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Double Trouble Or Extra Special Essay Research

Double Trouble Or Extra Special Essay, Research Paper Imagine having a twin that looks and acts exactly like you. Even more interesting this twin is a product of scientific cloning. If scientists have their way,

Double Trouble Or Extra Special Essay, Research Paper

Imagine having a twin that looks and acts exactly like you. Even more

interesting

this twin is a product of scientific cloning. If scientists have their way,

identical replicas

of human beings will be roaming the earth. This scientific vision may occur

a lot more

recent then many think. Cloning can be (better) understood by looking at

it?s definition,

process, and some examples.

This first step to better understanding cloning is to hear precisely what

it is.

Cloning can be defined as an organism or group of organisms derived from

another

organism by an asexual reproductive process. Usually members of a clone are

identical

in genes (Clarke, 1). Even though the definition is relatively simple, it

will be several

years before these projects will be technically feasible. Many species are

being

considered for cloning, but legal battles often halt the complex process

(Grossman, 1).

Knowledge of the definition of cloning helps one better understand its

difficult process.

The process of cloning is long and tedious and most uncommonly

unsuccessful.

After many years of failure to clone using adult animals, most scientists

started to think it

was too tough. However Ian Wilmut of the Roslin Institute in Scotland found

a new

successful method (World Book, 1). It should also be noted that adult males

have the

lowest success rate of cloning (Okimoto, 2). The actual process of cloning

is due to

recent advances of Genetic Engineering. Scientists can now isolate an

individual gene

from one organism and grow it in another organism belonging to a different

species

(Clarke, 1). While this is occurring a scientist can also take a cells

chromosomes and

nucleus, and inject them into a fertilized egg whose own nucleus has been

removed

(Clarke, 3). However another new process that was used to clone the worlds

most

famous sheep, is starting to be used more often. This new process involved

taking

mammary-gland cells from a sheep and starve them of growth, then electrically

inject an

egg which was later transplanted into a surrogate mother. Out of 300

attempts, only one

survived the process, Dolly a lamb born in 1996 (Worldbook, 1). The creation

of Dolly is

one of only a few examples that have ended in success . Having familiarity

with the

process of cloning helps one understand some cloning experiments.

With odds like one out of 300 (the Dolly experiment) successful clones,

good

examples of cloning are a rarity. However when a successful clone occurs it

is quite a

notable feat. One cloning project currently under way is a revival of the

Huia Bird. Once

native to New Zealand, but became extinct in the 1920?s. Mainly because the

Huias

large feathers became a ?hot fashion accessory? (Grossman, 1). However in

order to

start the cloning process remnants of the birds cells or bones must first be

found

(Grossman, 1). Another example of an attempt to relive our past is due to

Larry

Agenbroad, a Northern Arizona University geologist, and his team of

international

scientists, who plan to clone a Woolly Mammoth from DNA remnants. The frozen

animal will be taken from Siberia and flown 200 miles. Once the beast

reaches its

destination the animal will be kept frozen in a tunnel. The eleven foot

animal will be

studies thoroughly, but the primary task is to extract DNA (Okimoto, 1).

This mission

has not been totally cleared yet, so while legalities, and other obstacles

are overcome,

the beast sits frozen in Siberia. As more cloning experiments are conducted,

the

success rate is climbing, and as success heightens more notable examples will

occur.

The science of cloning can at first be considered very frightening,

however once

one has a better understanding of this science through its definition,

process, and some

examples, one should realize that some great possibilities could occur in the

future.

Clarke, Bryan C. ?Clone.? Funk and Wagnalls Encyclopedia. copyright 1999.

5 Oct.

1999 <http://www.Funkandwagnalls.com/encyclopedia/low/

articles/c/c005000866f.html>.

?Dolly and Other Cloning Breakthroughs Since 1996.? Worldbook.com.

copyright 1999.

12 Oct. 1999 <http://www.worldbook.com/fun/bth/cloning/html/dolly.htm>.

Grossman, Lev. ?Extinct Animals to be Cloned.? Time Digital. 2 Oct. 1999.

3 Oct. 1999

<http://www.pathfinder.com/time/digital/daily/0,2822,28534,00.html>.

Okimoto, Jolyn. ?Scientists Aim To Revive Extinct Beast.? Seattletimes.com.

2 Oct.

1999. 3 Oct. 1999 <http://seattletimes.com/news/health-science/html98/

wool_19991002.html>.

Outline

Thesis: Cloning can be (better) understood by looking at it?s

definition, process,

and some examples.

I. Definition

A. Cloning can be defined as an organism or group of organisms

derived

from another organism by an asexual reproductive process. Usually

members of

a clone are identical in genes.

II. Process

A. Adult males have the lowest success rate of cloning.

B. First Type of Process

1. Isolate an individual gene from one organism and grow it in

another organism belonging to a different species.

2. While this is occurring a scientist can also take a cells

chromosomes and nucleus, and inject them into a fertilized egg whose own

nucleus has been removed.

C. New Process

1. Taking mammary-gland cells from a sheep and starve them of

growth, then electrically inject an egg which was later transplanted into

a

surrogate mother.

III. Examples

A. Huia Bird

1. Once native to New Zealand but extinct for its feathers.

2. Remnants of the birds cells or bones must be found before

cloning can begin.

B. Woolly Mammoth

1. Larry Agenbroad a university of Northern Arizona University

geologist and his team of international scientists plan to clone a Woolly

Mammoth from DNA remnants.

2. The frozen animal will be flown 200 miles from Siberia to a

frozen

tunnel, to be studied for DNA.

Concluding Statement: The science of cloning can at first be considered very

frightening. However once one has a better understanding of this science

through its

definition, process, and some examples, one should realize that some great

possibilities

could occur in the future

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