Lsd Essay Research Paper LSD for Chemistry

Lsd Essay, Research Paper

LSD (for Chemistry Class) Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) LSD), a potent hallucinogenic drug, also called a psychedelic,first synthesized from lysergic acid in Switzerland in l038. Lysergic acidis a white odorless drug, a component of the mold of ERGOT. Ergot is aproduct of the fungus Claviceps purpurea. Th e bio-active ingredients ofergot are all derivatives of lysergic acid. LSD is a semi-syntheticderivative of lysergic acid. Thus LSD is an ergot – like substance. Thedrug evokes dreamlike changes in mood and thought and alters theperception of time and space. It can also create a feeling of lack of self-control andextreme terror. Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) also goes by names like:acid, sugar, Blotter, Sugar Cubes, Blue Unicorn, Acid, Cid, Sid, BartSimpsons, Barrels, Tabs, Blotter, Heaven ly blue, L , liquid liquid,Microdots, Mind detergent, Orange cubes, Orange micro, Owsley, WeddingBells, windowpane, etc. LSD is very potent: the effective dose is measured in micrograms(ug) — however, the lethal dose is literally thousands of times that,making the drug essentially non-toxic. LSD is non-addictive, and therehave been only a few cases of possible overdose where people ingested extremely large amounts of the drug (Alan et al.,1978; Griggs et al,. 1977). LSD can be administered a number of ways, themost common : orally though paper, sugar cubes, on a piece of gelatin, orby pill ; intravenously or intramu scularly. A standard dose withnoticeable hallucinogenic effects is about 100-200 ug. The intensity ofthe trip is proportional to the size of the dose– it is interesting tonote, though, that the duration of the trip seems to stay the same athigher dos es (Freedman, 1984). Physical effects include drowsiness,dizziness, dilated pupils, numbness and tingling, weakness, tremors, andnausea. Transient abnormal thinking induced by LSD, such as a sense ofomnipotence or a state of acute paranoia, can result in dangerousbehavior. Long-term adverse reactions such as persistent psychosis,prolonged depression, or faulty judgment have also been reported followingLSD ingestion but whether these are a direct result of ingestion isdifficult to establish. Althoug h LSD is not physiologically addicting,the drug s potent mind-altering effects can lead to chronic use. In the1960 s LSD use was widespread among people who sought to alter andintensify their physical senses; to achieve supposed insights into theunive rse, nature, and themselves; and to intensify emotional connectionswith others. The drug has been tried as a treatment for infantile autism,for alcoholism, and to accelerate psychotherapy, but no medical use hasbeen established. Non-medical use is ille gal in the U.S. The LSD experience is usually described as a trip because it islike a journey to another place. This experience may be broken up intofour different phases . THE ONSET- Thirty minutes to an hour after being taken, colors appearsharper, moving objects leave traces behind them. Repeated patterns may beseen with eyes closed. THE PLATEAU-Over the second hour, the effects become more intense.Patterns are now visible with eyes open. Fantastic visions appear fromnowhere-from shapes in smoke, to lines on the palms of the hand. THE PEAK- Time is slowed to a standstill. Trippers may feel they are in adifferent world. For some this may be profound and mystical, for others itcan be very frightening. The sense of reality is altered-people may feelfeelings of flight, or feel they can breathe underwater like a fish. THE COMEDOWN- Five or six hours after taking the drug the sensations beginto subside. After eight hours the trip is usually over, however someresidual effects may remain until sleep. The psychedelic effects of d-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide-25 (LSD)were discovered by Dr Albert Hoffman by accident in 1938 when a smallamount of the drug soaked through his fingers during a routine synthesis.He experienced an imaginative dream-like stat e for a duration of 2-3hours (Hoffman,1983). Since then a great deal of work has been doneattempting to document the health effects of LSD. In the 1950 s and1960 s, LSD was used by psychiatrists for analytic psychotherapy(controversial analysis). It w as thought that the administration of LSDcould aid the patient in releasing repressed material. It was alsosuggested that psychiatrists themselves might develop more insight intothe pathology (the study of essential nature of disease) of a diseased mind through self experimentation. During the late sixties LSD became popularas a recreational drug. While it has been suggested that recreational useof the drug has dropped, a recent report on CNN claiming that 4.4 percentof 8th graders have tried it. LSD is considered to be one of, if not the, most potent

hallucinogenic drug known. Small doses of LSD (1/2-2ug/kg body weight)result in a number of system wide effects that could be classified intosomatic, psychological, cognitive, and perceptual categ ories. Theseeffects can last between five and fourteen hours. Table 1: Effects of LSD LSD can trigger underlying mental problems and produce delusions,paranoia, and schizophrenia-like states. It can also produce extremeanxiety states or panic attacks, not only while under the influence of thedrug, but for some time after. LSD may also result in changes in thepersonality of the user. These are known as Bad Trips Bad trips are notcause of the LSD (proven through scientific testing) that he/she has taken(although it plays a part in exciting a part of your brain not normallyused), t he bad trip deals more with the sub-conscious of the used. LSDdoesn t create images, what it DOES do is it stimulates a part of yourbrain that usually isn t used and makes you see or feel things that aren tthere. Anytime you stimulate a part of the bra in that isn t used you willhave a percentage of error and bad things will happen, so that s whatmakes LSD so risky to take. There are a few reasons why its so dangerous,one; you don t know how much dosage the dealer gave you; two, you havelittle or no control over what you see. However if you are with somebody having a badtrip the best thing you can do for him/her is to lead them to a quiet roomwith no radical things in it and keep that person calm until the tripwears off, this is called talking t hem down . It may be tedious but itcould save the life of a friend or loved one. Vitamin C has been shown toreduce the incidence of paranoia and prevent depletion of the vitamin fromthe adrenal glands during LSD trips.(Hoffer & Osmonds The psychedelic s ) Central nervous system stimulants can be grouped into three majorcategories, Psychomotor stimulants (e.g. cocaine, amphetamines, nicotine,caffeine, metaphetamines, dextroamphetamines, methylphenidate, etc);convulsants and respiratory stimulants; and f inally psychotomimetic(hallucinogenic) stimulants, e.g. tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), lysergicacid diethylamide (LSD) and phencyclidine (PCP). Hallucinogens quitesimply involve all drugs that cause hallucinations. Also known aspsychedelic drugs, psycoto mimetics have in common, the ability to altersensory perception and normal thought processes. Psycotomimetics produce amind state similar to psychosis [Psychosis is a major mental disorder inwhich the personality is very seriously disorganized and cont act withreality is usually impaired] and can evoke wide mood swings, timedistortions and a phenomenon known as syesthesia , where the senses aredistorted to the extent that colors, for example, are perceived to be tasted , and sounds seen . While th e exact thing that produces thepsychic effects of LSD is unknown at this time, it is believed that it seffect centers around it s influence at the serotonin receptor sites inthe central nervous system. [Serotonin is a neurotransmitter (chemicalmesseng er between nerve cells] that is thought to be involved in sensoryperception, sleep inducement, regulation of body temp. and mood control].Many areas of the brain that are heavily influenced by these seretoninproducing neurons are associated with the bo dy s visual and limbicsystems. [the limb system is the portion of the brain that is involvedwith various angles of emotion and behavior] When nerves are activated bynerve impulse they normally release the neurotransmitter serotonin(neurotransmitters a re chemical substances that transmit nerve impulses(messages) from one cell to another in effect allowing them to transmitinformation throughout the body). Once released, the neurotransmitterscross a gap (known as a synapse) between the adjacent cells and bind withserotonin receptors. It is believed that LSD inhibits the presynapticreceptors of the serotinin producing neurons causing a decrease in theability of serotonin to inhibit the post synaptic neuron. Also the effectof the LSD is that is allo ws excitatory neurotransmitters (normallysubdued by the presence of serotonin) to influence the postsynaptic neuronand increases the possibility of uninhibited actions. More and more things are being learned through experamentsconcerning LSD, and as we conduct more tests the more we can understandabout the drug itself, and the people who take it. References:1) Ethnopharmacology and Taxonomy of Mexican Psychodysleptic Plants Jose Luis Diaz M.D.Journal of Psychedelic Drugs Vol. 11 (1-2) Jan-Jun 1979 2) Erowid LSD vault 3) LSD Information 4) FAQ-LSD (1995) from internet newsgroup: alt.drugs.psychedelics 5) LSD: A total Study Sankar (1975) 6) Pharm Assist: The family guide to health and medicine Interactive Multimedia CD ROMSoftware Marketing Corp. 1994 Phoenix AZ 7) The LSD Story Monroe, Judy, 1998Current Health 2 1998 v24 n8 April-May p24(3)


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