Cdr Essay, Research Paper
Recordable Compact Disk (CD-R) is a blank CD with the ability to be recorded onto. The unit that is used to write data to these blank CD s is called a CD Writer or Burner. This unit is not unlike a normal CD drive, the difference being that it has two lasers one invisible, one visible. The invisible, is used for writing data onto the surface of the blank CD. The visible, is for reading information off the CD. The unit itself is currently for use in a computer system only, and therefor must be installed like a normal CD drive. The two CD drives then run coherently to copy data from one cd to another.
CDR was introduced around 5 years ago, but really only became affordable over the last two years. This has increased its popularity to an extent where its use has started to spark issues relating to the reproduction of copyrighted material. This has started to have a negative economical effect on the music industry. I will address the issue of piracy later in this report. CDs have become a cost effective industry standard when it comes to storing data.
Some terms that you will encounter throughout this report are:
· CD-ROM Compact Disk Read Only Memory, (non recordable CD)
· CDR Recordable Compact Disk
· Floppy disk a square 3 + inch disk, with a capacity of 1.4mb
· Cartridge A high capacity form of storage, slightly larger than a floppy disk
· Byte – The way that data is measured
· MB megabyte, (1,000 bytes)
· Gig gigabyte, (1,000mb)
· Piracy The illegal reproduction of copyrighted material.
Factors influencing the development of CDR
CDs have become the standard for all forms of media, be it audio, visual or multimedia. Until recently, there has been no economically viable way to create your own CD s at home. So the first CD Writers were introduced, made by Panasonic, costing over $900. Like most things, an increase in demand caused the recommended retail price to drop to the point where they are almost as low as $400. With this decline in price, CD Writers have become more affordable. The acknowledged intent is that people will use it for personal use, mainly to backup data, but this is not always the case, as the ease at which someone can copy a CD and sell it for their own profit has become a major issue. The act of reproducing copyrighted material is commonly known as Piracy.
Piracy is widespread, economically effecting record companies and producers alike. The laws in relation to copying CDs are not specific at all. In America a blank CD has a $10 levy incorporated into the price, this money goes toward record companies and producers, and entitles people to copy CDs for their own personal use. In Australia however, there is no levy so no such rule applies. In the manual of the Philips CDR 870 Compact Disk Recorder it reads: Important. It is a criminal offence under applicable copyright laws, to make unauthorised copies of copyrighted material, including computer programs, films, broadcasts and sound recordings. This equipment should not be used for such purposes. However on the opposite page it says: Subject to certain legal constraints on copying, you can make your own CDs. This illustrates that the laws are not precise. One thing is sure though, piracy of copyrighted CDs of any kind be it audio or data, does effect the owners of the copyrighted material and therefor is at least morally wrong.
Benefits and costs of the system.
The following compares the current storage media s.
Media Type Equipment Required Cost Storage Type Capacity Cost Shelf Life
CDR CD Burner $400 – $700 Recordable CD 650mb $3 – $10 Long
Zip Zip Drive $250 – $400 Zip Cartridge 100mb $30 Medium
Jaz Jaz Drive $600 – $800 Jaz Cartridge 1gig $100 Medium
Tape Tape Drive $650 – $900 Tape 4 8gig $100 Medium
Floppy 3 + inch disk drive $20 – $30 3 + inch floppy disk 1.44mb $2 Short
As this table shows, the economic benefits of CDR are obvious. Low cost and high capacity. When it comes to sociological benefits, you can not put a price on the ability to freely read and write up to 650mb of data on one storage media, that has a longer shelf life than any other. The only cost to society is that you can not write onto a CDR without a CD Writer. For a group at work it is costly if you try to install a CD Writer into every computer. For the individual, CDR allows the backing up of data and creation of personal CD s. Floppy disks are still the standard in Re-Writable storage, but as the speed and cost of CD Writers improves further CD s with become the industry standard.
The impact of CDR on society
The development of CDR technology has had a tremendous impact on society and the way that we go about storing data. CDR has made it possible for the general public to create their own compact disks. These disks can hold anything up to 650mb (about 450 floppy disks), where previously the only option was to store data on 3+-inch floppy disks, which only hold 1.4mb. The net result is a public that no longer is entirely reliant on the CD s that are released on the market. This advance is another step toward making the inefficient floppy disks obsolete.
The ability to create CDs has negatively effected the music industry tremendously. Piracy has increased, allowing illegally reproduced copies of music to be created and sold at the expense of the owner of the original material. More often then not these pirate copies go undetected, but due the severity of the crime and the fear of piracy getting even more out of control then it already is, various laws have been introduced. These laws make it illegal to create copies of any copyrighted material unless you are backing up an original copy that you own. Higher penalties for prosecuted offenders have also been introduced to deter potential offenders.
In both of these cases, the Internet plays a large role. Due to the accessibility the Internet, it is very easy to download copies of music and software. Then using CDR, create your own replica of the original material.
Possible future developments
The future is very promising; the way that we store data has constantly developed, yet we are only beginning to see the effectiveness of improved quality at lower cost. One trend that we have seen continue at a consistent rate in the computer industry is miniaturisation. In Communiqu , Bill Gates (the owner of Microsoft) writes: we are now seeing the development of microminiaturisation. This shows that the trend will continue, Writable and Re-Writable CD s will become as commonly used as floppy disks. Unlike previous technological advances like the car and telephone, where it took several generations to become mainstream, here we have something that s happening in a single generation. In the space of 15-20 years the use of computers will go from something that no one did as a part of their job, to being a crucial part of the vast majority of all jobs.
Strategies used to market CDR
When selling CDR, the main strategy used is that they always highlight the fact that you can create your own CDs. This is the most attractive feature, more so then backing up data, because everyone wants to be able to create his or her own CDs. I interviewed Daniel Fenollar who is the manager of Home Entertainment Centre, an established computer store in Werribee. According to sales reports for last twelve months, CDR sales have increased by 2/3. He says this is due the cost becoming lower and an emphasis on the ability to create CD s at home. His store sales about ten computers a week, out of these ten, four of them the customer asks for a CD Writer to be installed with the package. This is mainly due to word of mouth. Daniel said, people are talking about CDR because it s exciting, and that s all the marketing that we ll ever need!
Conclusions based on the results of the research
CDR is the most efficient for storing large amounts of data at a cost that is lower then any other removable, random-access medium. Although CDR only writes once onto a disk then closes it, it s low media costs make this it feasible to create new copies when required.
I found that cartridge drives like Iomega s Zip and Jaz drives are priced comparably to writable CR-ROM drives, but CD-ROM disks typically cost from $3 to $10 each, while a 1gig Jaz cartridge costs over $100. Also if you want to transport data the other system must have the same type of drive, this is less likely for cartridges, as there is no industry standard for cartridge data formats. CDs also have a longer shelf life then tapes or cartridges.
The future is promising. When we are able to write and re-write onto CD s as quickly and easily as a conventional floppy disk, who knows what will develop around the corner.
· “PC Update,” Melbourne PC User Group, March 99.
· 2 “Philips CDR,” Australia hi-fi magazine, February 98 page 22.
· 3″Laser,” Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia. 1993-1997 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
· 4″Digital AudioTape (DAT),” Microsoft Encarta 98 Encyclopedia. 1993-1997 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
· 6 “View Point,” Bill Gates, Communiqu , April 99 page 64.