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How Ph Of Soil Affects A Plant

’s Growth Essay, Research Paper How pH of Soil affects a Plant’s Growth For the experimental aspect of the research report, four sets of two plants are to be studied. They must either be checked according to size for the same height, or started from seed to ensure equality. Two identical sets of roses are to be cultivated, as well as two sets of corn plants.

’s Growth Essay, Research Paper

How pH of Soil affects a Plant’s Growth

For the experimental aspect of the research report, four sets of two plants are to be studied. They must either be checked according to size for the same height, or started from seed to ensure equality. Two identical sets of roses are to be cultivated, as well as two sets of corn plants. The flora must all be given the same amount of water and sunlight each day. The only variable to be changed is pH. One of each set will be planted in the acidic soil, and one set will be rooted in a basic soil.

After the research is conducted, pH will be presumably have a strong effect on the growth of both plants. It is believed that the rose’s growth will be more pH dependant than the corn plants.

The pH level of the surrounding soil can have extreme results on the growth rate and overall health of a plant. The pH is technically defined as the negative base ten logarithm of the effective hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter. It is measured on a scale of 1-14, with each reading being shown as an acid, base, or a neutral solution. If the measurement is less than 7, it is considered an acid. Such acids are vinegar, orange juice, and battery fluid. If the measurement is over 7, it is considered a base solution. Some examples of these solutions are lye, Tums brand medicine, and baking soda. If a solution has exactly one acid part for each base part, it has a pH of 7 and called a neutral solution. Test kits are available for measuring the acidity of a solution. They are in pill, drop, or powder form. Also, battery operated, digital electronic meters are sold commercially.

Two plants that may have adverse reactions to different pH levels are corn and roses. Corn is a much simpler plant, with a very little list of requirements to grow and thrive. It grows fast, with only light and small amounts of water. It has an erect, solid stem unlike most other grasses. It can vary widely in height, with some dwarf varieties only reaching a maximum height of two feet. The rose is a flower grown mostly as a gift and for its sweet-smelling fragrance. Today, it is most popularly cultivated as a garden flower. The genus contains 100 species, with most being native to the North Temperate Zone. With selected breeding, many hybrids and new varieties have arisen. Several hundred new species of rose are bred each year. In the U.S. 20 million plants are commercially sold for cut flowers, with another 40 million being sold for landscape and ornamental use.

Main Research Body

How soil pH affects the Growth rate of Plants

After the research is conducted, pH will be presumably have a strong effect on the growth of both plants. It is believed that the rose’s growth will be more pH dependant than the corn plants.

The pH level of the surrounding soil can have extreme results on the growth rate and overall health of a plant. The pH is technically defined as the negative base ten logarithm of the effective hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter. It is measured on a scale of 1-14, with each reading being shown as an acid, base, or a neutral solution. If the measurement is less than 7, it is considered an acid. Such acids are vinegar, orange juice, and battery fluid. If the measurement is over 7, it is considered a base solution. Some examples of these solutions are lye, Tums brand medicine, and baking soda. If a solution has exactly one acid part for each base part, it has a pH of 7 and called a neutral solution. Test kits are available for measuring the acidity of a solution. They are in pill, drop, or powder form. Also, battery operated, digital electronic meters are sold commercially.

Two plants that may have adverse reactions to different pH levels are corn and roses. Corn is a much simpler plant, with a very little list of requirements to grow and thrive. It grows fast, with only light and small amounts of water. It has an erect, solid stem unlike most other grasses. It can vary widely in height, with some dwarf varieties only reaching a maximum height of two feet. The rose is a flower grown mostly as a gift and for its sweet-smelling fragrance. Today, it is most popularly cultivated as a garden flower. The genus contains 100 species, with most being native to the North Temperate Zone. With selected breeding, many hybrids and new varieties have arisen. Several hundred new species of rose are bred each year. In the U.S. 20 million plants are commercially sold for cut flowers, with another 40 million being sold for landscape and ornamental use.

The pH is very complicated to define, but is quite easy to measure. The measurement is based on a scale of 1-14. The higher the number the more base parts there are in solution in proportion the amount of acidic parts. A pH of seven is neutral, which means the amount of alkalines is equal to the amount of acids. Each unit is ten times greater that the previous, for example: a pH of 9 is ten times more alkaline than a pH of 8. Some examples of acids are vinegar, orange juice, and battery fluid. Some examples of basic solutions are lye, baking soda and ammonia. When acids are mixed with base solutions, they react with each other chemically. These reactions produce by-products and leave the resulting solution with a pH ranging somewhere between the two original solutions. The more difference between the pH of the two solutions, the more energy is released in the reaction.

To measure the pH of the two solutions, many methods have been invented. Some of the most popular ways include drops, pills or powders. Each of these kits uses certain color indicators and dyes such as litmus paper. They come with a color chart to match with the pH level and are sold at most garden stores. This method is simple but less accurate. An estimate may be made by allowing the sample to become saturated with the dye for a few minutes. Also, electronic digital battery operated meters are available. These usually cost more, are temperature and battery dependent, but have the advantage of being read easily and quickly.

The soil pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of the dirt. It is basically the same as the regular pH with the same scale and characteristics. The more hydrogen ions in the soil, the more acidic the soil becomes. Make sure several samples are collected from the site in order to be certain of the pH. This ensures that the reading will not be distorted since there may be a considerable variation in the soil pH from one spot to another.

The soil pH is very influential on the solubility of the minerals and/or nutrients in the soil. Fourteen of the seventeen essential nutrients are drawn directly from the soil. A plant requires it nutrients to be dissolved in the soil before they can be used. Most of the fourteen nutrients are more soluble in acidic soils than in neutral or alkalinic soils. Phosphorus, a much-needed mineral, is never readily dissolved in the soil, but it does dissolve best in a soil near a pH of 6.5. Strongly acidic soils can have high concentrations of soluble aluminum, iron and manganese which are toxic to some plants. A pH of 6 to 7 promotes the highest availability of plant nutrients. Some plants do well in such soil climates. Azaleas, rhododendrons, blueberries, white potatoes, and most fir trees are included in that group.

Soil pH has several effects on the plant that lives in it. First, the chemical reaction between plant roots and nutrients can be harmful and/or fatal. Second, the availability of nutrients is raised with the proper soil pH. The soil pH can also influence plant growth by its effect on activity of beneficial microorganisms. Bacteria does not easily decompose in strongly acidic soils. This keeps organic matter from breaking down, thus resulting in an accumulation of organic matter and binding the nutrients that are held in the organic matter. Soil pH can be influenced by a variety of factors, such as

1) Rainwater leaching away basic ions.

2) Carbon dioxide from decomposing organic matter and root respiration dissolving in soil water to form a weak organic acid.

3) Formation of strong organic and inorganic acids, such as nitric and sulfuric acids from decaying organic matter and oxidation of ammonium and sulfur fertilizers. Strongly acidic soils are usually the result of these formations.

Lime is usually added to raise the pH. This not only reduces hydrogen ions and raises the soil pH, it also eliminates most major problems that usually accompany acidic soil. It also provides two essential nutrients, calcium and magnesium. Lime also makes phosphorus, which is already added to the soil, more available for plant growth and increases the availability of nitrogen by hastening the decomposition of organic matter. Lime is relatively inexpensive, rather mild to handle, and leaves no objectionable residue in the soil. Some common liming materials are as follows:

1) calcic limestone, also known as ground limestone.

2) dolomitic limestone from ground limestone high in magnesium.

3) Miscellaneous sources such as wood ashes.

The amount of lime to be added is affected by a number of factors including soil pH, texture, structure, and amount of organic matter. In addition, the crops or plants to be grown also influence the quantity of lime necessary. The growth rate of roses may vary greatly when is different pH levels. Roses need a good combination of 3 different variables to do well: water, soil, and food.

The first variable to be considered for the rose’s needs is water. These beautiful flowers love water and should be given plenty of it. They should be showered with at least 2 and + centimeters of water per week during the summer growing season. This equates to roughly one gallon of water so they need a good supply each week. They should not be in standing water, however. Only moderately moist loam is best for roses. The soil is kept consistently wet since allowing it to dry out between watering can adversely affect the growth rate of the roses.

The second variable for proper rose care is food. This is especially important in achieving full blossoming potential. A variety of basic nutrients are needed, and the proper pH does much in the way of ensuring that these food requirements are met. Fertilizers also ensure the nutrients are found in the soil with the basic ingredients being nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Some fertilizers are too high in nutrients and can cause the leaf tips to burn, turn brown, or fall off the plant completely.

The third, and perhaps most important, variable in rose cultivation is the soil. This variable is full of life, from tiny microbes to earthworms that fertilize the soil. Soil with more life is healthy and nutrient-rich. Each tiny microscopic organism breaks down nutrients, making them available for plants to use. Lots of organic matter, such as animal waste or rotting leaves, helps to keep the soil full of nutrients for the plant to use.

Different pH levels in the soil also affect corn plants. They are cheaper, easier to grow, and more resistant to disease than roses. Corn falls under the grass category although its stem is more solid than other grasses. It has various forms, which range in height from 60 centimeters to some plant over 20 meters. The leaves grow alternately and are long and narrow. The main stem terminates in a male tassel. This tassel is made up of many small flowers called spikelets which each spikelet bearing thee small anthers. These anthers produce the pollen grains, or male gametes. The pistillate inflorescence, or ear, is a unique structure with over 1000 seeds able to reproduce another plant. The ear is enclosed in modified leaves called the husks. The individual silk fibers protrude from the tip of the ear and are elongated. Each of these fibers is attached to its own ovary. Wind carries the pollen from the tassels until it falls upon a silk, at which time it germinates. Then it grows down through the silk until it arrives at the ovary. Each of these fertilized ovaries soon grows into a kernel, the edible part of the corn.

Corn needs to be planted about an inch deep in order to make certain that the seeds do not rot. To start a crop, it is suggested that the grower wrap an ounce of seeds in a moist paper towel and place it in a plastic bag. When small white roots are visible, they must be moved to a pot so their growth remains constant. Then the grower should run a piece of plastic cellophane over the pot removing it when the plant emerges from the soil.

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