer networks with no
central management or ownership.
Chapter 2- Strategic Planning the Marketing Process
- The annual plan is a short-run marketing plan that describes the current
marketing situation, the company objectives, and the marketing strategy for the
year, the action program, budgets, and controls.
- The long-run plan describes the major factors and forces affecting the
organization during the next several years, it includes the long-term
objectives, the major marketing strategies that will be used to attain them, and
the resources required.
- Strategic Planning: The process of developing and maintaining a strategic
fit between the organization?s goals and capabilities and its changing
- At the corporate level, the company first defines its overall purpose and
mission. This mission then is turned into detailed supporting objectivities that
guide the whole company. Next, headquarters decides what portfolio of business
and products is best for the company and how much support to give each one. In
turn, each business and product unit must develop detailed marketing and other
departmental plans that support the company wide plan.
Defining the company mission
- Mission Statement: A statement of the organizations purpose-what it wants
to accomplish in the larger environment.
- Mission should be realistic, specific, fit the market environment,
Designing the Business Portfolio
- Business Portfolio: The collection of business and products that comprise
- The best business portfolio is the one that best fits the company?s
strengths and weakness to opportunities in the environment. The company must (1)
analyse the current business portfolio and decide which business should receive
more, less, or no investment, and (2) develop growth strategies for adding new
products or business to the portfolio.
Analysing the current business portfolio
- Portfolio Analysis: A tool by which management identifies and evaluates the
various businesses that makes up the company.
- Strategic business Unit (SBU): A unit of the company that has a separate
mission and objectives and that can be planned independently from other company
business. An SBU can be a company division, a product line within a division, or
sometimes a single product or brand.
- Management?s first step is to identify the key businesses making up the
company. The next step in business portfolio analysis calls for management to
assess the attractiveness of its various SBU?s and decide how much support
The Boston Consulting Approach
- Growth-share matrix: A portfolio-planning method that evaluates a company?s
strategic business units (SBU) in terms of their market growth rate and relative
market share. SBUs are classified as stars, cash cows, question marks, or dogs.
- Four types of SBUs can be distinguished:
1. Star: High-growth, high share business or products that often require
heavy investment to finance their rapid growth.
2. Cash Cow: Low-growth, high share business or products; established and
successful units that generate cash that the company uses to pay its bills and
support other business units that need investment.
3. Question Mark: Low-share business units in high-growth markets that
require a lot of cash in order to hold their share or become stars.
4. Dogs: Low-growth, low share business and products that generate enough
cash to maintain themselves but do not promise to be large sources of cash.
- Figure 2-2 (45) Growth Share matrix
The General Electric Approach
- It uses a matrix with two dimensions-one representing industry
attractiveness (the vertical axis) and one representing company strength in the
industry (the horizontal axis). The best businesses are those located in highly
attractive industries where the company has high business strength.
Problems with Matrix Approaches
- They can be difficult, time consuming, and costly to implement. Management
may find it difficult to define to define SBUs and measure market share and
- These approaches focus on classifying current businesses but provide little
advise for future planning.
Developing Growth Strategies
- Product/market expansion grid: A portfolio-planning tool for identify
company growth opportunities through market penetration, market development, or
- Market Penetration: A strategy for company growth by increasing sales of
current products to current market segments without changing the product in
- Market development: A strategy for company growth by identifying and
developing new market segments for current company products.
- Product development: A strategy for company growth by offering modified or
new products to current market segments.
- Diversification: A strategy for company growth by starting up or acquiring
businesses outside the company?s current products and markets.
Marketing Role in Strategic Planning
- Marketing looks at consumer needs and the company?s ability to satisfy
them; these same factors guide the company mission and objectives.
- Marketing plays a key role in the company?s strategic planning; Marketing
provides a guiding philosophy-the marketing concept-which suggests company
strategy should revolve around serving the needs of important consumer groups.
Marketing provides input to strategic planners by helping to identify attractive
market opportunities and by assessing the firm?s potential to take advantage
of them. Within individual business units, marketing designs strategies
- For reaching the unit?s objective.
Conflict between Departments
- Operations focuses on suppliers and production; finance is concerned with
stockholders and sound investments; marketing emphasizes consumers and products,
pricing, promotion, and distribution.
The Marketing process
- Marketing Process: The process of (1) analysing marketing opportunities;
(2) selecting targets market (3) developing the marketing mix and (4) managing
the marketing effort.
- Market Segmentation: Dividing the market into distinct groups of buyers
with different needs, characteristics, or behaviour who might require separate
products or making mixes.
- Market Segment: A group of consumers who respond in a similar way to given
set of marketing stimuli.
- Market targeting: The process of evaluating each market segment?s
attractiveness and selecting one or more segments to enter.
- Arranging for a product to occupy a clear, distinctive, and desirable place
relative to competing products in the minds of target consumers.
Marketing Strategies for Competitive Advantage
- The company must formally or informally monitor the completive environment
to answer these and other important questions: Who are our competitors? What are
their objectives and strategies? What are their strengths and weakness? And how
will they react to different completive strategies we might use?
Developing the Marketing Mix
- Marketing Mix: The set of controllable tactical marketing tools-product,
price, place and promotion-that the firm blends to produce the response it wants
in the target market.
- Product means the ?goods and services?
- Price is the amount of money customers have to pay to obtain the product.
- Place includes company activities that make the product available to target
- Promotion means activities that communicate the merits of the products and
persuade target customers.
Managing the Marketing Effort
- Four management functions-analysis, planning, implementation and control.
- Marketing Analysis ? The Company must analyse its markets and making
environment to identify attractive opportunities and avoid environmental
threats. It must analyses company strengths and weaknesses, as well as current
and possible marketing actions, to determine which opportunities it can best
pursue. Marketing analysis needs information and other input to each of the
other marketing management functions.
- Marketing Planning ? It involves deciding on marketing strategies that
will help the company attain its overall strategic objectives. A detailed
marketing plan is needed for each business, product or brand.
- Product or brand plan (Contents of Marketing Plan) p.58
- Product or brand plan includes: Executive summary that quickly overviews
major assessment goals, and recommendation. The main section of the plan
presents a detailed analysis of the current marketing situation, and of
potential threats and opportunities. It next states major objectives for the
brand and outlines the specific of a marketing strategy for achieving them.
- Marketing Strategy: The marketing logic by which the business unit hopes to
achieve its marketing objectives. It consists of specific strategies for target
markets, positioning, the marketing mix, and marketing expenditure levels.
- In the marketing strategy level the planner explains how each strategy
responds to threats, opportunities, and critical issues outlines earlier in the
- Additional Sections of the marketing plan lay out action program for
implementing the marketing strategy, along with the details of a supporting
- The last section ? the controls that will be used to monitor progress and
take corrective action.
- Marketing Implementation: The process that turns marketing strategies and
plans into marketing actions to accomplish strategic marketing objectives.
- Implementation involves day-to-day, month-to-month activities that
effectively put the marketing plan to work.
Marketing Department Organization
- Marketing manager is responsible for developing long range and annual plans
for the sales and profits in their market. This system?s main advantage is
that the company is organized around the needs of specific customer segments,
- Marketing Control: The process of measuring and evaluating the results of
market strategies and plans, and taking corrective action to ensure that
marketing objectifies are attained.
- Marketing first sets specific marketing goals. It then measures its
performance in the market place and evaluates the causes of any difference
between expected and actual performance. Finally management takes corrective
action to close the gaps between its goals and its performance, this may require
changing the action programs or even changing the goals.
- Operating Controls ? Involves checking ongoing performance against the
annual plan and taking corrective action when necessary. Its purpose is to
ensure that the company achieves the sales, profits, and other goals set out in
its annual plan. It also involves determining the profitability of different
products, territories, market and channels.
- Strategic Control? Involves considering whether the company?s basic
strategies are well matched to its opportunities.
- The Marketing Audit: Is a comprehensive, systematic, independent, and
periodic examination of a company?s environment, objectives, strategies, and
activities to determine problem areas and opportunities and to recommend a plan
of action to improve the company?s marketing performance.
- The Marketing Audit Questions (64)
The Marketing Environment
- The company must carefully analyse its environment so that t can avoid the
threats and take advantage of its opportunities.
Chapter 3 ? The Global Marketing Environment
- Marketing Environment: The factors and forces outside marketing?s direct
control that affect marketing management?s ability to develop and maintain
successful transactions with target customers.
- Marketers have two special aptitudes. They have discipline methods ?marketing
intelligence and marketing research-for collecting information about marketing
environment. They also normally spend more time in the customer and competitor
environment. By conducting systematic environmental scanning, marketers can
revise and adapt marketing strategies to meet new challenges and opportunities
in the marketplace.
- Microenvironment: The forces close to the company that affects its ability
to serve its customers-the company, suppliers, marketing channel firm, customer
market, competitors, and publics.
- Microenvironment: The larger societal forces that affect the whole
microenvironment ?demographic, economic, natural, technological, political,
and cultural forces.
- They provide the resources needed by the company to produce its goods and
services. Marketing managers must be aware of supply availability ?supply
shortage or delays, labour strikes, and other events that can cost sales in the
short run and damage customer satisfaction in the long run.
- Marketing Intermediaries: Firms that help the company to promote, sell, and
distribute its goods to final buyers, they include resellers, physical
distribution firms, marketing services agencies, and financial intermediaries.
- Reseller ? are distribution channel forms that help the company find
customers or make sales to them.
- Physical Distribution Firms? help the company to stock and move goods from
their points or origin to their destination. Working with warehouse and
transportation firms, a company must determine the best way to store and ship
goods, balancing such factors as cost, delivery, speed and safety.
- Marketing Services agencies? are marketing research firms, advertising
agencies, media firms, and marketing consulting firms that help the company
target and promote its products to the right market.
- Financial Intermediaries ? include banks, credit companies, insurance
companies, and other businesses that help finance transactions or insure against
the risks associated with the buying and selling of goods.
- The company needs to study its customer market closely.
- 5 Types of customer market:
1. Consumer Market: consist of individuals and households that buy goods and
services for personal consumption.
2. Business Market: buy goods and services for further processing or for use
in their production process
3. Reseller Market: buys goods and services and resells it to make a profit.
4. Government Market: are composed of government agencies that buy goods and
services in order to produce public services or transfer the goods and services
to others who need them.
5. International Market: Consists of buyers in other countries, including
consumers, producers, resellers and governments.
- Publics: Any group that has an actual or potential interest in or impact on
an organization?s ability to achieve its objectivities.
- Seven types of publics (see page 79 & 80):
1. Financial publics
2. Media publics
3. Government publics
4. Citizen-action publics
5. Local publics
6. General publics
7. Internal publics
The Company?s Microenvironment
- Demography: The study of human population in terms of size, density,
location, age, sex, race, occupation, and other statistics.
Changing Age Structure of the Canadian Population
- Baby Boom: The major increase in the annual birth rate following WWII and
lasting until the early 1960s. The ?baby boomers,? now moving into middle
age, are a prime target for marketer.
The Changing family (87)
Geographic Shifts in population (87)
A better educated and more white-collar population (89)
Increasing Diversity (89)
- Economic Environment: Factors that affect consumer buying power and
- Subsistence economies- they consume most of their own agricultural and
- Industrial economies ? which constitute rich markets for many different
kinds of goods.
Chang in Income
- Marketers pay attention to income distribution as well as average income.
Changing Consumer Spending Patterns
- Engel?s Law: Difference noted over a century ago by Earnst Engel in how
people shift their spending across food, housing, transportation, health care,
and other goods and services categories as family income rises.
- Natural Environment: Natural resources that are needed as inputs by
marketers or that are affected by marketing activities.
- Technological Environment: Forces that create new technological, creating
new product and market opportunities.
- Political Environment: Consists of laws, government agencies, and pressure
groups that influence and limit various organizations and individuals in a given
Legislation Regulation Business
- Canada has many laws covering issues such as competition, fair trade
practices, environment protection, product safety, truth in advertising
packaging and labelling, price, and other important areas.
- North American Free Trade agreement (NAFTA) replaced the Free Trade
Agreement (FTA) in August 1992. It governs free trade among Canada, United
States, and Mexico. NAFTA is a historic document since it is the first trade
agreement between two developed nation and a developing country.
- Business legislation has been enacted for various reasons. The first is to
protect companies from each other. The second purpose of the government
regulation is to protect consumers from unfair business practices. The third
purpose of the government regulation is to protect the interests of society
against unrestrained business behaviour.
- Cultural Environment: Institutions and other forces that affect society?s
basic value, perception, preference, and behaviour.
- The following cultural characteristics can affect marketing
Persistence of cultural Values
- Core beliefs and values? are passed by parents to children and are
reinforced by schools, churches, business and government.
- Secondary Beliefs and value ? are more open to change. Believing in
marriage is a core belief; believing that people should get married early in
life is a secondary belief.
Shifts in Secondary Cultural Values
- The major cultural values of a society are expressed in people?s views of
themselves and others, as well as in their views of organizations, society,
nature and the universe.
People?s Views of themselves
- People use products, brands, and services as a means of self-expression,
and they buy products and service that match their views of themselves.
People?s View of others
- This suggests a bright future for the products and services that serve
basic needs rather that those relaying on glitz and hype. It also suggests a
greater demand for ?social support? products and services that improve
direct communication between people, such as health clubs and family vacations.
People?s View of Organizations
- They need to review their advertising communications to ensure that their
messages are honest. They also need to review their various activities to make
sure that they are perceived to be ?good corporate citizens?.
People?s View of society
- Patriots ? nationalist, pro country
- Reformers ? who want to change it
- Malcontent ? who want to leave it
People?s View of Nature
People?s View of the universe
- People vary in their beliefs about the origin of the universe and their
place in it.
- 1980?s people measured success in terms of career achievements, wealth,
and worldly possessions.
- 1990?s success was measured with achievements such as a happy family life
and service to one?s community replacing money as the measure if worth.
Responding to the Marketing environment
- Many companies view the marketing environment as an ?uncontrollable?
element to which they must adapt. They accept the market place and do not change
it. They analyse the environmental forces and design strategies that will help
the company avoids the threats and take advantage of the opportunities the
- Environmental management perspective: A management perspective in which the
firm takes aggressive actions to affect the publics and forces in its marketing
environment rather than simply watching and reacting to it.
Chapter 4- Marketing Research and Information System
The Marketing Information System
- Marketing Information System (MIS): People, equipment, and procedure to
gather, sort, analyse, evaluate, and distribute needed, timely, and accurate
information to marketing decision-makers.
- First, it interact with these managers to assess information needs. Next,
it develops needed information from internal company records, marketing
intelligence activities, and marketing research. Information analysis processes
the information to make it more useful. Finally the MIS distributes information
to managers in the right form at the right time to help them make better
Assessing Information Needs
- Managers do not always need all the information they ask for, they may not
ask for all they really need. The MIS cannot always supply all the information
- Internal database: Information gathered from sources within the company
that can be evaluate marketing performance and to detect marketing problems and
- Information in the database can come from many sources. The accounting
department prepares financial statements and keeps detailed records of sales,
costs, and cash flow. Manufacturing reports on production schedules, shipments,
and inventories. The sales force reports on reseller reactions and competitor
activities. The marketing department maintains a database of customer
demographics, psychographics, and buying behaviour. The customer service
department provides information on customer satisfaction or service problems.
- Marketing Intelligence: The systematic collection and analysis of publicity
available information about competitors and development in the marketing
- Marketing Intelligence can be gathered from many source; can be collected
from the company?s own personnel-executives, engineer and scientists,
purchasing agents, and the sales force.
- For a fee companies can subscribe to online database or information search
- Marketing Research: The systematic design, collection, analysis, and
reporting of data and finding relevant to a specific marketing situation facing
- Information gathered by the company?s marketing intelligence and
marketing research systems often require more analysis, and sometimes managers
may need help applying the information to their marketing problems and
decisions. This may include advanced statistical analysis to learn more about
both the relationships within a set of data and their statistical reliability.
- The information gathered through marketing intelligence and marketing
research must be distributed to the right marketing managers at the right time.
- With recent advances in computers, software, and telecommunication, most
companies are decentralizing their marketing information systems. In many
companies, marketing managers have direct access to the information network
through personal computers and other means.
- Such systems offer exciting prospects. They allow the managers to get the
information they need directly and quickly and to tailor it to their unique
The Marketing Research Process
*Defining the problems and research objectives ? Developing the research
plan and collecting information ? Implementing the research plan-collecting and
analysing the data ? Interpretation and reporting the findings
- Marketing managers and researcher must work closely to define the problem
carefully and they must agree on the research objectives.
- Managers must know enough about marketing research to help in planning and
interpreting research results. If they know little about marketing research they
may obtain wrong information.
- Experience marketing researchers who understand the manager?s problem
also should be involved at this stage. The researcher must be able to help the
manager define the problem and suggest ways that research can help the manager
make better decisions.
- Defining the problem and research objectives is often the hardest step in
the research process.
- After the problem has been defined carefully, the manager and researcher
must set research objectives. Can 1-3 types of objectives. Exploratory research,
descriptive research and casual research.
- Exploratory Research: Marketing research to gather preliminary information
that will help to better define problems and suggest hypotheses.
- Descriptive Research: Marketing research to better describe marketing
problems, situations, or markets, such as the market potential for a product or
the demographics and attitudes of customers.
- Casual Research: Marketing research to test hypothesis about cause-and
Developing the research plan
- Determining the information needed, developing a plan for gathering it
efficiently, and presenting the plan to marketing management.
Gathering Secondary Information
- To meet the manager?s information needs, the researcher can gather
secondary data, primary data, or both.
- Secondary data: Information that already exists somewhere, having been
collected for another purpose before.
- Primary data: Information collected for the specific purpose at hand.
- Researchers usually start be gathering secondary data.
- Commercial data source ? companies can buy reports from outside suppliers.
- Table 4-2 (page 125) Sources of Secondary data
- Online database and Internet data sources ? Marketing research can conduct
their own search of secondary data sources. A resent survey of marketing
researchers found that 81 percent uses such online services for conducting
- Online database: A compilation of marketing information that can be
Advantages and Disadvantages of Secondary Data
- Secondary data can usually be obtained more quickly and at a lower cost
than primary data.
- A study to collect primary information might take weeks or months to
complete and cost thousands of dollars. Secondary sources sometimes provide data
that an individual company cannot collect on its own-information that either is
not directly available or would be too expensive to collect.
- Secondary data can also present problems. The needed information may not
exist-researcher can rarely obtain all the data they need for secondary sources.
- The researcher must evaluate secondary information carefully to ensure that
it is relevant (fits research project needs), accurate (reliably collected and
reported), current (up-to-date enough for current decisions), and impartial
(objectively collected and reported)
Planning Primary Data Collection
- Primary data to assure that it will be relevant, accurate, current, and
- Observational research: The gathering of primary data by observing relevant
people, actions, and situation.
- Observational research can be used to obtain information that people
unwilling or unable to provide. Some things can not be observed such as
feelings, attitudes, and motives, or private behaviour.
- Table 4-3 Planning Primary Data Collections (127)
- Checkout scanners in retail stores record consumer purchases in detail.
Consumer products companies and retailers use scanner information to assess and
improve product sales and store performances.
- Single Source data systems: Electronic monitoring systems that link
consumers? exposure to television advertising and promotion (measured using
television meters) with what they buy in stores (measured using store checkout
- Survey Research: The gathering of primary data by asking people questions
about their knowledge attitudes, preference, and buying behaviour.
- Sometimes people are unable to answer survey questions because they cannot
remember or have never thought about what they do and why. Or people may be
unwilling to respond to unknown interviewers or talk about things they consider
private. Respondents might answer survey questions when they do not know the
answer in order to appear smarter or more informed.
- Experimental research: The gathering of primary data by selecting matched
groups of subjects, giving them different treatments, controlling related
factors, and checking differences in-group responses.
- Information can be collected by mail, telephone, or personal interview.
- Table 4-4 Strengths and Weaknesses of three Contacts Methods (131)
- Personal Interviewing takes two forms- individual and group interviewing.
Individual interviewing involves talking with people in their homes or offices,
on the street, or in shopping malls. Such interviewing is flexible.
- Group Interviewing consists of 6-10 people gather for a few hours with a
trained moderator to discuss a product, service or organization.
- Focus group interviewing: personal interviewing that consist of inviting
six to 10 people to gather for a few hours with a trained interviewer to discuss
a product, service, or organization. The interviewer ?focuses? the group
discussion on important issues. The comments are recorded through written notes.
- Focus group interviewing has become one of the major marketing research
tools for gathering insight into consumer thoughts and feelings. However, focus
group studies usually use small sample sizes to keep time and costs down, and it
may be hard to generalize from the results.
- Computer Interviewing in which respondents sit down at a computer, read
questions from a screen, and type their own answer into the computer.
- Marketing researchers usually draw conclusions about large groups of
consumers by studying a small sample of the total consumer population. A sample
is a segment of the population selected to represent the population as a whole.
- Designing the sample requires 3 decisions: 1. Who is to be surveyed (what
the sampling unit)? 2. How many people should be surveyed (What?s the sample
size)? 3. How should the people in the sample be chosen (what sampling
- Using probability samples each population member has a known chance of
being included in the sample and researchers can calculate confidence limits for
sampling errors. But when probability sampling costs too much or takes too much
time, marketing researchers often take non-probability samples, even though
their sampling error cannot be measured.
- In collecting primary data, marketing researchers have a choice of 2 main
research instruments ? the questionnaire and the mechanical devices.
- The questionnaire is by far the most common device. Questionnaires must be
developed carefully and testes before they can used on a large scale. When
developing a questionnaire the market researchers must first decide what to ask.
- Closed-end questions ? include all possible answers, and subjects make
choices among them.
- Opened-end questions ? Questions allowing respondent to answer in their
- Researcher should also use care in wording and ordering questions. They
should use simple direct, unbiased wording.
- Table 4-7 Types of Questions (136)
Presenting the Research plan
- The proposal should cover the management problems addressed and the
research objectives, the information to be obtained, the sources of secondary
information or methods for collecting primary data, and the way the results will
help management decision-making. It should also include, research cost, a
written research plan, and they should all agree on why and how the research
will be conducted.
Implementing the Research plan
- This involves collecting, processing, and analysing the information. Data
collection can be carried out by the company?s marketing research staff or by
outside firm. The data collection phase of the marketing research process is
generally the most expensive and the most subject to error.
Interpreting and reporting the findings
- The research must now interpret the finding, draw conclusions, and report
them to management. The researcher should not try to overwhelm managers with
numbers and fancy statistical techniques. Rather, the researcher should present
important finding that are useful in the major decisions faced by management. In
many cases findings can be interpreted in different ways, and discussions
between researchers and managers will help identify the best interpretations.
- Interpretations are an important phase of the marketing process. The best
research is meaningless if the manager blindly accepts wrong interpretations
from the research. Managers may have biased interpretations-they tend to accept
research results that show what they expected and to reject those that they did
not expect or hope for.
Other Marketing Research Considerations
Marketing research in small business and non-profit organizations
- Managers of small business and non-profit organization can obtain good
marketing information simply by observing things around them.
- Managers can conduct informal survey using small convenience samples.
- Managers can also conduct their own sample experiments.
- Small organizations can obtain most of the secondary data available to
large businesses. Many associations, local media, chambers of commerce, and
government agencies provide special help to small organizations.
International Marketing research
- International marketing research can pose some unique challenges, For
example they ma find it difficult simply to develop good samples.
- Difference in culture from country to country cause additional problems for
international researchers. Languages is the most obvious culprit.
- Responses then must be translated back into the original language for
analysis and interpretations. This adds to research costs and increase in the
risk of error.
- Transplantation a questionnaire from one language to another is anything
but easy. Many idioms, phrase, and statements mean different things in different
- Consumers in different countries also vary in their attitudes towards
Chapter 5 ? Consumer Markets and Consumer Buyer Behaviour
- Consumers buying behaviour: The buying behaviour of final
consumers-individuals and households who buy goods and services for personal
- All of these final consumers combined comprise the consumer market.
- Consumer Market: All the individuals and households who buy or acquire
goods and services for potential consumption.
Model of Consumer Behaviour
- The central questions for marketers are: How do consumers respond to
various marketing efforts the company might use.
Characteristics affecting consumer behaviour
- Consumer purchases are influence strongly by cultural, social, personal,
and psychological characterises.
- Culture: The set of basic values, perception, wants and behaviours learned
by a member of a society from family and other important institutions.
- Culture is the most basic cause of a person?s wants and behaviour. Human
behaviour is largely learned. Growing up in a society, a child learns basic
values, perceptions, wants, and behaviours from the family and other important
- International marketers must understand the culture in each international
market and adapt their marketing strategies accordingly.
- Subculture: A group of people with shared value system based on common life
experience and situations.
- Subculture includes nationalities, religions, racial groups, and geographic
(1) Native Canadians
(2) Canada?s Ethnic Consumers
(3) Mature Consumers
(4) Internet Users
- Internet Users ? Internet users are powerful and in control. The consumer
s one who choose to access a web site and marketers must adjust to the idea that
the Net is a means of two-way communication between a consumer and a vendor, not
the one-way street that media advertising represents, IN other words, ?They?re
not just listening to what the corporation wants to sell them, they?re
choosing the information that appeals to them.
- Social classes are society?s relatively permanent and order division
whose members share similar values, interest, and behaviours.
- Social Class: Relatively permanent and ordered division in a society whose
members share similar values, interests, and behaviours.
- Social class is not determined by a single form, such as income, but
measured as a combination of occupation, income, education, wealth and other
- Table 5-2 Characterises of Seven Major North American Social Classes (page
- People can move to a higher social class or drop into a lower one.
- Groups: Two or more people whom interact to accomplish individual or mutual
- Groups that have a direct influence and to which a person belongs are
called ? Membership groups
- Primary Groups ? With whom there is regular but informal interaction ?
such as friends, family, neighbours, and co-workers.
- Secondary Groups ?, which are more formal and that, has less regular
interactions. These include organizations, such as religious groups,
professional associations, and trade unions.
- Reference Groups ? serve as a direct (face-to-face) or indirect points of
comparison or reference informing a person?s attitudes or behaviour. People
often are influence be reference groups to which they do not belong.
- Opinion Leaders: People within a reference group who, because of special
skills, knowledge, personality, or other characteristics, exert, influence on
- Opinion Leaders are found at all level of society, and one person may be an
opinion leader in certain products areas and an opinion follower in others.
Marketers try to identify opinion leaders for their products and direct
marketing effort towards them.
- Family members can strongly influence buyer?s behaviours. The family is
the most important consumer buying organization in society.
- In Canada and the United States, the wife is traditionally has been the
main purchasing agent for the family, especially in the area of food,
households, products, and clothing.
- In the case of expensive products and services, husbands and wives more
often make joint decisions.
ROLES AND STATUS
- A person belongs to many groups-family, clubs, and organizations. The
person?s position in each group can be defined in terms of both roles and
status. A role consists of the activities that people are expected to perform
according to the persons around them. Each role carries a status reflecting the
general esteem given to it by the society.
AGE AND LIFE CYCLE STAGE
- Taste in foods, clothes, furniture, and recreation are often age-related.
- Table 5-3 Life Cycle Stages (page 165)
- A person?s occupation affects the goods and services that he or she buys.
- A person?s economic situation will affect product choice. Marketers of
income sensitive goods watch trends in personal income, saving, and interest
rates. If economic indicators point to a rescission, marketers can take steps to
redesign, reposition, and reprice their products.
- Lifestyle: A person?s pattern of living as expressed in his or her
activities, interests, and opinion.
- Lifestyle is a person?s pattern of living as expressed in his or her
psychographics. It involves measuring consumers? major AIO dimensions
activities (work, hobbies, shopping, sports, social events), interests (food,
fashions, family, recreation), and opinions (about themselves, social issues,
business products). Lifestyles capture something more than the person?s social
class or personality; it profiles a person?s whole pattern of acting and
interacting in the world.
- Psychographics: The technique of measuring lifestyles and developing
lifestyle classification; it involves measuring the major AIO dimension
(activities, interest, opinions)
- VALS; Classifies people according to how they spend their time and money.
It divides consumers into eight groups on two major dimensions.
- Self Orientation Group includes principle-oriented consumers ? who buy
based on their views on the world. Status Orientated buyers ? who base their
purchase on the actions and opinions of others. Action-oriented buyers ? who
are driven by their desire for activity, variety, and risk-taking. Consumers
within each orientation are further classified into those with abundant
resources and those with minimal resources.
PERSONALITY AND SELF CONCEPT
- Personality: A person?s distinguished psychological characteristics that
led to relatively consistent and lasting response to his or her own environment.
- A person?s buying choices are further influenced by four major
psychological factors: motivations, perception, learning, and beliefs and
- Biological, arising from state of tension such as hunger, thirst, or
- Psychological, arising from the need for recognition, esteem, or belonging.
Most of these needs will not be strong enough to motivate the person to act at
any given them.
- Motive: A need that is sufficiency pressing to drive the person to seek
satisfaction of the need.
- Psychologists have developed theories of human motivation. Sigmund Freud
and Abraham Maslow
- Freud?s theory of motivation: Freud assumes that people are largely
unconscious about the real psychological forces shaping their behaviour.
- Abraham Maslow sought to explain why people are driven by particular needs
at particular times. In order of importance, they are psychological needs,
safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. A person
tries to satisfy the most important first. When that need is satisfied, it will
stop being a motivator and the person will then try to satisfy the nest most
- A motivated person is ready to act. How the person is influence by his or
her perception of the situation.
- Perception: Is the process by which people select, organize and interpret
information to form a meaningful picture of the world.
- People can form different perceptions of the same stimulus because of three
perceptual processes: selective attention, selective distortion, and selective
retention. Selective Attention ? The tendency for people to screen out most of
the information to which they are exposed- means that marketers must work
especially hard to attract the consumer?s attention. Their message will be
lost on most people who are not in the market for the product. Moreover, even
people who are in the market may not notice the message unless it stands out
from the surrounding sea of other ads. Selective distortion ? describes the
tendency of people to interpret information in a way that will support what they
already believe. Selective distortion means that marketers must try to
understand consumer?s perspectives and how these will affect interpretations
of advertising and sales information. People will also forget what they learned
they tend to retain information that supports their attitudes and beliefs.
Because of Selective retention ? advertisers try to frame messages in ways that
are consistent with people?s existing beliefs. Example ?Jen is likely to
remember goods points made about the Harley and to forget good points made about
- Learning occurs through the interplay of drives, stimuli, cues, responses
- Learning: Changes in an individual?s behaviour arising from experience.
- A drive is a strong internal stimulus that calls for action. Her drive
becomes and motive when it is directed toward a particular stimulus object.
- A cue are minor stimuli that determine when, where, and how the person
BELIEFS AND ATTITUTEDS
- Beliefs: A descriptive thought that a person holds about something.
- This belief may be based on real knowledge, opinion, or faith and may or
may not carry an emotional charge.
- Attitudes: A person?s consistently favourable or unfavourable
evaluations, feeling, and tendencies towards an object or idea.
- Attitudes put people into a frame of mind of liking or disliking things, of
moving towards or away from them. Attitudes are difficult to change. A person?s
attitudes fit into a pattern, and to change one attitude may require difficult
adjustments in many others. Thus, company should usually try to fit its products
into an existing attitudes rather than attempt to change attitudes.
Consumer Buying Roles
- People might play any of several roles in buying decision:
- Initiator ? The person who first suggests or thinks of the idea of buying
a particular product or service.
- Influencer ? A person whose views or advice influences the buying decision
- Decider ? The person who ultimately makes a buying decision or any part of
it- whether to buy, what to buy, how to buy, and where to buy
- Buyer ? The person who makes the actual purchase.
- User ? The person who consumes or uses a product or service.
Complex Buying Behaviour
- Complex Buying Behaviour: Consumers buying behaviour in situations
characterized by high consumer involvement in a purchase and significant
perceived difference among brands.
- Marketers need to differentiate their brand?s feature, perhaps by
describing the brand?s benefits using print media with long copy. They must
motivate store salespeople and the buyer?s acquaintances to influence the
final brand choice.
Dissonance- Reducing Buying Behaviour
- Dissonance- reducing buying behaviour: Consumer buying behaviour in
situations characterized by high involvement but few perceived differences among
- Dissonance-reducing buying behaviour occurs when consumers are highly
involved with an expensive, infrequent, or risky purchase, but see little
difference among brands.
- After the purchase, consumers might experience post-purchase dissonance
(after sales discomfort) when they notice certain disadvantages of the purchase
carpet brand or hear favourable things about brands not purchased.
Habitual Buying Behaviour
- Habitual Buying Behaviour: Consumer buying behaviour in characterized by
low consumer involvement and few significant perceived brand differences.
- Consumers have little involvement in this product category-they simply go
to the store and reach for a brand. Example; salt. If they keep reaching for the
same brand, it is out of habit rather than strong brand loyalty.
- Consumers do not form strong attitudes towards a brand; they select the
brand because it is familiar.
Variety-Seeking Buying Behaviour
- Variety-seeking buying behaviour: Consumer buying behaviour in situations
characterized by low consumer involvement but significant perceived brand
differences. Brand switching occurs for the sake of variety rather than due to
The Buyer Decision Process
- The stages that buyer pass through to reach a buying decision. There are 5
Need recognition ? Information Search ? Evaluation of alternatives ?
Purchase decision ? Post-purchase behaviour
- Consumers often skip or reverse some of these stages.
Stage (1) Need Recognition
- Need Recognition: The first stage of the buyer decision process in which
the consumer recognizes a problem or need.
- When the buyer recognizing a problem or need. The buyer actual senses a
difference between his or her actual state and some desired stat. The need can
be triggered by internal stimuli.
Stage (2) Information Search
- Information Search: The stage of the buyer decision process in which the
consumer is aroused to search for more information; the consumer may simply have
heightened attention or may go into active information search.
- An aroused customer may or may not search or more information. If the
consumer?s drive is strong and a satisfying product is near at hand, the
consumer is likely to buy it. If not, the consumer may store the need in memory
or undertake an information search related to the need.
- Heightened attention ? Consumer becomes more receptive to information
about the product. Consumer pays attention to ads.
- Active information search ? in which consumer looks for reading materials,
surfs the net, phone friends, and gather information in other ways.
- Consumers can obtain information from any of these sources:
(-) Personal Sources: family, friends, neighbours, acquaintances
(-) Commercial sources: advertising, salespeople, dealers, packaging, and
(-) Public source: mass media, consumer-rating organizations
(-) Experiential sources: handling, examining, using the product.
Stage (3) Evaluation of alternatives
- Alternative evaluation: The stage of the buyer decision process in which
the consumer uses information to evaluate alternative brands in the choice set.
Alternative evaluation-that is, how the consumer processes information to arrive
at brand choice.
- Brand image: The set of beliefs that consumers hold about a particular
- In some cases, the consumer use careful calculations and logical thinking.
At other times, the same consumers do little or no evaluating; instead they buy
on impulse and relay on intuition.
Stage (4) Purchase Decision
- Purchase decision: The stage of the buyer decision process in which the
consumer actually buys the product.
- Consumer?s purchase decision will be to buy the most preferred brand, but
two factors can come between the purchase intention and the purchase decision.
1. Attitudes of others ? Jennifer?s friends ride Honda motorcycles, chances
of her buying a Harley will be reduced. 2. Unexpected situation factors ? The
consumer may form a purchase intention based on factors such as expected income,
expected price, and expected product benefits. However, unexpected events may
change the purchase intention.
Stage (5) Post-purchase behaviour
- Post-purchase behaviour : The stage of the buyer decision process in which
consumers take further action after purchase based on their satisfaction
- What determines whether the buyer is satisfied or dissatisfied with
purchase? The answer lies in the relationship between the consumer?s
expectation and the product perceived performance. If the product falls short of
expectation, the consumer is satisfied; if it exceeds expectations, the consumer
- Cognitive dissonance: Buyer discomfort caused by post-purchase conflict.
(181) However every purchase involves compromise. Thus consumers feel at least
some post-purchase dissonance for every purchase.
- Why is it important to satisfy the customer? Companies? sales come from
two places new customers and retained customers. It usually costs more to
attract new customers than to retain current ones, and the best way to retain
current customers is to keep them satisfied.
The buyer decision process for new products
- New Product: A good, service, or idea that a perceived by some potential
customer as new.
- How consumers learn about products for the first time and make decisions on
whether to adapt them.
- Adoption Process: The mental process through which an individual passes
from first hearing about an innovation to final adoption.
Stages in the adoption process
- Awareness ? The customer becomes aware of the new product, but lacks
information about it.
- Interest ? The customer seeks information about the new product.
- Evaluation ? The customer considers whether trying the new product makes
- Trial ? The customer tries the new product on a small scale to improve his
or her estimate of its value.
Individual differences in innovations
(The 5-adopter groups)? Innovators are venturesome they try new ideas at
some risk. Early adopters are guided by respect-they are opinion leaders in
their communities and adopt new ideas early but carefully. The early
deliberate-although they rarely are leaders, they adopt new ideas before the
average person. The late majority are sceptical-they adapt an innovation only
after most people have tried it. Finally laggards are tradition bound-they re
suspicious of changes and adopt the innovation only when it has become something
of a tradition itself.
Influence of product characteristics on rate of adoption
- Five characteristics are especially important in influencing an innovation?s
rate of adoption
1. Relative advantage ? the degree to which innovation appears superior to
2. Compatibility ? The degree to which the innovation fits the value and
experience of potential consumers.
3. Complexity ? The degree to which the innovation is difficult to
understand or use.
4. Divisibility ? The degree to which the innovation may be tried on a
5. Communicability? The degree to which the results of using the innovation
can be observed or described to others.
Chapter 6 ? Business Markets and Business Buyer Behaviour
- Business Markets: All the organizations that buy goods and services to use
in the production of other products and services that are sold, rented, or
supplied to others. It also includes retailing and wholesaling firms that
acquire goods for the purpose of reselling or renting them to others at a
- Business Buying Behaviour: The decision-making process by which business
buyers establish the need for purchase products and services and identify,
evaluate, and choose among alternative brands and suppliers.
Characteristics of Business Markets
- Table 6-1 Characteristics of Business Market (200)
Market Structure and Demand
- The business market typically deals with far fewer but larger buyers than
he consumer marketer does.
- Business markets are also more geographically concentrated.
- Derived demand: Business demand that ultimately comes from (derives from)
the demand for consumer goods.
- Many business markets have inelastic demand; that is, total demand for many
business products is not affected much by price changes, especially in the short
- Business markets have more fluctuating demand. The demand for many business
goods and services tend to change more-and more quickly then the demand for
consumer goods and services does.
Nature of buying Unit
- Compared with consumer purchases, a business purchase usually involves more
buyers and a more professional purchasing effort.
Types of Decision and Decision Process
A model of Business Buyer behaviour
Business Buyer Behaviour
Major types of Buying Situations
- Straight rebuy: A business buying situation in which the buyer routinely
reorders something without any modification.
- They already did business and rebuying the same product.
- Modified rebuy: A business buying situation in which the buyer wants to
modify product specification, price, terms, or suppliers.
- New Task: A business buying situation in which the buyer purchases a
product or service for the first time.
- The greater the cost of risk, the larger the number of decision
participants and the greater their efforts to collect information will be.
- The buyer makes the fewest decision in the straight rebuy and the most in
the new task decision. In the new task situation, the buyer must decide on
product specifications, suppliers, price limit, payment terms, order quantities,
delivery times, and service suppliers.
- System buying: Buying a package solution to a problem and without all the
separate decision involved.
- System selling is a two-step process. First the supplier sells a group of
interlocking products. Second, the supplier sells system of production,
inventory control, distribution, and other services to meet the buyer?s need
for a smooth-running operation.
Participants in the Business Buying Process
- The decision-making unit of a buying organization is called ? buying
- Buying centre: All the individuals and units that participate in the
business buying decision process.
- Users: Members of all the organization who will use the product or service:
users often initiate the buying proposal and help define product specification.
- Influencers: People in an organization?s buying centre who affect the
buying decision, they often help define specifications and also provide
information for evaluating alternatives.
- Buyers: People who make the actual purchase.
- Deciders: People in the organization?s buying centre who have formal or
informal power to select or approve the final supplier.
- Gatekeepers: People in an organization?s buying centre who control the
flow of information to others.
Major Influence on business Buyers
- Some marketers assume that the major influe