Methods and Principles of Teaching Vocabulary

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ: Introduction The basic reason for learning foreign languages that all people have in common is communication - communication in any mode. It is a two-sided process, which requires the ability to understand each other, to be able to code a message that someone wants to convey to someone else in a way, which will be comprehensible to the receiver and also appropriate to a concrete situation and status of all participants.


The basic reason for learning foreign languages that all people have in common is communication - communication in any mode. It is a two-sided process, which requires the ability to understand each other, to be able to code a message that someone wants to convey to someone else in a way, which will be comprehensible to the receiver and also appropriate to a concrete situation and status of all participants. Vice versa the person should be able to interpret a message that someone else is conveying to them. To acquire a good skill of communication in foreign language it is necessary to be familiar not only with vocabulary (single words and their meanings, collocations, phrases and phrasal verbs etc.) but also with language structures and above all with strategies for using them in right context according to concrete situations.

Learners can generally communicate well, having learnt all the basic structures of the language. However, they need to broaden their vocabulary to express themselves more clearly and appropriately in a wide range of situations.

Students might even have a receptive knowledge of a wider range of vocabulary, which means they can recognise the item and recognise its meaning. Nevertheless, their productive use of a wide range of vocabulary is normally limited, and this is one of the areas that need greater attention. At this stage we are concerned not only with students understanding the meaning of words, but also being able to use them appropriately, taking into account factors such as oral / written use of the language; degree of formality, style and others.

The relevancies of the topic are :

· Forming the requirements to the teaching foreign language vocabulary in modern secondary schools;

· Finding out the basic principles of teaching vocabulary in FLTL;

· Introducing the methodological aspects of teaching vocabulary;

· Looking for interesting and effective ways of teaching and learning foreign language vocabulary in accordance to time.

The problem:

-We got used think that vocabulary is not the important part of teaching vocabulary, it is obviously proved that vocabulary ensures a successful start for personal knowledge..

The topic:

The topic of our research paper is “Methods and principles of teaching in teaching and learning Foreign Language”. This research paper is directed to the role of vocabulary for the progress in teaching and learning foreign languages.

Object of the research: The process of teaching foreign languages.

Subject of the research: Principles and methods in teaching and learning foreign language vocabulary in order to outline suitable ways of effective and comfortable dealing with students' vocabulary teaching possibilities on the way of forming all four skill areas: reading, writing, speaking, and listening.

Hypothesis: If we perfectly use principles and methods in teaching and learning foreign language vocabulary which are the requirements we will do the process of FLTL effective, colorful and productive.

Goal: to find out the appropriate principles and methods for teaching vocabulary.


- to illustrate the theoretical support of the importance of teaching vocabulary;

- to use techniques of teaching vocabulary on the lessons ;

- to find out the effective principles and methods of teaching vocabulary;

- to enlarge own knowledge of teaching.

Research methods: observation of the process of teaching and learning foreign languages at school, generalization, method of comparison, studying and analyzing scientific literature, method of processing and interpretation data, descriptive method.

Scientific basis:

1. Allen, V. (1983) Techniques in teaching vocabulary. OUP.

2. Gairns, R. Redman, S.(1986) Working with words. CUP.

3. Hill, J. (1999) ‘Collocational competence’ English Teaching Professional, 11, pp. 3-6.

4. Lewis, M. (1993) The lexical approach. LTP.

5. Lewis, M. (1997) Implementing the lexical approach. LTP

6. Brown, H. D. (1987) Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

7. Brumfit, C. and Johnson, K. (1979) (ed.) The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching. New York: Oxford University Press.

Spheres of application: the course of methodology in pedagogical institute, teaching process at secondary schools.

Structure of the research: R esearch work consists of 3 main parts: theoretical, practical and approbation; conclusion and recourses and references, appendix.

The first theoretical part divides into 2 sub points and gives general information about teaching vocabulary.

The second part reveals the principles and methods of teaching vocabulary during the process of teaching and learning foreign languages in different directions.

The 3 part is approbation, it deals with the exploring knowledge (information) according to the topic in the practice.

Research approbation: Traditionally, the teaching of vocabulary above elementary levels was mostly incidental, limited to presenting new items as they appeared in reading or sometimes listening texts. This indirect teaching of vocabulary assumes that vocabulary expansion will happen through the practice of other language skills, which has been proved not enough to ensure vocabulary expansion.

Nowadays it is widely accepted that vocabulary teaching should be part of the syllabus, and taught in a well-planned and regular basis. Some authors argue that vocabulary should be at the centre of language teaching, because ‘language consists of grammaticalised lexis, not lexicalised grammar’.

The chosen theme “The methods and principles of teaching vocabulary in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning” let us look for the principles and methods of teaching vocabulary to use them on our lessons while the practice through the different techniques.

1 The importance of teaching vocabulary

1.1 Teaching vocabulary – the basis for forming four main skills

To know a language means to master its structure and words. Thus, vocabulary one of the aspects of the language to be taught in school. The problem is what words and idioms pupils should retain. It is evident that the number of words should be limited because pupils have only 2-4 periods a week; the size of the group is not small enough to provide each pupil with practice in speaking; schools are not yet fully equipped with special laboratories for individual language learning. The number of words pupils should acquire in school depends wholly on the syllabus requirements. The later are determined by the condition and method used. For example, experiments have proved that the use of programmed instruction for vocabulary learning allows us to increase the number of the words to be learned since pupils are able to assimilate them while working independently with the programme.

We know the following fact that

I - words used in reading,

II - words used in auding,

III - words used in speaking,

IV - words used in writing.

The main aim of teaching vocabulary is assimilation of the meaning, form of the words and its usage in oral and written speech – that is formation of lexical habits. People can have many aptitudes, but without a large and precise English vocabulary to express them, they cannot take full advantage of these abilities. Unlike aptitudes, vocabulary is not a natural ability; it can be improved if one is willing to make the effort to do so. [7,90]

Building vocabulary is a powerful way to enhance your life and career. Learning how to build a better vocabulary can be a pleasurable and profitable investment of both your time and effort. At least fifteen minutes a day of concentrated study on a regular basis can bring about a rapid improvement in your vocabulary skills, which in turn can increase your ability to communicate by writing, conversing, or making speeches. Acquiring a large vocabulary can benefit you in school, at work, and socially. It will enable you to understand others' ideas better and to have the satisfaction of getting your thoughts and ideas across more effectively.Of course, you already know thousands of words, and you will continue to learn more whether you work at it or not. The fact is that many of the words you know were probably learned simply by coming across them often enough in your reading, in conversation, and even while watching television. But increasing the pace of your learning requires a consistent, dedicated approach. If you learned only one new word a day for the next three years, you would have over a thousand new words in your vocabulary. However, if you decided right now to learn ten new words a day, in one year you would have added over three thousand to what you already know, and probably have established a lifetime habit of learning and self-improvement.

1.2 The techniques of teaching vocabulary in the classroom

Perhaps the most important factor in a successful vocabulary-building program is motivation. It will be very difficult for you to study words month after month without a strong feeling that it is worth doing, that a larger vocabulary will help you in school and on the job, and that it can well lead to a more exciting and fulfilling life.

For the first according to the topic of our research paper we identify four basic steps to a better vocabulary:

1. Be Aware of Words

2. Read

3. Use a Dictionary

4. Study and Review Regularly

While there are not any magic shortcuts to learning words, the larger your vocabulary becomes, the easier it will be to connect a new word with words you already know, and thus remember its meaning. [7,101]

1. Be Aware of Words

Many people are surprised when they are told they have small vocabularies. “But I read all the time!” they protest. This shows that reading alone may not be enough to make you learn new words. When we read a novel, for instance, there is usually a strong urge to get on with the story and skip over unfamiliar or perhaps vaguely known words. But while it is obvious when a word is totally unknown to you, you have to be especially aware of words that seem familiar to you but whose precise meanings you may not really know. Instead of avoiding these words, you will need to take a closer look at them. First, try to guess at a word's meaning from its context—that is, the sense of the passage in which it appears; second, if you have a dictionary on hand, look up the word's meaning immediately. This may slow down your reading somewhat, but your improved understanding of each new word will eventually speed your learning of other words, making reading easier. Make a daily practice of noting words of interest to you for further study whenever you are reading, listening to the radio, talking to friends, or watching television.

2. Read

When you have become more aware of words, reading is the next important step to increasing your knowledge of words, because that is how you will find most of the words you should be learning. It is also the best way to check on words you have already learned. When you come across a word you have recently studied, and you understand it, that proves you have learned its meaning. What should you read? Whatever interests you—whatever makes you want to read. If you like sports, read the sports page of the newspapers; read magazines like Sports Illustrated; read books about your favorite athletes. If you are interested in interior decorating, read a magazine like House Beautiful—read it, don't just look at the photographs. Often people with very low vocabularies don't enjoy reading at all. It's more of a chore for them than a pleasure because they don't understand many of the words. If this is the way you feel about reading, try reading easier things. Newspapers are usually easier than magazines; a magazine like Reader's Digest is easier to read than The Atlantic Monthly. There is no point in trying to read something you simply are not able to understand or are not interested in. The important idea is to find things to read you can enjoy, and to read as often and as much as possible with the idea of learning new words always in mind. [7,112]

3. Use a Dictionary

Most people know how to use a dictionary to look up a word's meaning. Here are some pointers on how to do this as a part of a vocabulary-building program:

• Have your own dictionary

Keep it where you usually do your reading at home. You are more likely to use it if you do not have to get it from another room. At work, there may be a good dictionary available for your use. At home, most people do not have a big, unabridged dictionary; however, one of the smaller collegiate dictionaries would be fine to start with.

• Circle the words you look up

After you have done this for a while, your eye will naturally move to the words you have circled whenever you flip through the dictionary. This will give you a quick form of review.

• Read the entire entry for the word you look up

Remember, words can have more than one meaning, and the meaning you need for the word you are looking up may not be the first one given in your dictionary. Even if it is, the other meanings of the word will help you understand the different ways the word is used.

Also, the word's history, usually given near the beginning of the entry, can often give a fascinating picture of the way the word has developed its current meaning. This will add to the pleasure of learning the word as well as help you remember it.

4. Study and Review Regularly

Once you have begun looking up words and you know which ones to study, vocabulary building is simply a matter of reviewing the words regularly until you fix them in your memory. This is best done by setting aside a specific amount of time each day for vocabulary study. During that time you can look up new words you have noted during the day and review old words you are in the process of learning. Set a goal for the number of words you would like to learn and by what date, and arrange your schedule accordingly. Fifteen minutes a day will bring better results than half an hour once a week or so. However, if half an hour a week is all the time you have to spare, start with that. You may find more time later on, and you will be moving in the right direction. Teaching a word does not cause its automatic learning by the students. That is one of the first things teachers realize when they start teaching. It would be wonderful if finishing a unit of the course book meant that the students master all the words in it. Unfortunately, a lot of work (recycling, vocabulary notebooks keeping, memory techniques ...) has to be done before students thoroughly know a word. The activities which follow have been tested on students and provide a practical suggestion for a systematic approach to vocabulary learning. Appendix A

There are activities using the card illustrated in appendix A:

How Example

Working alone

-Super memo . Ss use the cards to learn the verbs systematically, at fixed time intervals, using boxes. Taking into account the forgetting curve, Ss have to plan their learning and relearning in such a way that the forgetting is minimized. They can use small boxes, or a box with different slots in it. You put all the verbs you have to learn in slot number

1. When each verb is learnt it goes to slot number two and so on until the last slot. All forgotten verbs are returned to the start.

Working in groups

Playing cards . Two packs. One pack is English face up, a pile on the table. The other is given out to all the players ( they read the L1 ). In turn, they take one card from the pack and keep it, if they have the matching one. Then they discharge the matching pair. If they don’t have the matching one, they leave it on the table for someone else to match. They can pick a card either from the table or from the pack.

Working in pairs

- One pack of cards. Ss spread the cards on the table, English face down. In turn they keep one and translate. They check by reading and saying the verb. They keep the card if it is correct. If they don’t know any of them they say “pass”.Winner is the one with the most cards.

- Use your transparent folder. Ss keep all these cards in transparent folders ( sort of slide folders A4 format ). They place one – empty, without cards - on the desk. Aim of the game is to go from top to bottom and vice versa, or from left to right or vice versa by placing verbs and saying them (if they place the L1 they have to say the English.

Working with the whole class

- Bingo. Ss choose 9 cards, put them down in a sort of bingo grid, English face up. T with a list calls them out. T can call either L1 or L2

- Bingo with definitions. Ss choose 9 cards, put them down in a sort of bingo grid, English face up. T gives definitions.

Vocabulary Teaching Using Student-Written Dialogues

One way to motivate students to learn new vocabulary words is to have them write their own short dialogues. You can model this by first reviewing ten vocabulary words the way you and the class likes best. Then, using the entire class as your partner, compose and write a dialogue on the board. Humorous dialogues are more effective than others. Here's a step-by-step approach: [10]

1. Model the exercise, you and the class writing a dialogue together. In lower-ability groups, the teacher may write the dialogue; in advanced classes, volunteer students may do this.

2. Pair students, let them do the same. (4 or 5 minutes)

3. Have the pairs of students exchange dialogues. (1 min.)

4. Have the new pair practice the dialogue, making any changes to correct grammar or improve the dialogue. (3 minutes)

5. Have the second pair present the edited version to the original writers. (2 minutes)

6. Have the four discuss the dialogues, process, feedback, etc. in English (2-4 minutes)

7. A few options may then be discussed and one chosen:

a. pass the dialogues around the room for students to read (5 min.)

b. collect the dialogues to use in another creative way, (basis for quizzes, a Dialogue Book for the semester, suggestions from students, etc.), or

c. rip them up and have the students basket-ball toss them into the garbage.

8. The teacher does not grade, review, or correct.

This exercise gives students the opportunity to read, write, and practice and/or perform without much anxiety. The exercise can be introduced in one class period. Once established, however, you can use it once a week. When it becomes a habit, the whole process can be completed within 15-20 minutes. [12]

When doing such exercises, it is often wise to time each step. Short time allotments discourage timidity. Vary the suggested times, according to the students' levels of comfort and production.

Building Vocabulary Through Prefixes, Roots & Suffixes

English vocabulary is enormous and grows steadily with technological and cultural assimilations. The vast majority of the new words introduced, and a great percentage of the words used to express abstract ideas, are complex words that are made up of simple word parts (prefixes, roots, and suffixes) that have their own definitions and, when familiar to the student of English, can be understood in context without an exact definition. We recommend the study of prefixes roots and suffixes . This is not a single class exercise, nor a single lesson plan. It is an introduction to the most utilized word parts that, in their many combinations, make up 50% of the English language. It requires perseverance, but is rewarded by students who are grateful that they have become comfortable with the ability to recognize words they are not immediately familiar with. And confidence with vocabulary goes a long way in reading, writing, listening, speaking, and with standardized test-taking.Appendix B. It does not matter if you are teaching a reading, writing, or listening/speaking class. It does not matter what text is being used, or if there is any text at all. Any paragraph written in English will have at least a few words that are made up of prefixes, roots and suffixes, and this is where the method begins. This system should be introduced on the first day of class (to great incomprehension, no doubt), and should be dealt with in no more than 10 or 15 minutes per class. [14]

The method - After reading a paragraph, the teacher should excerpt a few complex words, for example 'invisible' and 'decision.' The teacher then tells the students that these words are made up from word parts and that a great many words in English are as well, and that studying these parts increases vocabulary immensely. The teacher breaks the words down into their parts, writing on the board what each part means. Then, introduce other words that have the same roots in them, for 'vis,vid' television, video, and even view, for 'cis, cid' scissors, homicide, and suicide. Then define the prefixes and suffixes of those words. This will lead to a list of 8 or 10 words. This kind of brainstorming should be kept to a minimum in the first weeks and then indulged in more freely as the students gain in confidence. The students will be confused at first. Just remind them that this is a process that gets easier with repetition. The next week, quiz the students on how to break down last week's words into prefixes, roots and suffixes, and what each word part means. We usually chose 5 words and the quiz is worth 10 points, one point for identifying the correct prefix, root, and suffix, and one point for correct definitions of each word part. (If the word is broken down incorrectly, for example 'inv- in, -isi- to see, -ble- able to,' one point is taken off. If one part is defined incorrectly, '-vis- to scare', one point is taken off.) After the quiz, or during the reading time in class, I introduce half a dozen new words and word parts for the following week.In a matter of weeks, students will not only be comfortable identifying complex words in their own reading and writing, but also of breaking those words (and others with which they are not familiar) down and attempting to understand their meaning by the meanings of their parts. They will know the most popular prefixes and suffixes (ad-, de-, ex-, in-, and –tion, -ate, -al) because they will have seen them and heard them repeated many times over. I reward students who utilize complex words in their writing or speaking with extra credit points. This system is daunting at first, but over time and with repetition, students naturally become more confident, and learn how to teach themselves the language. [16]

Measuring Word Recognition Using a Picture

The task specifications below show an alternative test method using matching that we have developed to measure the ability of grade school students to recognize written single words. This task type was first developed for children in the Korean/English Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Program for learning two languages (Korean and English), and has been successfully implemented for these students.

  • Reading ability being tested: The ability to recognize single written words that are concrete nouns and to comprehend their meaning.
  • This task uses pictures that illustrate settings common to the students' daily lives and school experiences. The pictures depict a number of concrete nouns.
  • The target language is English, but may also be another language.

"Look at the picture (Pause). Look at the words around the picture (Pause.)

Find the biggest word. What is that word? (Students will say, "Table.") A line has been drawn from that word to the TABLE to match them. In the same way, please find all the words that you know and draw a line to match them with the right object in the picture. Make sure that the ends of your lines touch the words and the things in the picture. You will have five minutes to complete the exercise." [20,17]

Methods and Principles of Teaching Vocabulary

The rules for this type of exersice:

· Be concrete nouns.

  • Not be highly culture-specific.
  • Consist of 12 to 20 different words.
  • Be scattered around the picture but not too far from the objects.
  • Be scattered randomly, so that the directions of the lines, when drawn by the students, will show random patterns to prevent students from guessing from a systematic pattern of lining.
  • Have one example word that is familiar to all students and is bigger than the rest of the words. [20,22]

Warm-up Exercises for teaching vocabulary:

1.Reading Stories

2. Question and Answer

3. Using Pictures

2 The principles and methods of teaching vocabulary

2.1 Principles

The vocabulary, therefore, must be carefully selected in accordance with the principles of selecting linguistic material, the conditions of teaching and learning a foreign language in school. Scientific principles of selecting vocabulary have been worked out. The words selected should be :

- frequently used in the language ( the frequency of the word may be determined mathematically by means of statistic data);

- easily combined ( nice room, nice girl, nice weather);

- unlimited from the point of view of style ( oral, written);

- included in the topics the syllabus sets;

- valuable from the point of view of word-building ( use, used, useful, useless, usefully, user, usage).

The first principle, word frequency, is an example of a purely linguistic approach to word selection. It is claimed to be the soundest criterion because it is completely objective. It is derived by counting the number of occurrences of words appearing in representative printed material comprising novels, essay, pays, poems, newspapers, textbooks, and magazines.

Modern tendency is to apply this principle depending on the language activities to be developed. For developing reading skills pupils need “reading vocabulary” ( M. West), thus various printed texts are analyzed from the point of view of word frequency. For developing speaking skills pupils need “speaking vocabulary”. In this case the material for analysis is the spoken language recorded. The occurrences of words are counted in it and the more frequently used in speaking are selected. [27,15]

The other principles are of didactic value, they serve teaching aims.

The words selected may be grouped under the following the classes (M. West):

1. Words that we talk with or form (structural) words which make up the form (structure) of the language.

2. Words that we talk about or content words.

In teaching vocabulary for practical needs both structural words and content words are of great importance. That is why they are included in the vocabulary minimum.

H.Douglas Broun in his book "Principles of language learning and teaching" offers lots of psychological and scientific information regarding the principles of teaching. We just do an attempt to choose the appropriate one for vocabulary.

Methods and Principles of Teaching Vocabulary

The first principle in teaching vocabulary is the availability of comprehension and production. "In child language, most observational and research evidence points to the general superiority of comprehension over production: children seem to understand "more" than they actually produce. For instance, a child may understand a sentence with an embedded relative in it (e.g., "The ball that's in the sandbox is red") but not be able to produce one. W.R. Miller gave us a good example of this phenomenon in phonological development: "Recently a three-year-old child told me her name was Litha. I answered Litha?' *No, Litha.' 'Oh, Lisa.' 'Yes, Litha.'" The child clearly perceived the contrast between English s and th, even though she could not produce the contrast herself." In teaching it is very important to develop the comprehension competence and production competence as well. However it is necessary to make a distinction between production competence and comprehension competence. A theory of language must include some accounting of the separation of the two type of competence. In fact, linguistic competence no doubt has several mode or levels, at least as many as four, since speaking, listening, reading, an writing are all separate modes of performance. [27,22]

The second principle for teaching vocabulary according to H. Douglas Brown is systematicity and variability. One of the assumptions of a good deal of current research on child language is the systematicity of the process of acquisition. From pivot grammar to three- and four-word utterances, and to full sentences of almost indeterminate length, children exhibit a remarkable ability to infer the phonological, structural, lexical, and semantic system of language. The teacher realizing this phenomenon of children's acquisition should introduce new vocabulary systematically. But in the midst of all this systematicity, there is an equally remarkable amount of variability in the process of learning. Just as native speakers of a language vacillate between expressions like "It has to be you" and "It must be you," learners also exhibit variation, sometimes within the parameters of acceptable norms, sometimes not. Some variability in learner language can be explained by what Gatbonton (1983) described as the "gradual diffusion" of incorrect forms of language in emergent and systematic stages of development. First, incorrect forms coexist with correct; then, the incorrect are expunged. Context has also been identified as a source of variation. In classrooms, the type of task can affect variation (Tarone & Parrish 1988).

The third principle is the creating of motivation. Motivation is probably the most frequently used catch-all term for explaining the success or failure of virtually any complex task. It is easy to assume that success in any task is due simply to the fact that someone is "motivated." It is easy in second language learning to claim that a learner will be successful with the proper motivation. Such claims are of course not erroneous, for countless studies and experiments in human learning have shown that motivation is a key to learning and learning vocabulary as well. [28, 12]

The fourth principle is error treatment . One of the major issues involved in teaching vocabulary is the manner in which teachers deal with student errors. The most useful implication of Vigil and Oiler's model for a theory of error treatment is that cognitive feedback must be optimal in order to be effective. Too much negative cognitive feedback—a barrage of interruptions, corrections, and overt attention to malformations—often leads learners to shut off their attempts at communication. They perceive that so much is wrong with their production that there is little hope to get anything right. On the other hand, too much positive cognitive feedback—will­ingness of the teacher-hearer to let errors go uncorrected, to indicate understanding when understanding may not have occurred—serves to reinforce the errors of the speaker-learner. The result is the persistence, and perhaps the eventual fossilization, of such errors. The task of the teacher is to discern the optimal tension between positive and negative cognitive feedback: providing enough green lights to encourage continued communication, but not so many that crucial errors go unnoticed, and providing enough red lights to call attention to those crucial errors, but not so many that the learner is discouraged from attempting to speak at all.

The fifth principle involves taking into account personal factors of learners which the teacher usually deals with. Personal factors include: •the affective domain - emotional side of human behavior; •self-esteem;

•inhibition - attempts to protect the ego;




•extraversion - the extent to which a person has a deep-seated need to receive ego enhancement, self-esteem, and a sense of wholeness from other people as opposed to receiving that affirmation within oneself;

• introversion - is the extent to which a person derives a sense of wholeness and fulfillment apart from a reflection of this self from other people. [29,32]

These five principles refer to developing the acquisition and may be expanded. David Nunan offers another description of teaching principles concerning vocabulary. He proposes them to avoid the difficulties in planning the vocabulary component of a course. These guiding principles can be applied in a variety of teaching and learning situations.

2.2 Methods of teaching vocabulary

The variety of methods (of teaching vocabulary) leads to increased vocabulary learning.

Different methods for teaching vocabulary:

· Explicit instruction (definitions instruction including pre-teaching and analysis of root words)

· Implicit instruction (exposure to words during reading)

· Multimedia methods (pictures, hypertext)

Program methods based on investigating of different scientists (Direct, Audio-lingual, Grammar-translation, Suggestopedia, etc.)

2.2.1 Direct method

The direct method of teaching foreign languages, sometimes called the natural method, refrains from using the learners' native language and uses only the target language. It was established in Germany and France around 1900. Characteristic features of the direct method are:

· teaching vocabulary through pantomiming, real-life objects and other visual materials;

· teaching grammar by using an inductive approach (i.e. having learners find out rules through the presentation of adequate linguistic forms in the target language);

· centrality of spoken language (including a native-like pronunciation);

· focus on question-answer patterns;

· teacher-centering;

Principles of the Direct method

  • Classroom instructions are conducted exclusively in the target language.
  • Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught.
  • Oral communication skills are built up in a carefully graded progression organized around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive classes.
  • Grammar is taught inductively.
  • New teaching points are introduced orally.
  • Concrete vocabulary is taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary is taught by association of ideas.
  • Both speech and listening comprehensions are taught.
  • Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized.
  • Student should be speaking at least 80% of the time during the lesson.
  • Students are taught from inception to ask questions as well as answer them.

The aim of direct method is to think in the target language to develop a good communication skill. [30, 18]

The teaching techniques rely mostly on

Reading Aloud : Students take turns reading sections of a passage, play or dialog loud. At the end of each students turn, the teacher uses gestures, pictures, realia, examples or other means to make the meaning of the section clear.

Question and Answer Exercise: This exercise is conducted only in the target language. Students are asked questions and answer in full sentences so that they practice with new words and grammatical structure. They have the opportunity to ask questions as well as answer them.

Getting Students To Self-Correct: The teacher the class has the students self-correct by asking them to make a choice between what they said and an alternate answer he supplied. There are, however other ways of getting students to self-correct. For example, a teacher might simply repeat what a student has just said, using a questioning voice to signal to the student that something was wrong with it. Another possibility is for the teacher to repeat what the student said, stopping just before error. The student knows that the next word was wrogn.

Conversation Practice: The teacher asks students a number of questions in the target language, which the students have to understand to be able to answer correctly.

Fill-in-the-blank Exercise : This technique is already been discussed in the grammar translation method, but differs in its application in the Direct Method. All the items are in the target language; furthermore no explicit grammar rule would be applied. The students would have induced the grammar rule they need to fill in the blanks from examples and practice with earlier parts of the lesson.

Dictation: The teacher reads the passage three times. The first time the teacher reads it at a normal speed, while the students just listen. The second time he reads the passage phrase by phrase, pausing long enough to allow students to write down what they have heard. The last time the teacher again reads at a normal speed and students checked their work.

Map Drawing: An Example: The students are given a map with the geographical features unnamed. Then the teacher gives the students directions such as the following, “Find the mountain range. Write the words “Toros Mountains” across the mountain range”. The teacher gives instructions for all the geopraphical features of Turkey so that students will have a completely labeled map if they follow the teacher’s instructions correctly. The students then instructs the teacher to do the same thing with a map he has drawn on the blackboard. Each student can have a turn giving the teacher instructions for finding and labeling one geographical sentence.

Paragraph Writing : On an example topic about geography the teacher may ask the students to write a paragraph in their own words on the major geographical features of Turkey. They can do this from memory, or they can use the reading passage in the lesson as a model.

Clearly the Direct Method is a shift away from the Grammar Translation Method. One of its positive points is that it promises to teach the language and Not about the language. More advantages can be listed as follows:

· It is a natural method which teaches language the same way the mother tongue is acquired. Only the target language is used and the learning is contextulaized.

· Its emphasis on speech made it more attractive for those who have needs of real communication in the target language.

· It was one of the first methods to introduce the teaching of vocabulary through realia. [32,58]

2.2.2 Audio-lingual method

This method of Language Learning is also called the Aural-Oral Method. This method is said to result in rapid acquisition of speaking and listening skills. The audio-lingual method drills students in the use of grammatical sentence patterns. When this method was developed it was thought that the way to acquire the sentence patterns of the second language was through conditioning or helping learners to respond correctly to stimuli through shaping and reinforcement.

The Audio-lingual Method is based on the following principles:

· Speaking and listening competence preceded reading and writing competence.

· Use of German is highly discouraged in the classroom.

· The development of language skills is a matter of habit formulation.

· Students practice particular patterns of language through structured dialogue and drill until response is automatic.

· Structured patterns in language are taught using repetitive drills.

· The emphasis is on having students produce error free utterances.

· This method of language learning supports kinesthetic learning styles.

· Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught. Concrete vocabulary is taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures. Abstract vocabulary is taught through association of ideas.

· The printed word must be kept away from the second language learner as long as possible.

Types of activities using Audio-lingual method:

1. Dialog Memorization: Students are given a short dialog to memorize then they must use mimicry and applied role playing to present the dialog. Examples of dialogs that could be used are included in the materials section.
Objective: Experiment with language and non-verbal elements (eg. gesture) to achieve an effect for a particular purpose and audience.

2. Backward Build Up: Provide students with the the sentence fragments found in the materials section. Students repeat each part of the sentence starting at the end of the sentence and expanding backwards through the sentence adding each part in sequence. [31,45]

Objective: Participate in a variety of shared language experiences.

3. Transformation Drill : The teacher provides a question which must be transformed into a statement. An extension of this activity is to have the students make a question out of a statement.

Objective: Select from a range of word choices and use simple sentence patterns to communicate ideas and information. Appendix C

4. Complete the Dialog: Have the students fill in the blanks in the dialogs provided. The proper English word must be inserted into the text. This activity is much like a cloze activity.

Objective: Make connections between text, prior knowledge, and personal experiences.

5. Dictation: Using any piece of literature at the students' reading level, read the piece aloud several times. Have the students write down what they hear. The idea is to write what they have heard as literally as possible.

Objective: Listen purposefully to determine main ideas and important details.

6. Flashcards: Using flashcards with words that are relevant to them brainstorm other words about the word on the card. A new word could be chosen each day. Objective: Make connections between text, prior knowledge, and personal experiences.

7. Chain Drill: A chain of conversation forms around the room as the teacher greets or questions a student and that student responds then turns to the next student and greets or asks a question of the second student and the chain continues.
Objective: Participate in shared language experiences.

8. The Alphabet Game: The teacher picks a category, such as the supermarket. Then the first student says, "I am going to the supermarket. I need a few apples." (The first student names something beginning with A.) The second student says, "I am going to the supermarket. I need a few apples and I need a few bananas." The game continues in this manner with each consecutive student adding an item beginning with the next letter after repeating the items named before their own. Objectives: Participate in shared listening experiences. Share ideas and experiences in large and small groups. [31, 53]

2.2.3 Suggestopedia

Suggestopedia is a teaching model developed by a Bulgarian, Dr. Georgi Lozanov, at the University of Sofia in Bulgaria in the 60's. Dr. Lozanov was a pioneer in that Suggestopedia was the first of the various cutting-edge brain friendly learning techniques which are utilized in progressive classrooms today.

There are two phases incorporated in this approach:
Students learn new information very quickly and efficiently in a state of light relaxation accompanied by Baroque or classical music. This new material which has been acquired 3 to 5 times faster than with traditional learning techniques, is now stored passively in the brain. It is then activated by means of creative, interactive and communicative learning techniques, i.e. grammar games, role play, etc. which contribute not only to recall and retention but also to the communication skills and personality development of the students. [32,78]


  • You will address the learning needs and styles of every student in your class.
  • You will guarantee a higher and faster success rate among learners.
  • You will increase retention and recall of material and long-term memory.
  • You will instill higher confidence and self-esteem in your learners.
  • You will promote the creativity as well as the learning and social competence of your students.
  • You will create a pleasant, cooperative and fun learning environment in your classroom.
  • You will have motivated students coming to your classes -- students who have rediscovered the joy of learning. And motivated students make motivated teachers!!

2.2.4 Grammar-translation method

The grammar-translation method of foreign language teaching is one of the most traditional methods, dating back to the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It was originally used to teach 'dead' languages (and literatures) such as Latin and Greek, and this may account for its heavy bias towards written work to the virtual exclusion of oral production. It is based on translation from one language into another. Students work individually, student-student interaction is missing. Students are given grammatical rules and they memorize them. Later they should apply the memorized rules into other examples in form of translation. Students mostly work with literary texts focused on culture.

Very little attention is paid to content of texts, which are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis. Vocabulary and grammar are emphasized but students only memorize native language equivalents for foreign language vocabulary words. Reading and writing are the prioritized skills, there is almost no attention paid to speaking, listening, pronunciation. Classes are taught in mother tongue with little active use of the target language. Correcting errors is considered to be highly important. The aim is to be' able to read literature written in the target language. Sub-aim is to develop students' minds through good mental exercise. Role of the teacher is very traditional - teacher is the authority.

The major characteristic of the grammar-translation method is, precisely as its name suggests, a focus on learning the rules of grammar and their application in translation passages from one language into the other. Vocabulary in the target language is learned through direct translation from the native language, e.g. with vocabulary tests such as:

the house = das Haus
the mouse = die Maus

Very little teaching is done in the target language. Instead, readings in the target language are translated directly and then discussed in the native language, often precipitating in-depth comparisons of the two languages themselves.Grammar is taught with extensive explanations in the native language, and only later applied in the production of sentences through translation from one language to the other, e.g.Do you have my book? = Hast du mein Buch?
Ich weiß nicht, wo dein Buch ist. = I don't know where your book is. [38, 8]

As Omaggio describes is, testing of the students is done almost exclusively through translation: "students had learned the language well if they could translate the passages well." Appendix D

3 Approbation

Writing this research paper under the title “Methods and principles of teaching in foreign language teaching and learning” we identify that it demands the building up the system of principles which may make it easy for teachers and students to deal with. It is connected with all branches of the language. In this research we have observed only one part of huge process - the way of teaching vocabulary, by other words, we tried to deduce the main principles of teaching vocabulary.

Acquiring a large vocabulary can benefit you in school, at work, and socially. It will enable you to understand others' ideas better and to have the satisfaction of getting your thoughts and ideas across more effectively.Of course, you already know thousands of words, and you will continue to learn more whether you work at it or not.

The fact is that many of the words you know were probably learned simply by coming across them often enough in your reading, in conversation, and even while watching television. But increasing the pace of your learning requires a consistent, dedicated approach. If you learned only one new word a day for the next three years, you would have over a thousand new words in your vocabulary. However, if you decided right now to learn ten new words a day, in one year you would have added over three thousand to what you already know, and probably have established a lifetime habit of learning and self-improvement.

The research paper allows us to investigate different principles and methods of teaching vocabulary in FLTL which we used on our lessons while the practice.

The contents of this research paper help us to use different methods on the practicing of teaching English.

3.1 Aim and conditions of approbation, descriptions of learners

In pedagogical practices, foreign language learners have to work in creative and modern ways to cross disciplinary boundaries, incorporate the study of all kinds of material in addition to the strictly literary, and promote wide cultural understanding through research and teaching. It is time for all language programs in all institutions to reflect this transformation.

The aim of our approbation is to know on practice the requirements to the teaching foreign language vocabulary in modern secondary schools, the basic principles of teaching vocabulary in FLTL, looking for interesting and effective ways of teaching and learning foreign language vocabulary in accordance to time in order to make lessons effective, productive, valuable, interesting on each stage of the teaching process.

Everything depends upon the abilities of learners. They prefer to work in different ways, especially when the teacher perfectly use the principles and various methods.

When the way of introducing and making lesson is interesting and colorful, all the materials always memorized. From our point of view the suggested principles and methods of teaching vocabulary includes all for improving language skills: Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening. It means while we use principles and methods of teaching vocabulary we can improve one or several of these skills in group work.

We had practice in gymnasium by Syrbay Maulenov. The condition for teaching and learning the foreign languages and in this school English are done: they have computer classes, interactive board, multimedia complexes and other technological equipments for English lessons. Conditions of approbation directly depend on who the learners are, their present level of language proficiency, teacher and learner goals and expectations, the teacher’s teaching skills and the level of proficiency in the target language, available instructional recourses, the content and conditions of the group.

3.2 Stages of approbation

Systematic instruction refers to a carefully planned sequence for instruction, similar to a builder’s blueprint for a house. A blueprint is carefully thought out and designed before building materials are gathered and construction begins. The plan for systematic instruction is carefully thought out, strategic, and designed before activities and lessons are developed. Systematic instruction is clearly linked within, as well as across the five major areas of reading instruction (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension). For systematic instruction, lessons build on previously taught information, from simple to complex, with clear, concise student objectives that are driven by ongoing assessment. Students are provided appropriate practice opportunities which directly reflect instruction.

Using of some techniques systematically helped students to work out the habit for different activities. In this way we tried to follow the structure of the lesson which we had built from the beginning of the practice. First of all each lesson we started with warming-up activity, that usually was done to remind the useful vocabulary which they have already studied. Each work was planed and we had to plan our lessons in order to make them meaningful. Planning the lesson play the greatest role in teaching and studying English. It is an integral part of the whole teaching process. In that school we were practicing in 9th form. The class is deepened studying English language. There were 9 pupils in our group. They showed their skills, their knowledge. For them lessons were interesting, they were eager to have the lessons of English.

3.3 The results of approbation

In our assignment we tried to show how teacher could help children to develop their knowledge of vocabulary through the experiencing some principles for teaching vocabulary. we believe that the most effective way for learning and studying foreign language is systematical practice of using vocabulary in speech. The motivation of students also plays the key role in process of learning and using of different unusual ways of teaching helps to increase the motivation for children.

From the observation we noticed that encouraging the student and the correct treatment of errors help students to participate actively and break barriers in speaking. However, the lack of time makes it difficult to put into practice all these principles toward the all students.


Vocabulary is an important part of the English teaching process. It issupposed to be a very effective communicative device as it carries the highest level of importance within peoples´ verbal interaction.

However, languageitself is not only individual lexemes put together, but it is necessary to followa set of grammar rules to assure correct comprehension of speaker’s intention.

Therefore, vocabulary together with grammar rules acquisition playssignificant role in foreign language teaching. The purpose of research paper is to find out the appropriate principles and methods for teaching vocabulary.

The first part is devoted to the theory of vocabularyteaching and present techniques in the classroom.

Practical part was realized in the classroom using different approachfor each. The main goal is to assess therelationship between teaching approach and students’ final knowledge,focusing on vocabulary load. Hypothesis proved during the practical part -- grammar-translation students tend to use rather narrow range of

language with problems to integrate it within context, - conscious learning of rules does not lead to language acquisition, - communicative approach prepares students for real communication, students are not anxious about experiments with language and they areable to respond the context well.

We presented the development in language teaching area. We used the method of comparison, studying and analyzing scientific literature, method of processing and interpretation data, observation of the process of teaching and learning foreign languages at school, descriptive method we investigated and found out and prove the importance, the peculiarities, types and ways of using technological equipments in teaching and learning foreign languages.

In conclusion, first, teachers should prepare themselves for the following principles and methods of teaching vocabulary in FLTL, cause foreign language training will be more efficient.


1. Anderson, A & Lynch T (1988) Listening. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

2. Andrew, W. (1989) Pictures for language learning. Cambridge University Press.

3. Brown, G. (1990) Listening to spoken language. Longman.

4. Broughter, G. (1978) Teaching English as a foreign language. Routledge& Kegan Paul Ltd.

5. Field, J. (1998) Skills and strategies: towards a new methodology for listening. Oxford University Press

6. Penny Ur. (1984) Teaching Listening Comprehension. Cambridge University Press.

7. Breen, J., and D. Candlin. 1980. The essentials of a communicative curriculum

8. in language teaching. Applied Linguistics, 1, 2, pp. 89–112

9. Collins English Dictionary for Advanced learners, third edition, 2001

10. Gairns, Ruth, Redman, Stuart: Working with Words, A guide to teaching and learning vocabulary, Cambridge University Press, 1986

11. Harmer, Jeremy: The Practise of English Language teaching, Longman, 1993

12. Howatt A.P.R. (1984) A History of English Language Teaching (OUP)

13. Hymes, D. H. 1981. On communicative competence. In The communicativeapproach to language teaching. (ed.) C. J. Brumfit and K.Johnson. Oxford: Oxford University Press

14. Krashen, Stephen: Principles and Practice in second language acquisitionLogman,1993

15. Nunan David: Language Teaching Methodology, a textbook for teachers Longman,2000

16. Oxenden Clive, Seligson Paul, Latham Coenig Christina: Enlish File 2, OxfordUniversity Press, 1997

17. Peprník J., Nangonová S., Zábojová E.: Angličtina pro jazykové školy 1, Státní

pedagogické nakladatelsví Praha, 1981

18. Rossner, Richard- Bolitho, Rod: Curents of Change in English Language Teaching, Oxford University Press,1990

19. Soars Liz and John: New Headway English Course, Oxford University Press,

20. 2000

21. Swan Michael, Walter Catherine: The Cambridge English Course 1, CambridgeUniversity Press, 1984

22. Thornbury, Scott: How to teach Vocabulary, Longman, 2002

23. Ur Penny: A Course in Language Teaching , Cambridge University Press, 1999

24. Vince Michael: Elementary Language Practice, Macmillan Publishers Lim. 2003

25. Wallace Michael: Practical Language Teaching, Teaching Vocabulary,

26. Heinemann, 1988

27. (from 9 April)

28. (from 3 May 2006)

29. (from 11 April 2006)

30. Allen, V. (1983) Techniques in teaching vocabulary. OUP.

31. Gairns, R. Redman, S.(1986) Working with words. CUP.

32. Hill, J. (1999) ‘Collocational competence’ English Teaching Professional, 11, pp. 3-6.

33. Lewis, M. (1993) The lexical approach. LTP.

34. Lewis, M. (1997) Implementing the lexical approach. LTP

35. Oxford, R.(1990) Language learning strategies. Newbury House.

36. Richards, J. (1985) The context of language teaching. CUP.

37. Scrivener, J. (1994) Learning teaching. Heinemann.

38. Thornbury, S. (1998) ‘The lexical approach: a journey without maps’. MET, 7 (4), pp. 7-13

39. Willis, J. (1996) A framework for task-based learning. Longman.

Appendix A

These cards have the ENGLISH word on one side and its TRANSLATION on the other. Here is an example of a set of cards where each verb has been represented using an emoticon.

Methods and Principles of Teaching Vocabulary

Methods and Principles of Teaching Vocabulary

Methods and Principles of Teaching Vocabulary

Appendix B

The most crucial requirement in this system is a basic understanding of the most prominent prefixes, roots and suffixes in the English language. There are many resources for obtaining support information, on the Internet and in books, but below is a short list of some of the predominant prefixes, roots and suffixes:

Prefixes Roots Suffixes

-------- ----- --------

ab - away vis, vid - to see -tion, -ion, -sion - n. condition

ad - to, toward ject - push -al - adj., relating to

con, com, co - with, together press- press -e - makes a noun or verb

de - down, from cis, cid - cut, kill -ive - adj., relating to

ex, e - out of, from pend, pens - hang -able, -ible - able to, can

in, im - in or not fac, fici, fec - make, do -ia - n. condition, disorder

micro - small lat- carry -ly - adverb

mono - one mit, mis- send, do -ology -study

multi - many nav, naut - sail, boat -ary, -ory - place

ob - to, toward ten,tend,tain - hold

pre,pro - before, near ped, pod, pus - foot

re - back, again cept, ceiv - take

rupt - break

Appendix C

Transformation Activity

The teacher asks the question and the students must transform the question into a statement. Here are some questions to get you started:

1. Do you like school?

2. Are you having fun?

3. Did the cat climb the tree?

4. Are there ghosts in that house?

5. Does your Mom do the laundry?

6. Is your Mom cooking this week?

7. Do your brothers work in the pig barn?

8. Are you learning about animals in school?

9. Do you enjoy going to weddings?

10. What should we do for the Christmas concert this year?

Appendix D

Selected Lesson Plans
Heute: Personalpronomen und possessive Adjektive
11:00 Warm up:
Wie sagt man auf deutsch:
What is your name?
My name is ....
What is your telephone number?
His name is ....
Ask for volunteers to provide the German equivalents of several stock phrases they should already know, using possessive adjectives which are already familiar to them (mein , dein , perhaps sein ). Correct if necessary, but not on pronunciation.
11:03 Exercise I (Lesen) . See attached. Have students read aloud, go through the entire passage. Then return to the beginning and, calling on students at random, have them translate the sentences into English. New vocabulary (e.g. klagen , schätzen ) can be introduced at this time (by translation). Mistakes should be corrected, with special attention paid to today's topic: personal and possessive pronouns.
11:10 Grammar explanation: personal pronouns (accusative). On chalkboard:
mein (meine, meinen) unser (unsere, unseren)
dein (deine, deinen) euer (euere, eueren)
sein (seine, seinen) ihr (ihre, ihren)
ihr (ihre, ihren) Ihr (Ihre, Ihren)
sein (seine, seinen)
Explain (in English) the use of these pronouns, and point out any discrepancies between English and German usage. Note especially the parallel formation to ein , as well as the accusative forms, and also explain the contractions (unsre , eure ).
11:15 Do exercise in DNK, p. 89 Übung 2 : students should fill in the blanks with the appropriate pronoun. If necessary, let students work individually or in pairs to complete the exercise first.
11:20 Exercise II (Sätze). Depending on level of comprehension, either call randomly to have students translate the sentences, or give them time to work quietly writing out the translations. Make sure answers are correct.
11:25 Grammar explanation: possessive pronouns. On chalkboard:
mich uns
dich euch
ihn sie
sie Sie
Explain (in English) the usage as well as the importance of distinguishing between nominative (ich , du , etc.) and accusative. Point out similarities to English: me = mich as memory aid, but warn against her ihr (but rather sie ).
11:30 Do exercise in DNK, p. 92 Übung 4: as above, students should be able to fill in the blanks with the correct possessive pronouns. Call randomly on students, making sure each has a chance to answer correctly.
11:35 Exercise III (Sätze). Again, call on students to translate the sentences into German, paying close attention to grammar. (Pronunciation is not heavily stressed.)
11:40 Exercise IV (Schreiben). Have students work quietly writing out the translation of the passage from English into German. Walk around and observe, answering questions and providing corrections where needed. If students do not finish, activity is assigned as homework.
Heute: Personalpronomen und possessive Adjektive.
I. Lesen. Lesen Sie den Text und übersetzen Sie ihn ins Englische.
Meine Familie ist sehr groß. Ich habe drei Schwestern und vier Brüder. Meine älteste Schwester heißt Claudia, und die zwei jüngeren Schwestern, Christiane und Nadine, sind Zwillinge. Sie haben am 28. Mai 1975 Geburtstag.
Mein Vater arbeitet bei einer großen Firma. Sein Chef ist sehr nett, aber mein Vater verdient nicht genug Geld. Meine Mutter klagt immer: Unsere Kinder haben keine schönen Sachen, und ihre Schuhe sind bald kaputt. Du mußt eine neue Stelle finden, wo man dich zu schätzen weiß!
Meine Mutter hat Recht: es ist nicht so leicht für uns. Mein Bruder hat morgen Geburtstag, und wir machen eine große Party für ihn. Wir haben aber keine Geschenke. Man braucht Geschenke bei einer Geburtstagsfete -- ohne sie geht es einfach nicht! Außerdem kommen viele Gäste zu der Party, und wir haben kein Essen für sie. Es ist schwer für mich, aber ich muß gestehen: ohne Geld ist das Leben doch ein Problem für uns!
II. Sätze: Personalpronomen. Übersetzen Sie die Sätze ins Deutsche.
1. How do you like my new apartment? -- I find it beautiful.
2. How do you like my new desk? -- I find it modern.
3. How do you like my new car? -- I find it excellent.
4. How do you like my two new chairs? -- I find them comfortable.
5. I love you. Do you love me?
6. I love all of you. Do you all love me?
7. Do you know him? -- No, but I know her.
8. Mr. Fischer, this book is for you.
III. Sätze: Possessive Adjektive. Übersetzen Sie die Sätze ins Deutsche.
1. Do you have my book?
2. No, but I have your pencil, your notebook and your cup.
3. Is the reporter writing all of your names down?
4. My sister is bringing her friend along.
5. Their dog doesn't like our cat.
6. Mrs. Schmidt, I need your address, please.
7. My grandfather likes to talk about his grandchildren.
8. Does your mother love her children?
IV. Schreiben. Übersetzen Sie den Text ins Deutsche.
Christmas is an important holiday for our family. On the 24th of December we make a big dinner for the whole family -- for my aunts and my uncles as well. We normally celebrate Christmas without them, but on the evening before we all eat together.
This year I need a lot of presents. My brother's birthday is the 22nd of December, so we're celebrating his birthday three days later, at Christmas. I have a tie for him, but I need something else -- maybe I should also buy a shirt for him, but I don't know his size.
For my father I have a book about Germany. Germany interests him a lot, and his favorite hobby is reading. The book is very big; hopefully my father will find it interesting.
For my two sisters I have a few toys -- they're still young, you see {=nämlich} . Their favorite toy at the moment is an old doll, but it's almost broken. So I have a new doll: her face is very pretty, and her body is made of plastic. Hopefully my sisters can't destroy it so quickly!


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