Cryogenics Essay, Research Paper
Allograft A tissue graft between donor and recipient of the same species, but where they could react antigenically.
Antibody A protein that is produced in the body in response to invasion by a foreign agent and that reacts specifically with it.
Antigen A substance not normally present in the body which, when introduced into it, stimulates production of an antibody that reacts specifically to it.
Anticoagulant A substance which inhibits the blood clotting mechanism.
Aorta The great artery that carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle and distributes it to the rest of the body via the circulation system.
Aortic Valve A three-leaflet semilunar valve located between the left ventricle and the aorta.
Bicuspid Having two cusps.
Bicuspid Aortic Valve A congenital deformity of the aortic valve in which two of the cusps are fused together along the leaflet commissure.
Biological Graft A general term that can be used to refer to a nonliving glutaraldehyde pre-served graft or to a living cryopreserved graft.
Cryogenic Producing ultra-low temperatures.
Coronary Arteries The blood vessels that provide nourishment to the heart muscle. The paired vessels are located behind two of three cusps of the aortic valve.
Embolism The plugging of a blood vessel by a floating mass.
Embolus A mass of debris floating in the blood stream
Glutaradehyde A chemical substance used to fix, sterilize, and store non-living or biological grafts.
Hemodynamics The study of the movements of blood.
Hemolysis Red blood cell damage.
Heterograft A graft of tissue taken from a donor of one species and grafted into a recipient of another species.
Incompetence With heart valves, the inability to close completely and prevent back flow.
Inferior Vena Cava The large vein that collects spent blood from the lower torso and legs and delivers right to the atrium.
In Vitro In an artificial environment.
In Vivo In the living body.
Left Atrium The upper left chamber of the heart; it receives the blood from the lungs via the four pulmonary veins.
Left Ventricle The lower left chamber of the heart, it receives blood from the left atrium and pumps it to the systemic circulation via the aorta.
Ligature A thread or wire used in surgery to tie off blood vessels to prevent bleeding, or to treat abnormalities in other parts of the body by constricting tissues.
Pathological Pertaining to or caused by a disease.
Porcine Graft Derived from a pig.
Pressure Gradient A pressure differential between two areas.
Pulmonary Pertaining to the lungs.
Right Atrium The right upper chamber of the heart, it receives the blood from the systemic venous system.
Right Ventricle The right lower chamber of the heart, it receives blood from the right atrium and pumps it to the lungs via the pulmonary artery.
Superior Vena Cava The large vein that a collect spent blood from the veins of the head and upper body and delivers it to the right atrium.
Systemic Circulation The left side if the heart pumps blood which has been oxygenated in the lungs out to all systems and organs of the body.
Tissue Compatibility A transplant in which there is no rejection process or antigenicity occurring.
Tissue Graft A general term, which can be used to refer to a non-living glutaraldehyde, preserved graft to a living cryopreserved graft.
Viable Able to maintain an independent existence, able to live after birth. The quality of being able to stay alive.
Xenograft A tissue graft from a non-human species into a human.