Kashmir Essay, Research Paper
Kashmir is located in Himalayan range. Most of the area is mountainous with very fertile land, beautiful lakes, covered with thick green forests and produce verity of fruits.
84471 sq.: miles; with boundaries with Pakistan, India, china and Afghanistan.
About 5 million consisting of 77% Muslim. Borders with Pakistan 902 miles
and borders with India 307 miles.
The state of Kashmir came into existence in 1848 when Lord Lawrence the Governor General of British India sold the area to Gulab Singh a leader of Hindu dogra tribe for RS 7.5 million. Dogra rulers treated the Muslim Population who was meek, poor and peace loving harshly and taxed them Heavily.
At that time of partition of India every state was given the option of acceding either to India or Pakistan. Lord Mountbatten the last Viceroy of India in his addressed the prince of the state on July 25,1947 said, "accede to India or Pakistan, bearing in mind the geographical situation by the respective state, the composition of their population and wishes of their people".
According to the portion of India plan announced by the viceroy of India
on June 3 1947, the Muslim majority provinces were to become Pakistan and those with Hindu majority were to form India. The province of Punjab was accordingly to be divided. A boundary commission headed by sir Redchiff was appointed. This commission wrongfully awarded a Teshil (county) namely Gurdaspur to India to provide land connection between Kashmir and India. On July 19 1947 the Muslim conference, the only political party of Kashmir announced that it demands accession to Pakistan. The Hindu maharaja Harry Singh honoree acceded to India whole population rose in revolt. The maharaja fold to India and the Indians troops invoked the valley on October 27 1947. The Kashmir freedom fighter supported by Afghanistan tribes men put up a
resistance. The Security Council of UNO passed a resolution asking India and Pakistan to cease-fire for January 1,1949. In another resolution the Security Council asked both the countries to with draw their forces from the state for an impartial plebiscite under the control of UNO to decide the future of Kashmir. UN military observes has since been appointed on cease-fire line. A commission to arrange plebiscite was also appointed
headed by Mr. Gunner Jarring. India however has been adopting delaying tactics ever since to allow the Kashmiris to exercise their right of self determination. India and Pakistan have gone to war over in 1965 and 1971. In 1971 the cease-fire line was given the name of line of control. The people of Kashmir struggled in peaceful political way for about 40 years and then started armed resistance 11 years ago. The India govt. deployed 0.6 million troops to crush the resistance with tyranny and iron hand. The atrocities and violation of human rights has been recently announced in a report by "Asia watch" an international human rights group.
Some by the figures are: -
1. There is 1 military person per 7.Killed 60,000 in less than 9 years, injured 41,000 Refugees 50,000, People burned alive 5000.
2. There are 10,000 young widows at present in Kashmir. Women gang raped 4700
3.There are 7000 youth in the jail. There are 585 government schools, out of which 262 are with the security forces. Some of them are used as interrogation centers and torture cells. The army also occupies the sports stadiums. – -school, shops and houses burned and destroyed 27,470
4.There are 30,000 orphans.
5. There are 20 to 25 deaths per day (by killings) by false encounter .There are approximately 10 to 15 people taken in the lockup daily.
6.There are 60 doctors including the junior most for the 500 bedded hospital, which admits 600 patients.
In Feb 1999, the Kashmiri freedom fighters supported by Mujahideens of Afghanistan and Pakistan took control of kargil, Batalak and Daras sector in High Mountain cutting off supply route of India occupation army in Leah and siachin. Indian army could not even after 2 months of attempts dislodge them and suffered heavy casualties. Tension mounted so much that India and Pakistan were on the verge of full-scale war, which could turn into a nuclear war.
This looming nuclear disaster over south east Asia has for the time begin
halted due to the intervention by the US president. It is hoped that dialogue would soon be resumed to reach the political settlement the Kashmir issue has now become internationalized and the world community has realized the danger if it remains unsolved, the Kashmir peoples struggles for last 52 years to achieve their right of self determination is at last in final phase.
The ultimate tragedy is not the oppression and cruelty by the bad people but the silence over that by the good people ?Martin Luther King?