Cryogenics Essay, Research Paper
AllograftA tissue graft between donor and recipient of the same species, but where they could react antigenically.
AntibodyA protein that is produced in the body in response to invasion by a foreign agent and that reacts specifically with it.
AntigenA substance not normally present in the body which, when introduced into it, stimulates production of an antibody that reacts specifically to it.
AnticoagulantA substance which inhibits the blood clotting mechanism.
AortaThe great artery that carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle and distributes it to the rest of the body via the circulation system.
Aortic ValveA three-leaflet semilunar valve located between the left ventricle and the aorta.
BicuspidHaving two cusps.
Bicuspid Aortic ValveA congenital deformity of the aortic valve in which two of the cusps are fused together along the leaflet commissure.
Biological GraftA general term that can be used to refer to a nonliving glutaraldehyde pre-served graft or to a living cryopreserved graft.
CryogenicProducing ultra-low temperatures.
Coronary Arteries The blood vessels that provide nourishment to the heart muscle. The paired vessels are located behind two of three cusps of the aortic valve.
EmbolismThe plugging of a blood vessel by a floating mass.
EmbolusA mass of debris floating in the blood stream
GlutaradehydeA chemical substance used to fix, sterilize, and store non-living or biological grafts.
HemodynamicsThe study of the movements of blood.
HemolysisRed blood cell damage.
HeterograftA graft of tissue taken from a donor of one species and grafted into a recipient of another species.
IncompetenceWith heart valves, the inability to close completely and prevent back flow.
Inferior Vena CavaThe large vein that collects spent blood from the lower torso and legs and delivers right to the atrium.
In VitroIn an artificial environment.
In VivoIn the living body.
Left AtriumThe upper left chamber of the heart; it receives the blood from the lungs via the four pulmonary veins.
Left VentricleThe lower left chamber of the heart, it receives blood from the left atrium and pumps it to the systemic circulation via the aorta.
LigatureA thread or wire used in surgery to tie off blood vessels to prevent bleeding, or to treat abnormalities in other parts of the body by constricting tissues.
PathologicalPertaining to or caused by a disease.
Porcine GraftDerived from a pig.
Pressure GradientA pressure differential between two areas.
PulmonaryPertaining to the lungs.
Right AtriumThe right upper chamber of the heart, it receives the blood from the systemic venous system.
Right VentricleThe right lower chamber of the heart, it receives blood from the right atrium and pumps it to the lungs via the pulmonary artery.
Superior Vena CavaThe large vein that a collect spent blood from the veins of the head and upper body and delivers it to the right atrium.
Systemic CirculationThe left side if the heart pumps blood which has been oxygenated in the lungs out to all systems and organs of the body.
Tissue CompatibilityA transplant in which there is no rejection process or antigenicity occurring.
Tissue GraftA general term, which can be used to refer to a non-living glutaraldehyde, preserved graft to a living cryopreserved graft.
ViableAble to maintain an independent existence, able to live after birth. The quality of being able to stay alive.
XenograftA tissue graft from a non-human species into a human.