Chinese Government Essay, Research Paper
China is one of the largest countries in the world, and holds 1/5 of the worlds
population. With such a vast amount of people China requires a strict government. China
is known for its past Dynasties, some that go back to 1766 B.C.. Now the Chinese
Communist party controls China.
The first Ancient Chinese dynasty is believed to be the Xia (2000-1500 B.C.),
Although many argue the Xia never existed many signs such as Chinese artifacts that date
back to 2000 B.C. point to the existence of the so called first Chinese dynasty. Scientist
and Geologist do not know much about the rule or life of the Xia except that they
used bronze and believed in burying the dead. The Xia is somewhat still a mystery.
Inspired by Yang-Shao and Lung-Shan cultures the Shang dynasty (2000-1500
B.C.) settled in the Honan region of North China from 16th century B.C. to 1027 B.C..
The Shang were a smart dynasty who used an advanced system of writing, a complex
bronze metallurgy, made the first Chinese calender, and had cities. The Shang was a very
religious dynasty. The Shang were polytheistic.The most powerful of the Shang Gods
was Shang-ti. It was believed that the Shang adopted many of its customs from the Near
East, but now it appears thats the Shangs customs were invented Independently.
Around 1027 B.C. the Shang was was conquered by the Chou (1027-771 B.C.)
Although the Chou had a loyal army there were some rebellious Chou vassals. Chou
had some enemies. Their greatest enemy was the barbarian people. In 771 B.C. the
rebellious vassals and the military pressure of one of these barbarian people forced the
Chou to move their capital to Loyang This began a new dynasty called Eastern Chou
(770-256 B.C.). After this new dynasty emerged warfare between the dynasty itself
became a major issue where only the strongest could prevail.
This period was called the Warring States (403-221 B.C.). This period was a
“living hell”. Although this was a bad period it had some positive feedback. Positive
things such as making China’s oldest surviving literature, giving rise to China’s golden
age of philosophy, and making schools of Confucianism, Taoism, and Legalism.
Ch’in (221-206 B.C.) were a very strong and determined dynasty. The Ch’in were
Philosephers and believed that they would rule all of China. The Ch’in were very
protective and filled in all gaps thereby creating the great wall of China.
Han dynasty (202 BC-AD 220) conquered the Ch’in. The Han based the majority
of their daily life on Ch’in influences. The Han Made their government to resemble the
Ch’ins government. The Han dynasty came to an end by economic woes.
Sui (581-618) although the Han was destroyed their way of rule still lived through
the Sui. The Sui was a powerful dynasty but failed to gain the support of the people.
Peasants complained of being overworked yet the Sui did not listen and even decided to
make things more difficult by fixing The Great Wall and fashioning a Grand Canal.
The Sui gave influence to the Tang empire.
The Tang empire (618-906) was a great empire. The first Tang emperors were
father and son. The father Li Yuan was commanding General of the Sui dynasty. Li Yuan
was a great ruler. When Li Yuan came of old age his son made him a offer he couldnt
refuse. His son offered to take the thrown. The Tang had a great rule. Lyric poetry
reached its high point, and the first ever book was printed when the Tang ruled.
The Sung (960-1279) was the starting point of modern Chinese age The Sung was
not known for its strong military, but were known for their economy and cultural pattern
which left an affect for the whole Chinese millennium. The Sung started a new group
called scholar-gentry class. The scholar-gentry class power came from holding land and
educational training. Even though everything seemed nice the peasant fell deeper into
harsh labor and womens rights were declined which sprung the growth of foot binding.
Genghiz Khan was behind the rule of the Mongol power. By the time of his death
in 1227 the Mongols had an empires stretching from Korea to Russian Turkistan
and from Siberia to north India. Kublai Khan founded the chinese-style Yuan Dynasty
(1279-1368). Marco Polo explored China and went back to Europe with much to tell
about the magnificent and glamorous China under Mongol rule. After that Arts flourished
After the Mogol lost a battle between peasants and rebels The Mandate of
Heaven now shifted to one of the peasant leaders, who established the Ming dynasty
(1368-1644). The Ming dynasty were very good in writing. Most of the book published
by Chinese dynasties were printed in this time period. Natural disaster caused peasants to
rebel therefore causing the destruction of this dynasty.
After the Ming Came the Chi’ing (1644-1911). The Chi’ing had a steady rule. But
later corruption took over.
After 1911 China had a many struggles on who would control China. China was
split in so many ways that China was weak and fragile at the moment. There were many
wars to see what organization would take control over China. Then came WWII where
China helped the Germans fight Great Britain and the United States Where G.B and the
U.S. won. After the war in the late 1940’s Communist took over China.
In 1949 China became the Peoples Republic of China also Known as the PRC.
As China progressed slowly is was rising to become one the most agricultural places in
the world. In the 1960’s many thought that China was is a struggle. Cultural Revolution
of 1966-69 was a bad time for China because school kids were sent to the farm to do
manual labor and kept away from schools.
Present China is a large country with a good economy and many large companies.
The CCP controls China today. The most powerful man in China at the moment is Jiang
Zemin(1926 -) who holds the top three jobs in China: that of president, Communist Party
general secretary and chairman of the party’s Central Military Commission.
Li Peng, Zhu Rongji, Qiao Shi, Yang Shangkun, and Zhao Ziyang are other large
China seems to be doing good econmically and financially and by the looks of it
China is heading for a prosperous future.