Protien Synthesis Essay, Research Paper
Proteins are some of the most essential compounds on the planet. They perform a variety of tasks ranging from muscle contraction to fighting diseases. Over 50% of the dry weight of organisms are made of proteins; this is because things like your nails and hair are made of proteins. Proteins are also components of biological membranes, and they help regulate the passage of molecules through the membranes. This is all very important to the body, but the most important function, by far, is their use as enzymes to speed up the reactions in the body. Proteins contain the elements carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur. Theses are all arranged into amino acids. The monomers of proteins which are held together by peptide bonds.
The process by which these all important protein molecules are made is a complicated one. It starts with the transcription of DNA into RNA. In this process the RNA uses the enzyme RNA polymerase, which shows the RNA where to start its transcription. As it moves along the strand of DNA it adds the complimentary nucleotides together, eventually the RNA polymerase will reach a termination signal and then the RNA will break off.
This can be one of three different types of RNA; the first could be Messenger RNA, which contains the code for the order of the amino acids in a protein. It also carries this information from the DNA of a structural gene to ribosomes, where the protein is made. The second type is Transfer RNA; these carry amino acids to the mRNA at ribosomes and fit them in their proper place in the protein chain. The last type is Ribosomal RNA it is a major component of ribosomes and that is most of what we know about it.
After the RNA is produced in the nucleus it is processed into mRNA by putting special caps and tails on the ends. The cap is used as a signal that will bind the mRNA to the ribosome and the tail is thought to extend the life of the mRNA by protecting it from the many mRNA digesting enzymes in the cytoplasm. Even after the cap and tail are placed onto the mRNA it is not yet ready, it needs the introns cut out. Introns are the useless sections of the DNA. After they are cut out what is left is a shorter, more mature mRNA. Then it heads off to the ribosome where the mRNA binds to the small ribosomal unit, then the initiation codon (AUG) pairs with the tRNA. This becomes the first amino acid in the peptide chain. Now the large ribosomal subunit binds to the small, which completes the complex.
The P and A sites are the two places where translation takes place in a ribosome. At this time the initiation codon is at the P site and the codon for the second amino acids at the A. A tRNA with a complimentary anticodon binds to the second mRNA codon, at the A site. The amino acid carried by the tRNA will become the second amino acid in the chain. Then an enzyme joins the two amino acids together by a peptide bond. Then the AUG leaves and empties the P site which is taken up by the second codon and the A site is filled with the third codon. This is called translocation. When the beginning of the mRNA comes out of the ribosome another can be there to start transcribing it. These steps repeat until they hit a termination codon. After this, the peptide chain is not yet a protein. Most of the time the first methonine must be removed and also some of its neighbors. Chemical groups can also be changed around, while sulfur bridges must be formed between parts of the molecule or even two separate chains to make up the larger protein.
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Comprising three course books, this series is aimed at university students in all disciplines who require instruction in completing academic writing tasks. Through extensive use of examples, model texts, and practical activities, the course develops the essential skills needed to compose texts which meet the expectations of an academic reader. Academic Writing Skills 3 addresses higher-level academic features, such as understanding essay prompts, research, paragraph cohesion, logical connections, and effective sentence building. It is appropriate for students wishing to focus on specific essay types that require the use and integration of sources to complete academic writing tasks. Academic Writing Skills 3 Teacher's Manual has two parts: Part 1: Lesson plans for each part of each unit Part 2: The answer key to the exercises
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Viewpoint is a two-level series for adults and young adults, taking learners from a high intermediate to advanced level of proficiency (CEFR: B2 - C1). The course is based on research into the Cambridge English Corpus, so it teaches English as it is really used. - Extensive corpus research ensures natural language is presented and practiced in authentic contexts. - Engaging writing tasks with explicit goals prepare learners to succeed in professional and academic writing. - Vocabulary-learning strategies encourage learner independence. - Tips to avoid common errors teach learners to use English accurately. The course is written by the same author team that produced the ground-breaking Touchstone series, a four-level series that takes students from beginner to intermediate levels (CEFR: A1 - B2).
Автор(ы): Кузьменкова Юлия Борисовна Издательство: ИД Сказочная дорога, 2015 г.
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Objective First Fourth Edition is official preparation for the revised Cambridge English: First exam, also known as First Certificate in English (FCE). It has been fully updated in line with the revised exam. The Workbook with answers with Audio CD provides opportunities for further practice of new language and skills either at home or in the classroom. It includes an exam-style listening exercise every other unit. Key features of the Objective First course: Vocabulary sections informed by the English Vocabulary Profile, part of the English Profile project, ensure that students learn the words and meanings they require at B2 level. A student's CD-ROM provides extra practice of language and topics covered in the Student's Book, and includes wordlists which may be used either with or without definitions. 24 units, each focusing on a different stimulating topic, make preparing for Cambridge English: First a manageable task. Complete Cambridge English: First practice tests are available online. Regular Exam Folders provide systematic exam preparation and practice, covering each paper in detail. Writing Folders every two units give practice in writing skills and exam technique for the range of skills needed for Paper 2. Corpus Spots use examples from the Cambridge Learner Corpus to highlight common learner errors and train students to avoid them.