Sigmund Freud Essay, Research Paper
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A Subject: 033: Science: Psychology
A Title: Sigmund Freud
papers = Running Head: Sigmund Freud: Psycho-Analysis
Sigmund Freud: Psycho-Analysis
Troy State University
Sigmund Freud’s views continue to influence the contemporary practices of many
psychologists today. Many theories of psychology have been influenced by Freud’s
psychoanalytic method. Many of his basic concepts are still used by many theorists.
Kno Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, 1856 in Freiburg, a rural town near Ostrau in
northeastern Moravia. The town of Freiburg later became Pribor and was eventually
absorbed into the modern state of Czechoslovakia. Freud’s father Jakob Freud was a
Jewi In 1878 he changed his name from Sigismund to Sigmund. He obtained his
doctorate in medicine in March of 1881, and worked as a research assistant at the
Institute of Physiology under Ernst Brucke, with neurology as his main focus. In 1882
Freud did On April 25, 1886, Freud opened up his first neurologist office in Vienna. In
September of the same year he married Martha Bernays. The marriage between the
two produced six children and was very successful. In 1887 Martha gave birth to
Freud’s fi e studied the meaning of certain disorders. In that same year Freud was
appointed an associate professor of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of
Vienna. (Jones, 1970).
Freud decimated much time in his work. He held therapeutic sessions with patients
up to 12 hours a day and continued his works till the late hours in the morning. He
gave numerous lectures, first in the United States in 1909 at the University of Wo In
Freud’s book A General Introduction to Psycho-Analysis he makes a basic
assumption. “We Know two kinds of things about what we call our psyche (or mental
life): firstly, its bodily organ and sense of action, the brain (or nervous system) and, on
ost important throughout life. Under the influence of the real world a portion of the Id
has undergone development. Freud suggests because of birth there is now beginning
to develop an intermediate between the Id and the external world. Freud named this
The principal characteristics of the Ego are that it has voluntary movement at its
command. It has the task of self preservation. It also preforms the task of becoming
aware of stimuli, “by storing up storing up experiences about them (in memory), ed
from awareness. Denial is another defense mechanism that distorts what an
individual thinks or feels. Reaction formation is a defense against a threatening
impulse and then to express the opposite impulse. Projection is taking ones own acts
of unacc up positive traits for certain weaknesses. There is a total of eleven Ego
defense mechanisms. These mechanisms are there so the Ego will not be
overwhelmed by anxiety. The Ego gives up its connection in the external world in the
state of sleep. Accor The Ego has to contend with now a third power known as the
Super Ego. The relationship between the Ego and the Super Ego is traced back to
the individuals parental influences according to Freud. “This parental influence of
course includes in its op The second half of Freud’s book A General Introduction to
Psycho-Analysis deals with instincts and dream analysis. Freud believes that the
power of the Id expresses the true purpose of the individual. This consists of the
individual’s needs. Howev s also known as the love instinct, or the libido. The
biological functions of the two basic instincts operate against each other or combine
with each other. (Laplanche, 1987) & (Freud, 1924).
Freud also suggests that as long as an instinct operates internally it will remain silent
and is only noticed when it is forced outward as an instinct of destruction. An example
of this is the death instinct. Freud states that aggressive instincts There is no question
that the libido steams to the Ego from various organs and parts of the body. For
example through sexual stimulation. The erotogenic zones are known as the most
prominent, and Freud even suggests that the whole body is an erotog Freud also
suggests that there are certain stages to the development of personality. First is the
oral stage. The oral stage goes from birth to the end of the first year. It produces the
sucking reflex in means to produce pleasure. In this partic sh him by castration. This
is known as the Oedipus complex. The female phallic stage is known as the Electra
complex where she discovers the absence of a penis and develops penis envy. The
fourth stage is the latency stage. During this stage the major Freud also believes that
dreams in an unconscious state have hidden meaning. In The origins of
psychoanalysis: Letters to Wilhelm Fliess, drafts and notes, Freud discusses a dream
by a patient known only as “E”:
“I suppose that this is a wish dream,” said E. “I dreamed that, just as I
arrived at my house with a lady, I was arrested by a policeman, who
requested me to get into a carriage. I demanded more time to put my
affairs in order, and so on. It was in the morning after I had spent the
night with this lady.”- “Were you horrified?” – “No.” ” Do you know
what you were charged with?”- “Yes. With having killed a child. – “Has
that any connection with reality?” – “I was once responsible for the
abortion of a child resulting from an affair. I dislike thinking about it.”-
“Well, had nothing happened on the morning before the dream?” – “Yes,
I woke up and had intercourse.” – “But you took precautions?” – “Yes.
By withdrawing.” – “Then you were afraid that you might have made a
child, and the dream shows you the fulfillment of your wish that nothing
should happen, that you nipped the child in the bud. You made use of
the feeling of anxiety that arises after a coitus of that kind as material
For your dream.” (Bonaparte, 1950).
Freud suggests that the dream is using patient E’s frustrated sexual energy to drive a
fantasy of punishment for his affair. Freud also believes that many details in the
dreams by patients have certain meanings, for example the remembering of a clock
rep In conclusion, Dr. Sigmund Freud has obviously opened a huge door way to the
behavior of the human being. The science of psychology is still very young and there
is no telling what will be discovering in the future about the human psyche. Many of t
Bonaparte, M., Freud, A., & Kris, E. (Eds.) (1954). The origins of psychoanalysis:
Letters to Wilhelm Fliess, drafts and notes: 1887-1902. (E. Mosbacher & J. Stachey,
Trans.). New York: Basic Books. (Original work published 1950).
Corey, G. Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy, (Fifth Edition).
California: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1996.
Freud, Sigmund. A General Introduction to Psycho-Analysis. New York: Pocket
Jones, E. The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud. New York: Basic Books, 1957.
Laplanche. New foundations for Psychoanalysis. Oxford: Blackwell,1989. (Original
work published in 1987.)
McGrath, W.J. Freud’s discovery of psychoanalysis: The politics of hysteria. Ithaca,
N.Y. Cornell University Press, 1986.
Ricoeur, P. Freud and philosophy (D. Savage, Trans.) New York: Yale University
Rudnytsky, P.L. Freud and Oedipus. New York: Columbia University Press, 1987.
Schur, M. Freud: Living and dying. New York: International Universities Press, 1972.
Sulloway, F.J. Freud, biologist of the mind: Beyond the psychological legend. New
York: Basic Books, 1979.