, Research Paper
Intro. To Eastern Philosophy
Paper 1: Confucius
128. Confucius said: ?If your words are grand, you will find that it is difficult for your actions to measure up to them.? [14.21] This passage appears on page 14 in the text in the section on words and actions.
The point that Confucius is trying to make here is that speaking in an exaggerated manner of yourself or your deeds is just as easy as speaking of them in any other way. But it is much harder to actually perform lofty actions than it is to perform relatively less difficult ones. Hence, it is considerably more functional to speak mildly of yourself or your actions if you intend uphold your statements in practice. Further, if you rarely speak, or even do not speak at all, your deeds and actions will generally always exceed your statements. In this same section on words and actions from the Analects, Confucius even says, ?I wish I could avoid speaking.? (130). This shows that he prefers letting his actions speak entirely for themselves. Also, in this same section again on words and actions, Confucius says, ?The ancients were reluctant to speak, fearing that their actions would not measure up to their words.?(126). In saying this, Confucius further buttresses his tendency of ?less talk, more action? by referring to practice of the ancients, or those he carries great respect for. Obviously, Confucius rested great importance upon being humble, particularly in the case of what he said.
In thinking of this passage, I very much share the same attitude as Confucius. I feel that actions speak louder than words, because it takes the same amount of energy to utter highly self-flattering statements as it does to speak precisely of your actual abilities. The end result is self-defeat if someone is in the habit of exaggerating his or her words. Moreover, I feel an innate respect for a person whose actions are regularly surpassing their comments, because it shows their modesty. Confucius surely knew the formula of respect through humility.
87. The Duke of Sheh told Confucius: ?In my land, people are just. If a father steals a sheep, the son will turn him in. Confucius said, ?The just in my land act differently. The father conceals the wrongs of his son, and the son conceals the wrongs of this father. This is justice.? This passage appears on page 10 in the text in the section on filial piety.
From the text, it can be said that Confucius values the importance of family and respect for those older than himself over the elemental principle that says stealing, in any situation is wrong and should be corrected. This verse is from the section on filial piety, which means a devotion to and reverence for parents and family. To Confucius, the highest and deepest respect for parents and elders should take precedence over everything else. In the same section on filial piety, Confucius says, ?When at home, a young man should serve his parents; when away from home, he should be respectful to his elders?(78). Although I doubt that Confucius was in favor of thievery, he put a greater importance on respect for parents, which meant not going against them. Again from the section on filial piety, Confucius says, ?In serving your parents, you may disagree with them from time to time and seek to correct them gently. But if they will not go along with you, you must continue to respect and serve them without complaining.?(86). His values concerning filial piety seem to overshadow other basic morals.
Although I think that Confucius was justified in his staunch adherence to the notion of ?family first?, I disagree with the way in which he put it above other moral issue, particularly theft. His devotion seems blinding in that he may be morally righteous in his utter reverence for family and elders. But this does not mean that those he holds in such high esteem (family and elders) will share his flawless morals, thus causing him to sometimes support the immorality that springs from them. I feel that despite Confucius?s many other positive teachings, his unwavering devotion to family and elders could possibly lead him into trouble.
191. Confucius said: ?I?m not concerned about lack of success; I am concerned about the means I use to achieve success. I am not concerned about being unknown; I seek to be worthy of being known.? This passage appears on page 22 in the text in the section on descriptions of Confucius.
Here Confucius is trying to convey the importance of a life dictated by propriety or proper conduct. This doesn?t mean that he will reject prosperity if it occurs in the course of leading a virtuous life, but that he will only accept it if it is attained properly. Further in the verse, Confucius also makes a parallel statement about fame. He doesn?t wish notoriety for himself, only the qualities that would bring him notoriety. This is supported by the passage in the section on descriptions of Confucius, in which Confucius says, ?I don?t worry about being unknown. I worry about my lack of ability.?(190) There?s a reference here about the significance of the content of a life, not its final title.
The way in which Confucius emphasizes the significance of your life?s deeds, and not its final status, only affirms my personal feelings. Although it would be nice to achieve ?success?, which is usually denoted in monetary form these days, I feel it is of far greater importance to be content and satisfied with your personal dealings in life. This is because I don?t believe I would be able to fully enjoy my success unless I was secure with the ways in which I acquired it. Additionally, I feel true meaning in life is derived from delight during its deliberation, not simply the highest slot you can reach. In this case, my opinion suggests that the end doesn?t justify the means.
2. Yu Tzu said: ?Those who have cultivated the virtues of filial piety and submission to elders do not show disrespect for their superiors, and they are never trouble makers. The Chun-Tzu devotes himself to the fundamentals. When the fundamentals are established, the proper way to live (Tao) reveals itself. Are not filial piety and submission to elders the foundation of all virtue?? This passage appears on page 1 in the text in the section on the Chun-Tzu.
Basically what is being said here is that a proper foundation is necessary in order to lead an enlightened life. At the base of this foundation is an inherent respect for one?s elders. This will translate into veneration for one?s superiors, who are a form of elders. The Chun-Tzu or self-actualized, virtuous, perfected person, does only what is right, which leads to the proper way to live otherwise known as Tao. So doesn?t it make sense that at the basis of the proper way to live or Tao, we find filial piety, or devotion and respect for parents and elders?
Personally, I feel that this statement isn?t exactly true. Initially, I don?t agree with the proposed connection between parents and superiors. Although I do agree with the concept of filial piety, I don?t think it translates into respect for my superiors because despite the fact that I love and respect my parents, I have experienced quite a strong sense of loathing and contempt for some of my superiors, mainly bosses. Additionally, I can think of numerous examples of people who abide by the idea of filial piety, but also are definitely troublemakers at times. Consequently, I believe that submission to elders and filial piety are virtuous, yet not the foundation of all virtue.
31. Confucius said: ?The Chun-Tzu lives in harmony with others, but he does not follow the crowd. The inferior man is a conformist, and yet he is not in harmony with others.? This passage appears on page 4 in the text in the section on the Chun-Tzu versus the inferior man.
In this verse, Confucius makes the distinction between the ?inferior? or ordinary man and the Chun-Tzu or a self-actualized, virtuous, perfected person. He demonstrates the enlightened individual?s ability to think for himself while not creating a stir around him as to arouse trouble. Conversely, he shows how the average or ?inferior? man has the tendency not only to disrupt those around him, but also to be swayed by collective opinion. In section concerning virtue, Tzu Chang asked about correct behavior. Confucius said: ?Speak with sincerity and honestly, be humble and respectful, and you will get along even if you live among the barbarians. If someone speaks insincerely and dishonestly, and if he is not humble and respectful, then he will have trouble even among his own people.?(64). The Chun-Tzu or enlightened person possesses sincerity, honesty, humility, and respect, enabling him to live in harmony with others, while not sacrificing his own individuality.
The truth contained in this passage is immensely apparent to me. I was (un)fortunate enough to have lived in a dormitory last year while away attending my first year of undergraduate school. It became all too obvious to me that in order to maintain my ideals and morality while peacefully coexisting with the barbarians or other freshmen in my dorm, I would have to exercise many of the virtues of the Chun-Tzu, such as honesty, humility, and respect. Likewise, those less inclined to do so were usually the individuals who hadn?t an original thought in them, and all the while reeking havoc and drumming up controversy around us. Here, personal experience proves the wisdom of Confucius.
Crong,George.Readings in Eastern Philosophy.Hewett.New York City,N.Y.1994.