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Atencion Deficiency Disorder Essay Research Paper ATTENTION

Atencion Deficiency Disorder Essay, Research Paper ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDERApproximately 3-5% of all American children have anAttention Deficit Disorder (ADD). ADD is a leading cause ofschool failure and under-achievement. ADD characteristics oftenarise in early childhood. As many as 50% of children with ADDare never diagnosed.

Atencion Deficiency Disorder Essay, Research Paper

ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDERApproximately 3-5% of all American children have anAttention Deficit Disorder (ADD). ADD is a leading cause ofschool failure and under-achievement. ADD characteristics oftenarise in early childhood. As many as 50% of children with ADDare never diagnosed. Boys significantly outnumber girls, thoughgirls are more likely to be undiagnosed with ADD. “ADD is notan attention disorder, but a disorder of impulse control ( Seminarnotes Barkeley) .” Characteristics of Attention Deficit Disorder can include :Fidgeting with hands or feet , difficulty remaining seated,awaiting turns in games, following through on instructions ,shifting from one uncompleted task to another, difficulty playingquietly, interrupting conversations and intruding into otherchildren’s games, appearing to be not listening to what is beingsaid, doing things that are dangerous without thinking about theconsequences.Most scientist now believe that a brain dysfunction orabnormality in brain chemistry could be to blame for thesymptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder. The frontal lobes of thebrain are thought to be most responsible for the regulation ofbehavior and attention. They receive information from the lowerbrain, which regulated arousal and screens incoming messagesfrom within and outside of the body. The limbic system , a groupof related nervous system structures located in the midbrain andlinked to emotions and feelings, also sends messages to the frontallobes. Finally, the frontal lobes are suspected to be the site ofworking memory, the place where information about theimmediate environment is considered for memory storage,planning, and future-directed behavior. Scientist believe theactivity in the frontal lobes is depressed in people with ADD.Studies show a decrease in the ability of the ADD brain to useglucose, the body’s main source of energy, leading to slower andless efficient activity. Neurotransmitters provide the connectionbetween one nerve cell and another. In essence, neurotransmittersallow electrical impulses to pass across synapses from one neuronto another. It is now suspected that people with Attention DeficitDisorder have a chemical imbalance of a class of neurotransmitterscalled catecholamines. Dopamine, helps to form a pathwaybetween the motor center of the midbrain and the frontal lobes, aswell as a pathway between the limbic system and the frontal lobes. Without enough dopamine and related catecholamines, such asserotonin and norepinephrine, the frontal lobes are understimulated and thus unable to perform their complex functionsefficiently. Attention Deficit Disorder is strongly considered geneticallyinherited, however, not all cases of ADD may be geneticallylinked. . Studies have shown that 20-30% of all hyperactivechildren have a least one parent with ADD. The environment is abig influence on a child during pregnancy and after. Some studiesshow that a small percentage of ADD cases were influenced bysmoking, drinking alcohol, and using drugs during pregnancy. Exposure to toxins, such as lead, may also alter the brainchemistry and function.If you suspect that you are suffering from Attention DeficitDisorder you will need to discuss it with your medical doctor. Inmost cases the doctor will recommend that you visit a psychologistfor an evaluation. The psychologist is professionally trained inhuman behavior and will be able to provide counseling and testingin areas related to mental health. The psychologist is not able toprescribe medication to help you, but may send you to apsychiatrist to prescribe and monitor medication. A neurologistmay be consulted in order to rule out neurological conditionscausing your symptoms. Your doctor will gather information aboutyour past and present difficulties, medical history , currentpsychological makeup, educational and behavioral functioning. Depending on your symptoms, your diagnosis may be categorizedas ADD, inattentive type ADD, or hyperactive/impulsive typeADD. After your diagnosis you may learn that you are alsosuffering from a learning disability, depression, or substanceabuse, which is often associated with ADD. There is no cure for Attention Deficit Disorder. “Along withincreasing awareness of the problem, a better understanding of itscauses and treatment has developed (3 Wender)”. There ismedication for ADD which will only alleviate the symptoms. Themedication will not permanently restore the chemical balance. Approximately 70% of adults with ADD find that their symptomssignificantly improve after they take medication prescribed bytheir doctors. The patient is able to concentrate on difficult andtime-consuming tasks, stop impulsive behavior , and tame therestless twitches that have been experienced in the past. SomeADD patient’s psychological and behavioral problems are notsolved by medication alone, and are required more therapy ortraining . There are two types of drugs that work to balance theneurotransmitters and have been found to be most effective intreating ADD. Stimulants are drugs that stimulate or activate brainactivity. Stimulants work by increasing the amount of dopamineeither produced in the brain or used by the frontal lobes of thebrain. There are several different stimulants that may work toalleviate the symptoms of ADD, including methylphenidate(Ritalin), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), and pemoline (Cylert).Stimulants are by far the most effective medications in thetreatment of ADD. Some patients respond well to antidepressants. Antidepressants also stimulate brain activity in the frontal lobes,but they affect the production and use of other chemicals, usuallynorepinephrine and serotonin. The antidepressants consideredmost useful for ADD include imipramine (Tofranil), desipramine(Norpramin), bupropion ( Wellbutrin), and fluoxetinehydrochloride (Prozac).All stimulants have the same set of side effects. Somepatients complain of feeling nauseous or headachy at the outset oftreatment, but find that these side effects pass within a few days. Others find that their appetites are suppressed and or that theyhave difficulty sleeping. If the stimulant dosage is too high thepatient may experience feelings of nervousness, agitation, andanxiety, In rare cases, increased heart rate and high blood pressurecan result with the use of stimulants, especially if the patient hasan underlying predisposition toward hypertension. Ritalin is the most widely prescribed drug used to treat ADDin both children and adults. Ritalin appears to work by stimulatingthe production of the neurotransmitter dopamine. The benefits ofRitalin include improved concentration and reduced distractibilityand disorganization.Dextroamphetamine is another stimulant medication thatappears to have a slightly different pharmacological action thanRitalin. Both work to boost the amount of available dopamine. Dextroamphetamine, however, blocks the reuptake of theneurotransmitter while Ritalin increases its production (334 Kelly,Ramundo, Press). All the drugs used to treat ADD have the same goal: toprovide the brain with the raw materials it needs to concentrateover a sustained period of time, control impulses, and regulatemotor activity. The drug or combination of drugs that work bestfor you depends on the individuals brain chemistry andconstellation of symptoms. The process of finding the right drugcan be tricky for each individual. The physicians are not able toaccurately predict how any one individual will respond to variousdoses or types of Attention Deficit Disorder medication.Medication is rarely enough for the patient. Most AttentionDeficit Disorder patients require therapy to give guidance . Adultpatients have the burden of the past that often hinders theirprogress. The patient then needs help with the relief ofdisappointment, frustration, and nagging sense of self-doubt thatoften weighs upon the ADD patient. Some ADD patients sufferfrom low-grade depression or anxiety, others with a dependence onalcohol or drugs, and most with low self-esteem and feelings ofhelplessness. Therapy also helps the ADD patient fully understand thedisorder and how it controls the patients life. The knowledge ofADD will make the patient and parents more capable of changingthe behaviors or circumstances disliked and enhancing strengthsand assets. A second and most crucial part of the educationprocess involves informing those around you about the disorderand its effects. Family members, friends, employers, andcolleagues have been playing roles in the drama called ADDwithout ever being aware of it. Explaining how the disorder mayaffect the relationships around the patient will help repair any pastdamage as well as pave the way to a stable future. Attention Deficit Disorder is difficult for any family. ADDchallenges the relationships and the issues of daily family life. Getting a family household to function smoothly is challenging forany family, with or without the presence of ADD. Adults andchildren suffering from Attention Deficit Disorder have troubleestablishing and maintaining physical order, coordinatingschedules and activities, and accepting and meetingresponsibilities. Parents with children suffering with ADD have tolearn how to deal with the obstacles that they will have whileraising their child.Adults dealing with ADD often have chronic employmentproblems, impulsive spending, and erratic bookkeeping and billpaying. Raising healthy, well-adjusted children requires patience,sound judgment, good humor, and, discipline which is difficult foran ADD parent to do. The presence of ADD often hinders thedevelopment of intimate relationships for a variety of reasons. Although many adults with ADD enjoy successful, satisfyingmarriages, the disorder almost always adds a certain amount ofextra tension and pressure to the union. The non-ADD spousebears an additional burden of responsibility for keeping thehousehold running smoothly and meeting the needs of thechildren, the spouse with ADD, and, if he or she has time, his orher own priorities. Parenting a child who has ADD can be an exhausting and, attimes, frustrating experience. Parents play a key role in managingthe disability. They usually need specialized training in behaviormanagement and benefit greatly from parent support groups.Parents often find that approaches to parenting that work well withchildren who do not have ADD, do not work as well with childrenwho have ADD. Parents often feel helpless, frustrated and exhausted. Toooften, family members become angry and withdraw from eachother. If untreated, the situation only worsens. Parent trainingcan be one of the most important and effective interventions for achild with ADD. Effective training will teach parents how toapply strategies to manage their child’s behavior and improve theirrelationship with their child. Without consistent structure and clearly defined expectationsand limits, children with ADD can become quite confused aboutthe behaviors that are expected of them. Making and keeping friends is a difficult task for childrenwith ADD. A variety of behavioral excesses and deficits commonto these children get in the way of friendships. They may talk toomuch, dominate activities, intrude in others’ games, or quit agame before its done. They may be unable to pay attention towhat another child is saying, not respond when someone else triesto initiate and activity, or exhibit inappropriate behavior.I decided to write my research paper on Attention DeficitDisorder because my four-year old step-brother has recently beendiagnosed with the disorder. I hope that my relationship with mybrother can become closer now that I have a better understandingof what he is suffering from.

………………………………………………………………………………………. . Chris Brown English 102: section 6 May 3, 1996ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDERApproximately 3-5% of all American children have anAttention Deficit Disorder (ADD). ADD is a leading cause ofschool failure and under-achievement. ADD characteristics oftenarise in early childhood. As many as 50% of children with ADDare never diagnosed. Boys significantly outnumber girls, thoughgirls are more likely to be undiagnosed with ADD. “ADD is notan attention disorder, but a disorder of impulse control ( Seminarnotes Barkeley) .” Characteristics of Attention Deficit Disorder can include :Fidgeting with hands or feet , difficulty remaining seated,awaiting turns in games, following through on instructions ,shifting from one uncompleted task to another, difficulty playingquietly, interrupting conversations and intruding into otherchildren’s games, appearing to be not listening to what is beingsaid, doing things that are dangerous without thinking about theconsequences.Most scientist now believe that a brain dysfunction orabnormality in brain chemistry could be to blame for thesymptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder. The frontal lobes of thebrain are thought to be most responsible for the regulation ofbehavior and attention. They receive information from the lowerbrain, which regulated arousal and screens incoming messagesfrom within and outside of the body. The limbic system , a groupof related nervous system structures located in the midbrain andlinked to emotions and feelings, also sends messages to the frontallobes. Finally, the frontal lobes are suspected to be the site ofworking memory, the place where information about theimmediate environment is considered for memory storage,planning, and future-directed behavior. Scientist believe theactivity in the frontal lobes is depressed in people with ADD.Studies show a decrease in the ability of the ADD brain to useglucose, the body’s main source of energy, leading to slower andless efficient activity. Neurotransmitters provide the connectionbetween one nerve cell and another. In essence, neurotransmittersallow electrical impulses to pass across synapses from one neuronto another. It is now suspected that people with Attention DeficitDisorder have a chemical imbalance of a class of neurotransmitterscalled catecholamines. Dopamine, helps to form a pathwaybetween the motor center of the midbrain and the frontal lobes, aswell as a pathway between the limbic system and the frontal lobes. Without enough dopamine and related catecholamines, such asserotonin and norepinephrine, the frontal lobes are understimulated and thus unable to perform their complex functionsefficiently. Attention Deficit Disorder is strongly considered geneticallyinherited, however, not all cases of ADD may be geneticallylinked. . Studies have shown that 20-30% of all hyperactivechildren have a least one parent with ADD. The environment is abig influence on a child during pregnancy and after. Some studiesshow that a small percentage of ADD cases were influenced bysmoking, drinking alcohol, and using drugs during pregnancy. Exposure to toxins, such as lead, may also alter the brainchemistry and function.If you suspect that you are suffering from Attention DeficitDisorder you will need to discuss it with your medical doctor. Inmost cases the doctor will recommend that you visit a psychologistfor an evaluation. The psychologist is professionally trained inhuman behavior and will be able to provide counseling and testingin areas related to mental health. The psychologist is not able toprescribe medication to help you, but may send you to apsychiatrist to prescribe and monitor medication. A neurologistmay be consulted in order to rule out neurological conditionscausing your symptoms. Your doctor will gather information aboutyour past and present difficulties, medical history , currentpsychological makeup, educational and behavioral functioning. Depending on your symptoms, your diagnosis may be categorizedas ADD, inattentive type ADD, or hyperactive/impulsive typeADD. After your diagnosis you may learn that you are alsosuffering from a learning disability, depression, or substanceabuse, which is often associated with ADD. There is no cure for Attention Deficit Disorder. “Along withincreasing awareness of the problem, a better understanding of itscauses and treatment has developed (3 Wender)”. There ismedication for ADD which will only alleviate the symptoms. Themedication will not permanently restore the chemical balance. Approximately 70% of adults with ADD find that their symptomssignificantly improve after they take medication prescribed bytheir doctors. The patient is able to concentrate on difficult andtime-consuming tasks, stop impulsive behavior , and tame therestless twitches that have been experienced in the past. SomeADD patient’s psychological and behavioral problems are notsolved by medication alone, and are required more therapy ortraining . There are two types of drugs that work to balance theneurotransmitters and have been found to be most effective intreating ADD. Stimulants are drugs that stimulate or activate brainactivity. Stimulants work by increasing the amount of dopamineeither produced in the brain or used by the frontal lobes of thebrain. There are several different stimulants that may work toalleviate the symptoms of ADD, including methylphenidate(Ritalin), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), and pemoline (Cylert).Stimulants are by far the most effective medications in thetreatment of ADD. Some patients respond well to antidepressants. Antidepressants also stimulate brain activity in the frontal lobes,but they affect the production and use of other chemicals, usuallynorepinephrine and serotonin. The antidepressants consideredmost useful for ADD include imipramine (Tofranil), desipramine(Norpramin), bupropion ( Wellbutrin), and fluoxetinehydrochloride (Prozac).All stimulants have the same set of side effects. Somepatients complain of feeling nauseous or headachy at the outset oftreatment, but find that these side effects pass within a few days. Others find that their appetites are suppressed and or that theyhave difficulty sleeping. If the stimulant dosage is too high thepatient may experience feelings of nervousness, agitation, andanxiety, In rare cases, increased heart rate and high blood pressurecan result with the use of stimulants, especially if the patient hasan underlying predisposition toward hypertension. Ritalin is the most widely prescribed drug used to treat ADDin both children and adults. Ritalin appears to work by stimulatingthe production of the neurotransmitter dopamine. The benefits ofRitalin include improved concentration and reduced distractibilityand disorganization.Dextroamphetamine is another stimulant medication thatappears to have a slightly different pharmacological action thanRitalin. Both work to boost the amount of available dopamine. Dextroamphetamine, however, blocks the reuptake of theneurotransmitter while Ritalin increases its production (334 Kelly,Ramundo, Press). All the drugs used to treat ADD have the same goal: toprovide the brain with the raw materials it needs to concentrateover a sustained period of time, control impulses, and regulatemotor activity. The drug or combination of drugs that work bestfor you depends on the individuals brain chemistry andconstellation of symptoms. The process of finding the right drugcan be tricky for each individual. The physicians are not able toaccurately predict how any one individual will respond to variousdoses or types of Attention Deficit Disorder medication.Medication is rarely enough for the patient. Most AttentionDeficit Disorder patients require therapy to give guidance . Adultpatients have the burden of the past that often hinders theirprogress. The patient then needs help with the relief ofdisappointment, frustration, and nagging sense of self-doubt thatoften weighs upon the ADD patient. Some ADD patients sufferfrom low-grade depression or anxiety, others with a dependence onalcohol or drugs, and most with low self-esteem and feelings ofhelplessness. Therapy also helps the ADD pa————————————————————–

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