Wwi Essay, Research Paper
In August a Great War broke out in the center of Europe. Because European powers colonized so much of the world, it became the first World War. Germany was brought into this war because they had an alliance with Austria-Hungary. Russia had also mobilized their troops to the German border and said that it was just a precaution. Germany’s size was about 209 thousand square miles with around 67 million people in 1914. Germany had an enormous army with over 8.5 million infantry. Germany also had U-boats that could sink any of the allies boats. Germany had great political leaders that lead the country through the war year by starting with 1914 and until 1918. The Alliances were the Triple Alliance, which consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. The other was called the Triple Entente, which was made up of France, Britain, Russia, and later on the United States. After the war was over Germany had to solely accept responsibility for the world war. Germany had to pay for the total war debts of all the countries, and they also had to surrender lots of their land to France. In the end of the war Germany had spent about 60 billion dollars. Germany’s participation in this Great War will cause many other countries, which despise Germany to join the allied forces and try to crush Germany.
One political leader of Germany was Prince Otto Furst von Bismarck-Sconhausen, who was the Chancellor of Germany in 1871-1890. He Created the German Empire, and was Successful in leading wars. He created many alliances after Franco-Prussian War, and the Treaty with Austria-Hungary not supported by peers. Only he could balance treaties properly. Another political leader Georg Leo von Caprivi, Chancellor of Germany in1890-1894, was a corrupt naval officer who became Chancellor and did not renew the Russian Reinsurance treaty. This treaty prevented Russia from declaring war on Germany or creating a strong alliance with France. If he had renewed this treaty they would have been on the same side and the outcome would have been different. Prince Chodwig zu Hohenlohe, another Chancellor of Germany during 1894-1900. This Chancellor of Germany was forced to resign due to old age and sickness. Another Chancellor of Germany was Prince Bernhard von Bulow 1900-1909. He was involved in the Morocco Crisis by helping to interrupt the free trade agreement between France and Britain while enhancing trade between Germany and Britain.
Two men headed the Chief military leaders of Germany’s efforts to win the war in particular. Fredrick Wilhelm Viktor Albert of Hohenzollern, and Admiral Alfred von Tripitz. Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany 1888-1918, was the Leader of Germany. He desired to make Germany the most powerful nation in the world. Supported Military and Naval development along with industrialization, and Loved to show off his power by boasting. Admiral Alfred von Tripitz 1900-1918 was the Leader Of the German Navy. He Instituted the Tripitz Plan, which was to develop Germany into a master naval power. Though when war broke out it only had 13 dreadnoughts, 5 battle cruisers, 41 cruisers, 144 destroyers, and 30 submarines. This was approximately 60% of the Great British royal Fleet.
The Army consisted of about 8.5 million troops in 1914. The also had U-boats that were very effective because the Allies did not have them and also the allies had no depth charges or any defense against the submarines. The German Weapons consisted of: Flame-throwers- with a range of 35 yards, Paris Guns- ranged at 80 miles, 420mm Big Bertha Siege Mortars, 7.9mm German 1915 Msukete magazine fed- 450 rounds per minute, 7.9mm German Maxim MG 08 water cooled belt fed- 600 rounds per minute, and 7.92mm German Maxim MG 08/15 water cooled belt fed- 600 rounds per minute.
Germany with this war machine behind them, pledged it’s allegiance to Austria-Hungary, and they went to war with Russia and Serbia because a Serbian 19 years old assassinated Franz Ferdinand and his wife. He was the Archduke heir to the Austria-Hungary empire. Later, other nations like France, Russia, Britain, and the United States joined in the war.
Germany was in the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary and Italy. In May 1915, Italy joined the Triple Entente with France, Britain and Russia. When Archduke Ferdinand and his wife were assassinated Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, Russia was allied with Serbia and Germany was allied with Austria-Hungary and so both of these countries were brought into the war. Germany knew that France and Russia were allies so Germany declared war on France. This action brought Great Britain into the war as well. Also Italy came in because of an alliance with Germany.
In 1914 Germany had more army men than the allies combined. However Britain s navy had more betterness than all the other countries put together. Russia moved their army men to the Russian/Austrian and Russian/German Borders. Czar Nicholas v2.0 said to Kaiser Wilhelm II that this was just a precaution. Aug. 1 Germany declares war on Russia, Russia looked to France for help as Kaiser Wilhelm said, The army and I were born for each other. Aug. 3 Germany Declares wars on France (Schileiffen plan, attack France and Russia at their borders by doing a quick attack on France then attack Russia). Germany invaded Belgium (neutral) Britain had ties with Belgium and Britain declared war on Germany on Aug. 4, 1914. In Tannenburg Germans killed 30k Russians. Sept. 5, allies attack Germans at the Marne-allies win. Significance: two front war idea collapses. Russians attack Germans.
In 1915 there was basically a stalemate. In May-Italy joins allies. Gallipoli campaign: Allies could gain supply line to Russia. They lose after suffering 250thousand casualties.
In July 1916, the Battle of the Somme-Allies lose. German officials warn people to travel on ships incoming to Britain because they were believed to have held supplies for British troops including ammunition and food. Germans said that their U-Boats would sink any ship without warning that was believed to have supplies. A U-Boat sunk the Lusitania, which held American passengers on it, this infuriated the Americans. The Germans were afraid that the Americans would join the allies so they sent a message a Mexico. The message said that Germany would gain back all the land lost to America if they started a rebellion to keep America out of the war. The Americans intercepted this, and that was their final push into the war.
In 1917 the US involves itself in the war. Also Russia Withdraws from the war because of civil unrest in Russia, Czar Nicholas abdicated his throne March 15, nearly 5.5 million Russian Soldiers had been wounded, killed or taken as prisoners. The war became a total war, propaganda and rationing occurred.
In 1918 Germany signs a peace treaty with Russia (now run by Lenin). Germany mounts one last final, massive attack on the allies in France 6,000 German Classes open the offensive with the largest artillery attack of the war. As in the opening weeks of the war, German Forces crushed everything in their path and by late May, the Germans reached the Marne River. Paris was less than 40 miles away & victory seemed in reach. Allies launch a counter attack Marshall Ferdinand Foch, The French Commander of the allied used Americans to fill the gaps in the ranks, and by July the second battle of Marne took place with allied tanks + 2 million US troops. Bulgarians, Ottoman turks surrender. German troops begin to mutinies. In Nov. Wilhelm was forced to step down. In a railway Car in the forest near Paris the two signed an armistice, or agreement, to stop fighting.
The allies won the war because the Americans came in to the war with no right. The British hid ammunition on the Lusitania and therefore the ship sank in one shot from a torpedo and it had 28 or so American passengers on it. The Germans said that they would sink the ships that had supplies on them and warned Americans of going on that ship, but the stupid Americans as the were didn’t take the treat and went on it anyway. Then because Germany was concerned that America would join the allies they sent the Zimmerman message to keep America out of the war. After the Americans came in to the war the Germans had no chance at all anymore. They were totally outnumbered.
I do not agree with the peace settlement. The allies made the Germans sign the document that made the peace in an abandoned train car that was ugly instead of in a nice place where they could be civilized. The document said that Germany would have to give back all of the land that they had won fair and square from the Russians. And it put limitations on how large of an army they could have and they charged the Germans $33 BILLION dollars to pay for the war efforts of the allies.
Germany could have gone on and won the war if it weren’t for the Americans joining into the war. They came in just because of a stupid reason and it was totally unfair to the Germans. Also if the German leader Georg Leo Von Caprivi had renewed the treaty between Russia and Germany the Germans and Russians would not have killed eachother and they would possibly have won the Great War. This loss and having to pay $33 billion for the Allies started another disagreement. This also started a foundation to hate the other European countries and World War II was started later