History Of The Canadian Mounted Police Essay

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History of the Canadian Mounted PoliceTABLE OF CONTENTSPAGE # TITLE—– Title page—-1 Table of Contents—-2 Introduction—-2 Story of the Force—-6 Story of One Man’s Career—-8 The North West Mounted Police Did Make a Difference—-9 BibliographyINTRODUCTION This is the story of the North West Mounted Police, who played an exciting and important part in Canadian history. This report will cover the purpose and highlights of the North West Mounted Police, and some of the people involved with it.THE STORY OF THE FORCEThe North West Mounted Police were created by Sir John A. Macdonald to bring law and order to the west. One of the main causes for the force was the whiskey trade, as it was destroying indian life. 1.”The Dominion of Canada acquired possession of theNorthwest Territories in 1869. Very soon it was foundthat unless the whiskey traders could be driven outthere would be so much trouble with the Indians thatsettlement or proper trade would be impossible.”1. Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Book of Knowledge. Toronto: Groliers Society, 1955 pg. 5831The force was first organized in October 1873 with 300 men at Fort Gary Manitoba. George A French was the first Commissioner with James MacLeod as his assistant. The North West Mounted Police departed Dufferin Manitoba for the West after fifteen members deserted the force. James MacLeod built the first North West Mounted Police post which the was named after him by the members. MacLeods’ main purpose was to bring peace to the western plains. His primary objective was to put a stop to the liquor trade with the Indians. By 1874 the North West Mounted Police had one hundred and fifty men at Fort MacLeod, sixty at Dufferin, thirty eight at Swan River, twenty two at Edmonton, fifteen at Winnipeg, and six at Fort Ellice. In 1876 George French was fired without thanks from the government. James MacLeod then became Commissioner. During his four year term the Indian relations were extremely good.MacLeod attended college in Toronto where he studied law. He was called to the bar in 1860 but was more interested in the military and joined the North West Mounted Police when it was formed. MacLeod had the responsibility to supervise the transfer of Indian lands to Canada by treaty from 1871. The NWMP had responsibility, by 1874, for all habitabal lands from Lake Superior to the Rockies. By 1876 the Cree had signed over all their lands and in 1877 the Blackfoot signed over their land. In 1878 the North West Mounted Police headquarters were moved to Fort Walsh, Manitoba. In 1879 the first murder of a policeman (Marmaduke Graburn) occurred.The Canadian born, Acheson G. Irvine, was appointed new Commissioner of the North West Mounted Police in 1880. Under Irvine the force grew to 500 men and a new training depot was established. The increase in manpower was timely as the population grew very quickly. The North West Mounted Police were assigned to provide protection, law and order for construction of CPR. In 1882 Fort Walsh was demolished and the headquarters were again moved to Regina. The next major event was the second rebellion led by Louis Riel in 1884. During the North West rebellion the North West Mounted Police were defeated at Duck Lake before reinforcements arrived to subdue the rebellion. 1886 Lawerance Herchmer was a surprise choice to replace Irvine. His previous experience was as a army officer in Ireland and India. He was serving as an Indian agent while living in Manitoba. Hershmer made the force tougher to enter and cleaned out the drunkards, but he created a pension plan and better living conditions. 2. “Stubborn, opinionated, and dedicated, Herchmer was fiercely determined to eradicate the laxness of the Irvine regime and to instill pride in the force.”

In 1895 inspector Charles Constantine takes twenty men to the Yukon. There he Established Fort Constantine, the most northerly post in the British Empire. Their purpose in the Yukon was to set up law and order and collect customs. The gold rush started in 1896, the job of the forces became very difficult. Prices in the Yukon were very high and police wages were not enough. The force was increased to two hundred and fifty men and the post was moved to Dawson. In 1900 the Mounted Police sailed to the Boer War. Seventy five mounties took a years leave to join the Canadian force in South Africa. 2. Ronald Atkin, Maintain the Right ( Toronto: McMillan Co.of Canada, 1973), p. 258THE STORY OF ONE MAN’S CAREERSargent Sam Steele was born in Purbrook, Simcoe country on Jan. 5, 1849. He became the third member to join the force in 1873. Steele had been a militia man since the age of fifteen. Sam Steele was to travel what must have been the longest police beat in the world, over 11,000 km during his career. Steele led Troop A in the march west from Dufferin after training. They headed for Fort Edmonton, the march was much tougher than any of the police thought possible. In 1876 as a Chief Constable was posted Fort MacLeod where he took part in the negotiation and signing of the Indian Treaties. Steele was placed in charge of protection of the Canadian Pacific Railway while it was built. 3.”The biggest problems were drinking and gambling amongthe railroad workers.”Sam Steele was called to Fort Pitt where he defeated the Cree to help stop the North West Rebellion. This earned him the Companion of the Order of St.Micheal and St. George, usually bestowed only for military service. 3. Stan Garrod, Sam Steele (Don Mills: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 1979), p.22He built a North West Mounted Police post near present day Cranbrook. Fort Steele is now a national historic site commemorating Sam Steele, early members of the North West Mounted Police, original natives, and settlers of the Kooteneys. In January 1898 he was ordered to the Klondike where he was made commmanding officer of the North West Mounted Police forces in the Yukon. After leaving the Yukon a year later he took 75 men to the Boer war in South Africa, after the war he formed theSouth African Constabulary.In 1903 he resigned from the North West Mounted Police. Later, in 1906 he joined the first Canadian army as a commander of District 13, Calgary. In 1909 he moved to Winnipeg and took command of District 10. He was promoted to Inspector General for Western Canada and organized the second Canadian division which served in France in World War One. In World War One he was awarded the Allied and British general service medals. He was forced to retire in July of 1819,and he died six months later. THE NORTH WEST MOUNTED POLICE MADE A DIFFERENCEA lot of change took place in the twenty five years of the North West Mounted Police. By 1900 the Indians were on reservations and the whiskey traders had become merchants. People could safely walk the streets of the Canadian west. 4.”The “Great lone land” would never be as lonely as ithad seemed to those 300 red-coated men who marched intoit in 1874. The mounties had come to tame the west; itseemed they had succeded.”Royal was added to the name of the North West Mounted Police in 1904 and in 1920 the name was changed to Royal Canadian Mounted Police. 4. Rosemary Neering, The North West Mounted Police, (Toronto: Fitzhenry and Whiteside Ltd., 1974), p.58. BIBLIOGRAPHYNeering, Rosemary. North West Mounted Police. Toronto/ Fitzhenry and Whiteside Ltd., 1974Garrod, Stan. Sam Steele. Ontario/ Fitzhenry and WhitesideLtd.,1979Atkin, Ronald. Maintain the Right. United Kingdom/ MacMillan London Ltd. , 1973″The Royal Canadian Mounted Police”, The Book of Knowledge.Toronto/ The Grolier Society, 1955


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