Nucleotides Essay, Research Paper
I. nucleotides: sub units ?? DNA
A. Phosphate group
B. 5-carbon sugar molecule (deoxyribose)
C. nitrogen base
Chargaff ?? base pairing rule: 1 = 3 and 2 = 4
II. Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Frankilin ?? X-ray diffraction photos of DNA molecule
- DNA molecules: tightly coiled helix and composed of two or three chains of nucleotides
III. Chargaff builds a model of the double helix: ??a spiral staircase?? of 2 strands of nucleotides twisting around a central axis.
A. alternating sugar and phosphate units
B. purine and pyrimidines paired up
- A can only form hydrogen bonds with T
- C can only for ?? ?? with G.
?? 2 strands that are complementary to each other
IV. Copying of DNA:
A. Replication: process of synthesizing a new strand of DNA.
B. Helices: open up the double helix by breaking the hydrogen bonds that link the complementary bases.
C. Two strands separated: additional enzymes and proteins attach to the individual strands and hold them apart ?? twisting prevented
D. Replication fork : where double helix separates
1. DNA polymerases: enzymes that move along each strand ?? adding nucleotides to the exposed bases.
?? one old and one new DNA strand
8.3 The Structure of a Gene
- genes hold info specifying how to build particular proteins
- affects the phenotype of an individual because of the activity of the protein that it specifies
- DNA encoded info that specifies particular proteins; each gene is made of a specific sequence of nucleotides
I. Genes in Eukaryotes
A. interruped by necleotides that have no coding info.
1. Introns:: noncoding sequences/ intervening
- must be removed
2. Exons :nucleotide segments that code for amino acids
-stitched together once all introns are removed
II. Multigene families: clusters of almost identical sequences; cells exist in multiple copies
A. Some are ??silent?? genes: don??t make protein
B. Some are only active during embryonic or fetal development
C. Some encode the two chains of