A Continuous Decline In India Without Modernization

A Continuous Decline In India, Without Modernization Essay, Research Paper

A Continuous Decline in India, Without Modernization

Hypothesis: Modernization is the Key to economic growth for India. If

modernization occurs, then the economic status of India will increase

tremendously, even if the price India has to pay is a change in culture, and


India has remained financially stagnant since its beginnings. One may

argue that non-modernization has plagued this sub-continent in economic growth

and development since early times. One may continue to argue that if

modernization occurs, India will achieve in many different ways, including

economically, socially, and nationally. In order for modernization to occur,

India must move from small scale industrialization to large scale

industrialization. If this occurs India will become much more financially sound

and achieve a higher status in the world.

Modernization will bring many positive change to India, but people may

argue that “modernization” will bring destruction to the Indian civilization.

By bringing modernization, many jobs will be taken over by machines.

Unfortunately, this process will result in the elimination of jobs done by

local peasants. There are many additional prices India will have to pay to be

able to modernize, including: (1) a loss of culture and tradition; (2) probable

religious conflicts; (3) loss of caste; (4) social divisions; and, of course

(5) TAXES. With modernization, taxes will definitely increase for India to pay

for the new advances in industry and technology. Taxes are the primary means

for any government to raise money and support its programs. However, the

overall price that India will have to pay will be relatively small compared to

the positive changes modernization will bring.

When India became independent its leaders recognized the urgency of

strengthening the Indian economy. The leaders of new India were determined to

raise the standard of living, which was among the lowest of the major nations in

the world. Indian leaders agreed to establish a “mixed economy,” which

combines the use of private capital and public in he development of industry,

mining and farming. If modernization occurs there will be change from

traditional order. The model of change assumes: (1) a sharp dichotomy between

the traditional and modern order, including the order of mutual exclusiveness,

and (2) the change from one to another is predicted in terms of a historically

deterministic pattern, that is, it must take place in a certain predetermined

sequence. If this happens, India will have a better economy and a higher

standard of living. Through greater economic prosperity, India will also obtain

better health care. Also industry will promote a better education system by

encouraging students to study for more technical and professional jobs. Finally

modernization will foster a better sense of nationalism, as future generations

become healthier, stronger, and more prosperous.

Today, there are many Indians without jobs or work. Currently the vast

majority of jobs are done by villagers, limiting the number and types of jobs

that can be performed. Specifically, without a coordinated system the only jobs

that can be performed are simple ones that can be completed by a relatively few

individuals. No technologically advanced jobs can be performed or created in

this type of system. Modernization will bring factories that will produce many

jobs – more than any village can produce. In addition, factories will allow

for the manufacture of new products not possible for village workers to produce

by themselves.

As mentioned previously, one of the by-products of modernization is

advances in health care. Presently, the life expectancy in India is placed at a

low 58, for females, and 57 for males. This is compared to the United States

where the life expectancy is 79 for females, and 72 for males. If modernization

occurred life expectancy should raise considerably.

Similarly, the literacy rate of India can be expected to dramatically

improve with the advent of modernization. Presently, the literacy rate in India

is 41 percent, relative to a 96 percent rate for the United States. Again, it

is expected that India’s literacy rate will significantly rise with the

introduction of modernization and greater emphasis on educational preparation.

To help foster modernization foreign companies have established small

businesses and technical schools in India to help villagers understand how

modernization can help improve their lives. Certainly economic success,

expressed as better pay and better living conditions, is an appealing feature of

modernization. Despite the allure of high wages and good pension plans, the

modernization of the village as a whole can not take place without strong

modification of its social structure. Traditional small communities seem to

rely upon “total cooperation and consensus in getting things done, whereas

urban-influenced communities rely on public spiritedness, partial

cooperationness, and a absence of strong disagreement.” The success of this

transformation will require the involvement of the villagers and their active

participation in the modernization process.

India faces the decision of remaining a small scale industrial society

or stepping toward the furture by modernizing and developing advanced

technological opportunities for its population. Without modernization India

will never be able to excel as a nation and its citizens will continue to dwell

in poverty. Critics of modernization may argue that this process will destroy

Indian society and culture. On the contrary, modernization will save the Indian

soceity and allow this proud country to prosper.


Clark, J. I. India. McDougal, Littell & Co., Evanston, Illinois, 1989.

Ishwaran, K., Change and Continuity in India’s Villages. New York: Columbia

University Press, 1970.

Shady Side Academy. Historical Perspectives, undated.

The Software Toolworks Multimedia Encyclopedia. “India.” Grolier Electronic

Publishing, Inc., 1992.


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