Chile Essay, Research Paper
CHILEThe country of Chile is located in western South America. The conditions vary with the mountains,deserts, and beaches. ClimateThe climate is one condition that may vary within different regions. The country extends a longdistance from north to south. There is a lack of rainfall to the north. there the air is able to holdmuch of the moisture. Middle Chile has hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. The temperatures aren’t oftenextreme. The warmest month, January, averages 63.7 degrees Ferenheit. The coolest months, June andJuly, Average 53.3 F.More to the south the rain increases, and the length of the summerdry season shortens. Rainfalltotals more than 200 inches per year in some places. The landChile has the longest seacoast in the world. It stretches more than 2,600 miles from north tosouth. The country is about nine times longer than it is wide. It is only about 227 miles east to westat its widest point. Chile has a small piece of antarctica and some Pacific islands including EasterIsland. The total area of Chile is 292,258 square miles. About 70% of the land is mountainous because ofthe mountain chain , the Andes, that runs through it. The countries that border Chile are Peru, Bolivia,and Argentina. The capital and largest city in Chile is Santiago, with a populatoin of 4,421,900 people. Thehighest elevation is Mount Ojos del Sabado. The lowest is at sea level. Vegetation (Flora) The vegetation also varies with region. In the far north along the coast there is seasonaldesert plant life. In the desert interior there is almost no growth though. To the east a bit, on theAndean slopes, are scatterings of cacti and desert shrubs. In central Chile the plant life varies with latitude and altitude. In the lowlands blackberrythickets and scrub vegetation are most common. Along the coast grow species of palm trees. Thevegetation gets heavier toward the south.The south was originally covered by tree growth, but much has been cleared. The remaininginclude myrtle, beeches, and a variety of evergreens.If you would go south even more all deciduous trees become evergreens. These evergreens stretchfrom the islands to the tree line on the west Andean slopes. The forest thins toward the farthest southand becomes a grassy area for grazing sheep. Wildlife (Fauna)Wildlife is another group that will differ with region. In the north Andes exist guanaco, llama,alpaca, vicuna, Andean wolf, puma, and wildcat. The southernforests are homes for the Darwin fox, thepudu, which is a small deer, and several kinds of marsupials. Some birds here include the dove, duck, and perdiz, which looks like a partridge. The giantcondor, Chile’s national bird, is sometimes seen in the Andes, while the vulture of Tierra del Fuegopreys upon the sheep of the far southern region of Chile. There aren’t many freshwater fishes native to Chile, but lake trout, introduced from North America, canreach up to 30 inches or more. There are many saltwater fishes off the coast though. PeopleThe major language of Chile is Spanish. The major religion is Roman Catholiccism. Thepopulation (1992 estimate) is 13,582,945 people. The population density is 463 people per square mile.Only 5 percent of Chile’s people are pure Indians. Pure Spanish decent totals close to 25%. 66percent are mestizo, a mixture of Spanish and Indian. By 1980 about 80% of Chile’s population lived in cities. Chile contains many rapidly growingcities. Some of those cities are Santiago, Valparaiso, Antofagasta, Valdivia, and Puerto Montt.
Valparaiso is located near the mouth of the Aconcagua River. Santiago is located southeast ofValparaiso. Antofagasta is located in northern Chile. Valdivia is located in southern Chile with PuertoMontt just south of that. Natural ResourcesChile has a lot of iron, coal, iron ore, gold, silver, manganese, sulfur, petroleum, nitrates,and copper. Chile possesses the worlds largest copper reserves. Next to copper, iron ore is Chile’smost valuable resource and employs about 5,000 workers. The Atacama Desert contains the largest nitrateareas in the world. Most of the country’s coal production islocated in middle Chile. In 1945 oil andgas were discovered in southern Chile-Tierra del Fuego. EducationMore than 90 percent of Chile’s people can read and write. Chile’s university sytem has longbeen known as one of the best in Latin America. More than 100,000 students are registered, and thereare about 15,000 faculty members in 15 universities. GovernmentChile’s government form is republic. The president is Eduardo Frei Ruiz Tangle. To vote youhave to be at least 18 years of age. The flag is divided horizontally. The upper half white with awhite five pionted star on a blue square in the upper left hand corner. The lower half of the flag isred. CultureChile has one of the richest cultural traditions in Latin America. Literature, especially poetryis Important. Folk music and dance are very popular in Chile. The best known dance is the cuenca. Religous festivals are held to commemorate pieces of Chile’s history. Rodeos with huasos, or cowboys incolorful costumes. Soccer is Chile’s main sport. Thousands of Chileans watch professional teams compete in largestadiums. Another thing the people of Chile love is the sea. EconomyThe chief agricultural products are: crops- sugar beets, potatoes, wheat, and corn. Thelivestoch-sheep, cattle, goats, and pigs. The chief mined products are copper, iron ore, iodine,molybdenum, natural nitrates, silver, gold, vanadium, lithium, magnese, and lead. The chief manufacturedproducts are food products, nonferrous metals, chemical products, beverages, textiles, paper and paperproducts. The chief exports are copper, molybdenum, iron ore, fish meal, paper and paper products, metalmanufactures, and fruits. The chief imports are mineral fuels and lubricants, industrial raw materials,trucks, passenger vehicles, and animals. HistoryIn 1541 Pedro de Valdivia founded the first white settlement in the central Chile region. It wasnamed Santiago. In 1810 Chile broke free from Spain. Independence was official in 1818. In the 19thcentury Chile made great social and econamic progress. Immigration doubled the population. The miningboom began in 1860 when use was found for sodium nitrate. During World War I exports at times got up to 3,000,000 tons per year. When Germany was cut offfrom nitrate shipments export tons decreased quickly. In 1960 and 1965 destructive earthquakes struck Chile. In 1973 there was a bloody militarytakeover of the government. Transportation and tradeThe sea is the easiest way of transportation in Chile. There are more than 30 ports along thecoast. Each are visited by trade ships. There is only about 6,415 miles of paved road in Chile. There’s about 42,745 miles of other,unpaved roads. There’s more than 4,280 miles of railways. There are seven major airfields in Chile. With the total value of Foreign trade, Chile is one of the leading nations of Latin America. About 90% of all exports is minerals. The second leading group is made up of wood, sheepskins, and freshand frozen meats. The leading imports are machinery, transportation equipment, and iron and steel products.