Walls Essay, Research Paper
The framework that supports Roofs, ceilings, floors, interior trims and coverings, and exterior trim and coverings. Two types or purposes Bearing and Non load Bearing –carries the weight from above, such as ceilings floors roofs most exterior walls tend to be bearing partitions Some more than others. Eve sides carry more loads then the gable sides. Non bearing walls serve only one purpose and that is to separate Materials- 2×4, 2×6 most exterior walls are going to be framed with 2×6 material for the one purpose of more insulation.
Orientation -southern exposure
Heat always goes to cold
Walls less than 10” we use stud grade, greater than 10” we need to use light framing. Common species are hemlock, spruce, pine, fir, and the further south you travel you’ll find more Southern Yellow pine. Moisture content 19% or less. Dry areas where tile may be applied like a hot tub or bath. Lightweight steal again bearing and non-bearing 22-25 gauge the higher the gauge the thinner the steel. Bearing walls-18 gauge or less.
Plates- Horizontal framing members that ties the wall system together. Splices should fall on framing member and be staggered from top to bottom
Double top plate- Provides more support strengthens and ties other wall in with each other, straightens. The splice in a double top needs to be a minimum of four feet away from the splice in the top plate. . Nailing should be slightly toe nailed they should be flushed on the inside and crown out.
Studs – common wall framing member the member that goes from bottom to top plate in one continues length. Non Bearing Wall- Minimum 2×3 framing material. If floor space needs to be saved you can frame 2×4 the flat way only in special applications. Examples: half baths. Top and bottom plates must be ripped down to an inch and a half
Stud size 2×4 maximum spacing supporting a roof and ceiling is 24”o.c. Exterior walls or interior walls instead of using ? “ sheet rock 5/8” sheet rock would be used.
Rough Openings – Identify centerlines without a line Jack studs must be continues from bottom plate the header. Distance between jacks is our rough opening we are looking for.
Nailing pattern for stud 2-8d aligned on the bottom.
A door going from a living space to a garage must be fire retardant. Allow 2 ?” more than the size of the door for rough openings. After all rough openings are laid out recheck your rough opening to make sure it’s the right size.
Headers are three inches longer than the rough openings, and can be built up with 2 or more pieces of dimensional material and ?” ply spacers. Solid 4×6, 4×8, 4×10 but to green and no insulation can be added. Micro lams, Para Lams are all pre engineared products. Crown mark always goes up on headers and flush on the bottom nailing is 16 on center.
Sills- are single pieces from jack to jack sill is equal to the rough opening.
Every sleeping area shall have at least one operable window or exterior door approved for emergency escape or rescue. Where windows are provided as a means of escape or rescue, they shall have a sill height of not more than 44” above the floor. Tell homeowners and write on paper work that a room is a family room not a bedroom if there is not two direct exits.
Window rough openings tend to be wider than door rough openings because we have more widths to choose from. Sill can be single or double. Awning windows are the ones hinged on top hopper windows are the ones hinged on the bottom sliders are the worst as far as draft goes.
Perma -Shield is a brand name of Anderson. These windows come in white, territone, and sandstone. A recommended window width for a 2×4 wall is 4 and nine sixteenths, 6 9/16 is the width of window recommended for a 2×6 wall. Glazing refers to the glass. Most glass today is high-performance low-e for elasticity. The greatest heat loss in a building is through the glass. Insulated glass is two panes of glass with a vacuum in-between. Things don’t travel through a vacuum very easily
Whenever your rough opening width is greater than 6’ we use a double jack. Big disadvantage to a gliding window is air infiltration.
Wood windows – the first two numbers tell you the width of the glass. The second two numbers tell you the height of the glass. So we can add 6” to the width and add double plus nine for the height and get our rough opening dimension.
Hinged doors are a better security door and are better insulated.
Primed wood casement windows come with 908 brick or western molding. You need 1 5/16thick drip caps; if you don’t designate you will get the brick molding. Also known as eastern molding. 1x material, 1×6 common. Drip cap comes in ?” sizes.
Down stairs grade floor 5.0 but you still needed is a height of 22” and a width of 20”
Upstairs grade 5.7
Angle Bays are always 30 or 45
Exterior doors are 1 ?” wood or steel
Interior doors are 1 3/8” better quality
Most residential doors will be in swing. Never put an inswing door in a commercial application because of fire. Keyed lockset one used for exterior doors dummy’s, passage set (closets) cant lock, bedroom sets knob turning and lock from inside the room, bathroom lock sets are usually brass on the out side and chrome on the inside.
Interior Doors- 2/6 – 6/6 or 6/8.
Determine total wall height and find your stud lengths. To check your work add all cripple lengths to header lengths and add that to the jacks and they should equal the stud length.
One door in a dwelling must be a 3/0 6/8 hinged. Wood, steel doors that usually come witth908 molding the jacks of the windows will be slightly higher. (3/4”) This will change the cripples over the header, and cripples under the sill. If the windows and doors are clad than the jacks are the same. If the door is standard and the windows are clad increase the length of the window jacks by ?”.
Before the walls are sheathed make sure to insulate corner studs and partition studs.
Shinny surface out if your using the OSB sheeting. Strapping- straightens and flattens, 1×3, perpendicular to the floor, ceiling joist.
Estimating strapping is l of row x #of rows = LF of strapping. Packaged 10 pieces per bundle
Plates – How many 16’ then reduce down to nothing less than 8’. Only one non-multiple f four is allowed per run of plate. So that our splices fall on a framing member (only when framing is 16” O.C.) Bearing walls get a double top plate, non bearing walls only have a single top plate so if berringx3 if non-berringx2
12/16 x L plus one = if 16 O.C.
12/24 x L plus one = if 24 O.C.
Sheets – Wall L /4 =# of sheets for that wall
Sf of a triangle is half the base times the height
Those partitions that run parallel to the strapping need strapping on either side of their plates.
Steel – Load bearing deals with gauge 18 – 16 gauge is common for load bearing. The lower the # the thicker the steel. Non load bearing walls divide and are 25 gauge. Steel is a recycled product its strong uniform and cost effective, and there is not too much fluctuation in the steel market. It does get very hot when left in the sun.
Interior wall framing- mostly non-bearing, no double top plate, divide, headers can be flat, single or double, only purpose is to square up an opening. Framing the longest walls first, mostly 2×4, normally framed after the strapping has been installed. When doing a bathroom make sure that the tub is where it belongs before framing.
Insulation – A material that has a high resistance to heat transfer. R-11 used in 2×4 framing. R – 19 is used for 2×6 walls. Purpose is to reduce the movement of heat through an enclosed surface. Thus making our living areas more comfortable warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer. Helps maintain comfortable temp and also helps reduce sound transfer. Commonly sold in batts and blankets. Blankets are used in walls and floors were batts are used for ceilings and attics. The insulation comes faced unfaced and foil faced for simple vapor barriers.
Vapor barrier – must be solid and continues, fallow a path of least resistance. Moisture is carried by hot air. Two biggest areas that have moisture problems are kitchen and baths so they need to be vented directly outside. This vapor barrier should be as straight as possible because every time we have an elbow or a 90-degree angle we have a loss of about half. The material that is usually used is a 6mil poly or to-tuff a reinforced poly, which is more puncture resistant, available in white and black in 100ft rolls and different widths. The vapor barrier is placed on the worm side of the wall during the heating season. Foil is the best vapor barrier there is. Ceiling walls and floors should get a
Sheet rock – Dry wall a type of construction where the interior finishes is anything other than plaster. Gypsum board is basically a generic name for a family of products consisting of a non – combustible core primarily of gypsum with a paper faces on the face and back as well as along the edges. Often called wallboard, Plasterboard, sheet rock or drywall. It is an abundant resource that comes from a rock that is ground up into a fine power. A joint is were two pieces meet, a dimple is an impression in the surface of the sheet rock produced in the process of either nailing or screwing the product on. These dimples are good for the application of the joint compound. Joint compound is a substance that is used to cover joints and holes. NEVER buy or use compound if has been stored in an area were it has been allowed to freeze because it will crack. Topping or specialty joint compound is bought dry. It dries faster and has less shrinkage. Do not add more until the first coat is dry.
Perfa tape is a paper material sold in rolls, every joint with the exception of outside corners must receive tape.
Insulated gypsum board has a foil on the back, which is good for a vapor barrier, also reflects heat. Primarily used in commercial applications. Wateresistant gypsum board used in high moisture areas, a good base for tile the core is different color, slightly brown. Exterior products – dense glass – have a silicon treated core with a fiberglass mate front and back, used in carports and soffets. Dense Shield – moisture resistant, silicon treated core, fiberglass mates front and back mostly used in bath areas and can be used for walls, floors, ceilings, counter tops, and counter tops, and is used like dura rock or cement board.
Gypsum sheathing is applied between steel and brick. Wallboard is dry, economical, easy to apply, easy to finish with some experience, easy to maintain, easy to repair, noncombustible, and sound deadening.
Plywood Paneling – 3/32, 3/16, ?, 3/8, ?, 5/8 The less expensive the products the thinner the products. 4×8, 2×8, 4×10. Purpose in most cases for accent walls, to enlighten, eye appeal, chair rail, many different spices are used in these products to make many different types.