American Economics Essay, Research Paper
A Report on American Economics in English Includes Social Security. 006 American Government-Economics Most of the problems of the United states are related to the economy. One of the major issues facing the country today is social security. The United States was one of the last major industrialized nations to establish a social security system. In 1911, Wisconsin passed the first state workers compensation law to be held constitutional. At that time, most Americans believed the government should not have to care for the aged, disabled or needy. But such attitudes changed during the Great Depression in the 1930’s. In 1935, Congress passed the Social Security Act. This law became the basis of the U.S. social insurance system. It provided cash benefits to only retired workers in commerce or industry. In 1939, Congress amended the act to benefit and dependent children of retired workers and widows and children of deceased workers . In 1950, the act began to cover many farm and domestic workers, non professional self employed workers, and many state and municipal employees. Coverage became nearly universal in 1956, when lawyers and other professional workers came under the system. Social security is a government program that helps workers and retiredworkers and their families achieve a degree of economic security. Socialsecurity also called social insurance (Robertson p. 33), provides cashpayments to help replace income lost as a result of retirement,unemployment, disability, or death. The program also helps pay the costof medical care for people age 65 or older and for some disabledworkers. About one-sixth of the people in the United States receivesocial security benefits. People become eligible to receive benefits by working in a certainperiod in a job covered by social security.Employers and workers finance the program through payroll taxes.Participation in the social security system is required for about 95percent of all U.S. workers.Social security differs from public assistance. Social security paysbenefits to individuals, and their families, largely on the basis ofwork histories. Public assistance, or welfare, aids the needy,regardless of their work records.All industrialized countries as well as many developing nations have asocial security system. The social security program in the United stateshas three main parts. They are (1) old-aged, survivors, disability, andhospital insurance (OASDHI), (2) unemployment insurance; and (3)workers’ compensation. THE SOCIAL SECURITY PAYROLL TAXThis tax was to be taken from the payrolls of the nation’s employers andemployees. The government felt that, like unemployment benefits, thesocial security should be financed by those who got the greatestbenefit, those who worked, and were liable to need those benefits in thefuture. A plan that would affect those only who had paid such a tax for anumber of years would have done those who were currently suffering underthe Depression no good at all. As a result, the social security planbegan paying out benefits almost immediately to those who had beenretired, or elderly and out of work, and who were unable, primarilybecause of the depressed economic conditions, to retire comfortably. Inthis way, the government was able to accomplish two objectives: first,it helped the economy pull out of the depression, by providing a meansby which old people could support themselves and, by buying goods andservices, support others in the community ; and second, it showed theyounger workers of that time that they no longer had to fear living outtheir retirement years in fear of poverty.Therefore, the social security payroll tax has been used to providebenefits to those who otherwise would have little means of support, andas of this writing, there has never been a year when Social Securitybenefits were not paid due to lack of Social Security income. (Boskinp.122) PAYING OUT BENEFITS Social Security benefits increased 142% in the period between 1950-1972.not only the elderly, but many of the survivers, the widows and children, ofthose who paid into theSocial Security system, have received social security checks. Thesechecks have paid for the food shelters, and in many instances thecollege education of the recipients.Unlike private insurance firms, the United States Government does nothave to worry about financial failure. Government bonds are consideredthe safest investment money can buy-so safe, they are considered “riskfree” by many financial scholars. (Stein p. 198) The ability of theUnited States Government to raise money to meet the requirements of thesocial security should be no more in doubt than the governments abilityto finance the national defense, the housing programs, the StateDepartment, or any of the other activities that the federal governmentgets involved in.By paying out benefits equally to all participate in Social Security-that is by not relying so heavily on total payments in making thedecision to pay out benefits, the system is able to pay benefits topeople who otherwise may not be able to afford an insurance program thatwould provide them with as much protection. One of the main reasons forthe government’s involvement in this program, is its ability and itsdesire to provide insurance benefits for the poor and widowed, who underthe private market, might not be able to acquire the insurance tocontinue on a financially steady course.The government, then, is in a totally unique position to pay outbenefits that would be out of the reach of many American families. Another great advantage of this system, is the ability of the government to adjust the benefits for the effects of inflation(Robertson p.134) INFLATION AND SOCIAL SECURITY Private insurance plans are totally unable to adjust for the effects of inflation with complete accuracy. In order for an insurance company to make this adjustment, they would have to be able to see forty-five years into the future, with twenty-twenty vision. When a private pension plan currently insures the twenty-year-old worker, it can only guarantee a fixed income when the worker reaches sixty-five and a fixed income is a prime victim of inflation (Robertson p.332) In order to adjust for that inflation, the private insurance firm would have to be able to predict what the inflation rate will be from the moment the worker is
insured until the day he dies, and then make the complex adjustments necessary to reflect this in the pension plan. An inflation estimate that is too small will result in the erosion of the workers retirement benefits. Because the government, unlike the private insurance firm, can guarantee that it will exist well into the future, and willhave the continued income of the Social Security tax to draw upon, itcan make on-the-spot adjustments for changes in the inflation rate. Someadjustments, in fact, have been automatic in the recent years, thereforerelieving the pensioners of the periodic worry of whether this yearsbenefits would be adjusted, or whether the level of payments wouldremain stable, thereby, relative to the cost of living, making thempoorer that ever before(Stein p.28). In the face of the government’s ability to make those necessary adjustments and to continually finance the Social Security program, many opponents of the system argue that the government programs are driving out the private insurance industry. The statistics remain otherwise. SOCIAL SECURITY FINANCING The social security tax is one of the fewest taxes in the United States, and the only federal tax in the country, that is given for a specific purpose. All other taxes are put into another fund, so that welfare programs, defense, space projects, and the other categories of government spending are all financed from one giant, uncategorized bowl of tax revenues(boskin p.62). When the Social Security system was first established, it was felt that a direct payroll tax, based on the pay of the worker and paid both by employer and employee, would be the fairest way for the people that were currently working to pay benefits to those who weren’t working, as well as to provide for some future requirements and disabilities. Therefore, a specially constructed payroll tax was used to fund the program. By measuring the amount taken in by the tax to the amount, not only that is taken out, but to the amount that will be taken out in future years, opponents of the Social Security system make the case that the system will be unable to keep itself in such a manner indefinitely. And, if Social Security were a private insurance program, it wouldn’t. But the fact is that Social Security is not a private program. it is funded by the government. Further, the government is in a unique position to change the laws of commerce and contract to adjust the system, making it more responsive to the needs of the retired, which, in turn, would reduce their need for the Social Security benefits. For example, the United states Government should raise the mandatory retirement age. By raising the age to sixty-eight, the Social Security System could delay paying out benefits for several years to thousands of people, saving the system a significant amount of money in benefits. For these reasons, the government is in a position which cannot be compared to private industry. In this sense, looking at social security as an insurance program and comparing it to other insurance programs in the private system could easily give the impression that the system is gong bankrupt, when in the reality it isn’t. THE FUTURE OF SOCIAL SECURITY The thing to keep in mind about the Social Security system, then, is this: the system itself is in no fundamental danger of collapse. There is only temporary, cash flow situation that must be carefully looked at.The federal government pays out 4.5 billion more in Social Security benefits as it collects in taxes every year. In fact, $4.5 billion is a small price, compared to the other programs the federal government now finances from general revenue. Besides tapping the general revenue fund and raising the retirement limit to 68 or even 70,the government has the option of raising the Social Security tax or even reducing the benefits slightly. The government has so many options with regard to financing the benefits that the question becomes of the cash management, not quite as significant as the huge deficits that the Social Security has been accused of having. The government is already under way to help alleviate this cash flow problem. Public officials have debated which of the various ways would help best serve the public interest, and legislative action has been taken that would ultimately result of the Social Security system to a positive cash base. This shift would provide the workers of America with the same benefits they have been guaranteed since 1935- and have been paid, and expanded ever since. The social security system has withstood forty years of changing economic conditions and greater concern of public welfare. What would replace the system, if the critics had their way? SOCIAL SECURITY PERSPECTIVES The social security system has saved an untold number of people from disaster throughout many years. Many of the nations old people- some as young as sixty-two, a few over a hundred, live from Social Security paycheck to Social security paycheck, with this government program as their livelihood. There can be no doubt that social security has made a tremendous effort to alleviate a lot of suffering that has occurred, even in recent times. The Social Security act was one of the cornerstones of Roosevelt’s new deal program, and it is one of who’s necessity has been proven, and whose usefulness has allowed it to live. Like all the other new deal projects, Social Security was never meant to show a financial profit, It was meant to show a profit only in the amount of human suffering, It was able to lift. The social security program cannot be measured in the same manner that a private program can be evaluated in, because it is a governmental welfare program. which doesn’t mean that it acts in competition with private programs, that was never its intent. The social securityadministration has written: “Today the American economic system has produced relatively full employment, widespread ownership property, and a rapidly increasing standard of living for the majority of Americans. It has developed a threefold structure to prevent economic insecurity: a public social objectives, mutual protection through private employee-benefit plans to bring the added strength of voluntary of group action: and private savings and other individual action to achieve the greatest range of choice”. One only has to look at the number of people, and the amount of money, that those who are recipients of Social security effect, and the advantages of Social Security become obvious: it has taken a group of people who have traditionally been a financial burden on society, and provided a program that they have contributed a little to their own financial well being. the amount of dignity and self respect these people have gained cannot be measured in dollars.
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