Housing In India And China Essay, Research Paper
Housing in China
China is by far the most populated country in the world. With billions of people China has many different way in which they are housed. From farm villages to gigantic cities the Chinese all need a place to live.
Like the other countries in this paper China is mostly rural countryside where farmers grow everything from rice to wheat. With the exception of it’s mountains and hills, the overwhelming majority of Chinese settlements are rural compact villages. The formation of these villages are caused by it water source, population and in earlier years, defense. Live in these villages are very simple and have not changed for centuries. Even with populations in the thousands farm villages have no aspect of urban life at all.
A normal house in a farm town is made of either sun dried brick, or packed earth. Roofs are typically thatched or made of tile. Homesteads are connected footpaths and cart tracks.
Larger farm villages are known as market towns because they usually have a market in which nearby villagers can barter their crop for manufactured goods. Several villages can be linked to a market town by dirt roads. Many market towns have a larger population and more wealth than farm villages. For this reason the towns where walled for protection from bandits and barbarians. In the south the land is dominated by rice patties. Along to Yangtze river delta, villages are only two miles apart and most have their own markets. The town and villages in the south are generally larger and people travel and communicate using boats on the river.
Another type of housing in China are cave dwellings found in the Loess Plateau, where timber is scarce. The advantage of these dwellings are that they are naturally insulated making them warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer.
Urbanization in China began in 1953, as the government intensified it’s efforts to make it a industrial power. As factories and mining centers where developed, cities and towns were built around them. People who live in cities usually live in large apartment buildings. There is good heath care, schools, but they are generally very crowded. Large roadways and railroad systems also helped to spread urbanization throughout the country.
In China, because of communism, there are no classes. People are either poor or wealthy, there is not much of a median. Government officials live in the bigger cities in large estates.
Today, China is on the cutting edge of architecture. Huge skyscrapers have been built and other nations have been taking in what the Chinese have built. In earlier years China was the most technologically advanced civilization in the world. Reminders of this era still stand today, like the great wall and the emperors palace. Also, we can see reminders of this period in our own country for example, the Chinese theater in Hollywood. Now China’s style in decoration is a popular trend it’s art and luxurious nature.
In conclusion, housing and the way people live, are very similar yet different between the three countries China, India, and Africa. I believe the best way to learn about it is to actually go there which I hope to do someday.
Housing in India
India has the second highest population in the world, only surpassed by China. India’s billion plus citizens live in huge cities and small farm villages. Although most are people are poor, some are rich and live in large estates, while most of the population lives in one room shacks. India is a large, diverse, nation and it’s many people live in all different kinds of houses.
Most Indians live in rural villages. A typical farm village has narrow, unpaved roads that usually end in a culs-de-sac. They are packed close together with the higher classes in the core, and lower castes expand outwards. The villages have a school that is on the outskirts if the village so children can have some space to play, because there is little room. As a classes’ population expands stories grow on houses to compensate for them so they can stay in the ring with their class, rather than living with lower classes outside of town where there is plenty of room to build. In the center of a village is a temple or mosque where people can gather. In the few open areas around them are the village well and sometimes a few shops or a dharmshala where travelers can stay.
Many of the villagers live in small, one story, mud structures called Kachas. They are located on individually owned plots or rented land. Most of the time Kachas are windowless and have flat thatched roofs. In wetter areas, Kachas have a sloped roof and tile may be used to keep water out. The wetter the area the greater the slope will be on the roof. These small houses have little or no furniture and are usually decorated with family photos or pictures of Gods on a few shelves. They also have a exterior court where meals are eaten and prepared. Running water and electricity is almost always absent and toilets facilities are located at secluded spots at the edge of town.
Only one forth of India’s population lives in cities but 4500 places in India are considered urban. Dwellings in cities are larger and built stronger, and better with durable materials such as brick or stone. The roofs are also built studier of sometimes iron, timber, or even steel. Over the years large cities in India have been growing more rapidly than small cities or towns. Cities are also organized by class or caste as in villages or towns. In some old cities the core is a crowded area within the original city walls with the wealthy or religious officials. The layout or streets and open areas are also the same as villages but not on the same scale. In cities there are designated bazaar streets where everything from grain to cloth is sold. These streets have shops where the vender or artisan lives and works. In old British cities there are large streets and areas designated for parks making these cities more spacious but by no means less crowded. There are large residential areas known as civil lines and industrial areas known as factory lines.
Over the years millions of Pakistani refugees flooded into India. They moved into what is called model towns with large multi-story apartment buildings and designated shopping areas on the edge of existing cities. Poorer immigrants moved into either slum flats, or moved into villages sharing the same space with earlier immigrants. The poorest live in Bastis, shanty towns along railroad tracks or rivers in makeshift dwellings.
Difference between classes can be seen by the area in which people live and size or ones house. Wealthy also have furniture and elaborate gates at the entrance of their estate. They also all have grills on windows to protect them from being robbed or hurt.