регистрация / вход

Английский язык для студентов университетов. Чтение, письменная и устная практика

ББК 81.2.1. Англ. Рецензенты: кафедра английского языка Новгородского государственного университета им. Ярослава Мудрого (зав. кафедрой, доцент,


ББК 81.2.1. Англ.

М41

Рецензенты:

кафедра английского языка Новгородского государственного

университета им. Ярослава Мудрого (зав. кафедрой, доцент,

кандидат филологических наук Е. Ф. Жукова)

доцент кафедры английской филологии № 2 Санкт-Петербургского

государственного университета М. В. Сорокина

Меркулова Е. М., Филимонова О. Е., Костыгина С. И., Ивано­ва Ю. А., Папанова Л. В.

М41 Английский язык для студентов университетов. Чтение, письменная и устная практика. Серия «Изучаем иностранные языки».— СПб.: Издательство Союз, 2000.— 384 с.

ISBN 5-87852-114-8

Настоящая книга представляет собой вторую часть учебного комп­лекса "English For University Students".

Учебник включает текстовый материал и комплексную систему упражнений для отработки навыков устной и письменной речи на про­двинутом этапе обучения.

Материал отредактирован профессором кафедры современных язы­ков и литератур Оклевдского университета Н. Ф. Лонганом.

Все права защищены.

ã «Издательство Союз», 2000

ã Меркулова Е. М.. Филимонова О. Е., Костыгина С. И., Иванова Ю. А., Папанова Л.В., 2000

ã В.А. Гореликов, художественное оформление, 2000

ISBN 5-87852-114-8

CONTENT S

Lesson 1 FAMILY LIFE...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

Lesson 2 HOME.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 16

Lesson 3 DAILY ROUTINE.............................................................................................................................................................................. 29

Lesson 4 DOMESTIC CHORES...................................................................................................................................................................... 41

Lesson 5 SHOPPING FOR FOOD.................................................................................................................................................................... 54

Lesson 6 SHOPPING FOR CONSUMER GOODS........................................................................................................................................ 68

Lesson 7 MEALS AND COOKING.................................................................................................................................................................. 81

Lesson 8 COLLEGE LIFE................................................................................................................................................................................. 96

Lesson 9 CHARACTER AND APPEARANCE........................................................................................................................................... 112

Lesson 10 WEATHER..................................................................................................................................................................................... 127

SUPPLEMENTARY READING..................................................................................................................................................................... 141

TOPICAL VOCABULARY............................................................................................................................................................................. 160

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Учебный комплекс "English for University Students" рассчи­тан на студентов первого курса факультетов иностранных языков и изучающих английский язык на продвинутом этапе и отвечает требованиям программы Министерства Высшего Образования Российской Федерации.

Комплекс включает четыре составных элемента — три учебника: «Введение в курс фонетики английского языка», «Чтение, письменная и устная практика», «Упражнения по грамматике английского языка» и аудиокурс.

Комплекс создан на кафедре фонетики английского язы­ка факультета иностранных языков РГПУ им. А. И. Герцена и апробирован на первом курсе английского отделения в 1995-1998 годах.

Настоящая книга представляет собой вторую часть учеб­ного комплекса — «Чтение, письменная и устная практика» (Reading, Writing andConversation). Концепция данного учеб­ного комплекса возникла и приобрела соответствующую фор­му в процессе решения конкретных задач обучения англий­скому языку студентов-филологов.

Учебник «Чтение, письменная и устная практика», как и весь комплекс, характеризуется достаточно высоким уровнем сложности, соответствующим требованиям, предъявляемым к студентам языковых факультетов вузов. Авторский коллектив попытался оказать максимальную помощь студенту при рабо­те с книгой, включив в материал учебника необходимые комментарии.

Учебный материал содержит десять уроков по следующим темам: 1) семейная жизнь, 2) дом и квартира, 3) распорядок дня, 4) домашние обязанности, 5) в продуктовом магазине, 6) в универмаге, 7) еда и кулинария, 8) студенческая жизнь, 9) внешность и характер, 10) погода.

Все уроки строятся по единой схеме. В начале урока даётся вводный текст в виде эссе на заданную тему и коммуникатив­ные задания к нему. Основная задача — ввести наиболее час­тотную тематическую лексику по теме, отработать и закрепить её при помощи коммуникативных заданий. Далее следует текст из художественного произведения английских авторов двадцатого века. Сюжет текста обязательно связан с изучае­мой темой. Для достижения наибольшей концентрации тема­тической лексики оригинальные тексты подвергались сокра­щению. После текста приводится список имён собственных, встречающихся в тексте, и даются примечания — переводы на русский язык наиболее сложных фрагментов и пояснения ре­алий британской жизни. Далее следуют вопросы, контролиру­ющие понимание текста, и серия фонетических упражнений.

Лексические упражнения представлены в двух категори­ях — упражнения, нацеленные на достижение максимального количества повторных обращений к тексту, что способствует его усвоению; и упражнения, основной задачей которых явля­ется дальнейшее расширение навыков говорения и аудирования по теме. В качестве завершающего коммуникативного упражнения по теме предлагается ролевая игра.

Все уроки включают раздел «Письменная практика». В каждом разделе даётся информация справочного характера об основных видах письменных работ, выполняемых студен­тами, и приводятся образцы оформления таких работ. Здесь также предлагаются различные письменные задания и темы для сочинений. В конце учебника имеются два приложе­ния — дополнительные тексты для чтения к каждому уроку и списки слов и выражений по темам.

Аудиокурс включает записи некоторых текстов и диалогов, отмеченных в учебнике специальным знаком ○.

Работа над пособием распределялась следующим образом:

Составление вводных текстов и заданий к ним (за исклю­чением уроков 3,4, 6); подбор и обработка текстов из художе­ственной литературы (за исключением уроков 3, 7); разработ­ка системы фонетических и частично лексических упражне­ний к урокам 1—10; разработка уроков 5, 10, включая подбор дополнительных текстов и составление тематического слова­ря; общее методическое руководство и редактирование — Е. М. Меркулова. Разработка уроков 1,7 и частично 10, вклю­чая подбор дополнительных текстов; составление тематиче­ского словаря к уроку 1 — О. Е. Филимонова. Разработка уро­ков 4, 9, включая составление вводного текста и заданий к нему в уроке 4; а также подбор дополнительных текстов и со­ставление тематического словаря к урокам 4, 9 — С. И. Костыгина. Разработка уроков 3, 6, включая составление вводных текстов и заданий к ним, подбор дополнительных текстов и составление тематического словаря — Ю. А. Иванова. Разработка уроков 2, 8, включая подбор дополнительных текстов и составление тематического словаря — Л. В. Папанова.

Коллектив авторов выражает искреннюю благодарность: декану факультета иностранных языков РГПУ им. А. И. Герцена В. Н. Бычкову за поддержку проекта;

преподавателям кафедры фонетики английского языка, участвовавшим в апробации и оказавшим неоценимую по­мощь в процессе работы;

Ю. В.. Романову и Л. В. Власовой за помощь в осуществле­нии компьютерного набора;

студентам, обучавшимся на первом курсе английского от­деления в 1995—1998 гг. и участвовавшим в апробации;

преподавателям М. В. Лисенко и Е. Т. Сысоевой за по­мощь в поиске текстов к урокам 5, 6;

а также всем остальным коллегам, в той или иной мере способствовавшим созданию учебного комплекса.

Авторы

Lesson 1 FAMILY LIFE

INTRODUCTORY READING AND TALK

Marriage is a thing which only a rare person in his or her life avoids. True bachelors and spinsters make up only a small percent of the population; most single people are "alone but not lonely".

Millions of others get married because of the fun of family life. And it is fan, if one takes it with a sense of humour.

There's a lot of fun in falling in love with someone and chasing the prospective fiancee, which means dating and going out with the candidate. All the relatives (parents, grandparents and great-grand­parents, brothers and sisters, cousins, aunts and uncles, nieces and nephews, stepmothers and stepfathers and all in-laws) meanwhile have the fan of criticizing your choice and giving advice. The trick here is not to listen to them but propose to your bride-to-be and somehow get her to accept your proposal. Then you may arrange the engagement and fix the day of the wedding.

What fun it is to get all those things, whose names start with the word "wedding" — dress, rings, cars, flowers, cakes, etc.! It's great fun to pay for them.

It's fun for the bride and the groom to escape from the guests and go on a honeymoon trip, especially if it is a wedding present from the parents. The guests remain with the fun of gossiping whether you married for love or for money.

It's fan to return back home with the idea that the person you are married to is somewhat different from the one you knew. But there is no time to think about it because you are newly-weds and you expect a baby.

There is no better fan for a husband than taking his wife to a ma­ternity home alone and bringing her back with the twins or triplets.

And this is where the greatest fan starts: washing the new-born's nappies and passing away sleepless nights, earning money to keep the family, taking children to kindergarten and later to school. By all means it's fan to attend parents' meetings and to learn that your children take after you and don't do well at school.

The bigger your children grow, the more they resemble you out­wardly and the less they display likeness with you inwardly. And you start grumbling at them and discussing with your old friends the problem of the "generation gap". What fan!

And when at last you and your grey-haired spouse start thinking that your family life has calmed down, you haven't divorced but pre­served your union, the climax of your fan bursts out!

One of your dearest offsprings brings a long-legged blonde to your house and says that he wants to marry. And you think: 'Why do people ever get married?'

1. Choose one of the names in the family tree below and say how the per­son is related to other people. Note that the pictures of marriage part­ners are connected with wedding rings.

Pattern: William Luke is Leon Luke's son, Philip Smith's nephew and Laura White's grandson

.

2. Make up your family tree and speak about your family.

3. Work in pairs and talk. Imagine that:

a) you are speaking with a distant relative trying to find out what relation you are to one another;

b) you show your family album to your friend and answer all his or her questions.

TEXT

A Marriage of Convenience

(Story by W. S. Maugham. Abridged.)

I left Bangkok on a shabby little ship. I had gone on board early in the morning and soon discovered that I was thrown amid the oddest collection of persons I had ever encountered. There were two French traders and a Belgian colonel, an Italian tenor, the American proprietor of a circus with his wife, and a retired French official with his.

The French official had been accompanied on board by the French minister at Bangkok, one or two secretaries and a prince of a royal family. He was evidently a person of consequence.1 I had heard the captain address him as Monsieur le Gouverneur.

Monsieur le Gouverneur was a little man, well below the ave­rage height, and smally made, with a very ugly little face; he had a bushy grey head, bushy grey eyebrows, and a bushy grey moustache. He did look a little like a poodle2 and he had the poodle's soft, in­telligent and shining eyes.

The Governor's wife was a large woman, tall and of a robust build. She towered over her diminutive husband like a skyscraper over a shack. He talked incessantly, with vivacity and wit, and when he said anything amusing her heavy features relaxed into a large fond smile.

In such a small ship having once made the acquaintance of my fellow passengers, it would have been impossible, even had I wished it, not to pass with them every moment of the day that I was not in my cabin.

Talking of one thing and another we watched the day decline, we dined, and then we sat out again on deck under the stars. Soon, influenced perhaps by the night, the Italian tenor, accompanying himself on his guitar began to sing. He had the real Italian voice, and he sang the Neapolitan songs.

I saw that the little French Governor had been holding the hand of his large wife and the sight was absurd and touching.

'Do you know that this is the anniversary of the day on which I first saw my wife?' he said, suddenly breaking the silence. 'It is also the anniversary of the day on which she promised to be my wife. And, which will surprise you, they were one and the same.'

'You see, ours was a marriage of convenience pure and simple.'3

'C'est vrai,'4 said the lady. 'But sometimes love comes after marriage and not before, and then it is better. It lasts longer.'

'You see, I had been in the navy, and when I retired I was forty-nine. I was strong and active and I was very anxious to find an occupation. And presently I was sent for by the minister to the Colonies and offered the post of Governor in a certain colony. The minister told me that I must be ready to start in a month. I told him that would be easy for an old bachelor.'

'You are a bachelor?'

'Certainly,' I answered.

'In that case I am afraid I must withdraw my offer. For this posi­tion it is essential that you should be married.'

'It is too long a story to tell you, but the gist of it was that owing to the scandal my predecessor had caused, it had been decided that the next Governor must be a model of respectability. I expostulated. I argued. Nothing would serve. The minister was adamant.'

'Well, think it over/ said the minister. 'If you can find a wife in a month you can go, but no wife no job.'

I walked away from the ministry with death in my heart.5 Sud­denly I made up my mind.6 I walked to the offices of the Figaro, composed an advertisement, and handed it in for insertion. You will never believe it, but I had four thousand three hundred and sev­enty-two replies. It was an avalanche. It was hopeless, I had less than a month now and I could not see over four thousand aspirants to my hand in that time. I gave it up as a bad job.7 I went out of my room hideous with all those photographs and littered papers and to drive care away8 went on to the boulevard and sat down at the Cafe de la Paix. After a time I saw a friend passing. My friend stopped and coming up to me sat down.

'What is making you lookso glum?' he asked me.

I was glad to havesomeone in whom I could confide my trou­bles and told him the whole story. He laughed. Controlling his mirth as best he could, he said to me: 'But, my dear fellow, do you really want to marry?' At this I entirely lost my temper.9

'You are completely idiotic,' I said. 'If I did not want to marry, do you imagine that I should have spent three days reading love let­ters from women I have never set eyes on?'10

'Calm yourself and listen to me,' he replied. 'I have a cousin who lives in Geneva. She is Swiss. Her morals are without reproach, she is of a suitable age, a spinster, for she has spent the last fifteen years nursing an invalid mother who has lately died, she is well edu­cated and she is not ugly.'

'There is one thing you forget. What inducement would there be for her to give up her accustomed life to accompany in exile a man of forty-nine who is by no means a beauty?'

When I made this remark to my friend he replied: 'One can never tell with women.11 There is something about marriage that wonderfully attracts them. There would be no harm in asking her. '

'But I do not know your cousin and I don't see how I am to make her acquaintance.'

'I will tell you what to do,' said my friend. 'Go to Geneva and take her a box of chocolates from me. You can have a little talk and then if you do not like the look of her you take your leave and no harm is done.'

That night I took the train to Geneva. No sooner had I arrived than I sent her a letter to say that I was the bearer of a gift from her cousin. Within an hour I received her reply to the effect that she would be pleased to receive me at four o'clock in the afternoon. As the clock struck four I presented myself at the door other house. She was waiting for me. Imagine my surprise to see a young woman with the dignity of Juno, the features of Venus, and in her expres­sion the intelligence of Minerva. I was so taken aback that I nearly dropped the box of chocolates. We talked for a quarter of an hour. And then I said to her.

'Mademoiselle,12 1 must tell you that I did not come here merely to give you a box of chocolates. I came to ask you to do me the ho­nour of marrying me.'

She gave a start.13

'But, monsieur, you are mad,' she said.

Then I repeated my offer.

'I will not deny that your offer has come as a surprise. I had not thought of marrying, I have passed the age. I must consult my friends and my family.'

'What have they got to do with it? You are of full age. The mat­ter is pressing. I cannot wait. '

'You are not asking me to say yes or no this very minute? That is outrageous.'

'That is exactly what I am asking.'

'You are quite evidently a lunatic.'

'Well, which is it to be? ' I said. 'Yes or no?'

She shrugged her shoulders. She waited a minute and I was on tenterhooks.14

'Yes.'

And there she is. We were married in a fortnight and I became Governor of a colony. 'I married a jewel, my dear sirs, one in a thousand.'

He turned to the Belgian colonel.

'Are you a bachelor? If so I strongly recommend you to go to Geneva. It is a nest of the most adorable young women.'

It was she who summed up the story.

'The fact is that in a marriage of convenience you expect less and so you are less likely to be disappointed. Passion is all very well,15 but it is not a proper foundation for marriage. For two people to be happy in marriage they must be able to respect one another, and their interests must be alike; then if they are decent people and are willing to give and take, to live and let live, there is no reason why their union should not be as happy as ours.' She paused. 'But, of course, my husband is a very remarkable man.'

Proper Name s

William Somerset Maugham [wIlj@m 'söm@set 'mþm] — Уильям Сомерсег Моэм

Bangkok [b{Î'kÁk] — Бангкок

Belgian [bеld³@n] — бельгиец

Monsieur le Gourvemeur [mÆ:'sjÆ: l@ ,güv@r'nÆ:r] (French) — мсье губернатор

Neapolitan [nI@'pÁlIt@n] — неаполитанский

Figaro ["fIg@'r@U] — Фигаро (Прим.: популярная французская га­зета)

Cafe de la Paix ['k{feI d@l@'рe:]— кафе де ля Пэ

Geneva [³I'nÖv@] — Женева

Juno ['³u:n@U] (Latin) — Юнона (Прим.: супруга Юпитера, богиня брака)

Venus ['vÖn@s] (Latin) — Венера (Прим.: богиня любви и красоты)

Minerva [mI'nÆ:v@] (Latin) — Минерва (Прим.: богиня мудрости)

Vocabulary Notes

1. ... a person of consequence. — ... важная персона.

2. He did look a little like a poodle... — Очень уж он был похож на пуделя ... (Прим.: В данном случае имеет место так называе­мая эмфатическая, т.е. усилительная конструкция. В обычную структуру утвердительного предложения вводится вспомога­тельный глагол. При переводе подобных конструкции на русский употребляются слова типа «именно», «уж», «очень» и т. п. По­добные конструкции неоднократно встречаются в текстах данного учебника).

3. Ours was a marriage of convenience pure and simple. — Наш брак был, без сомнения, браком по расчёту.

4. C'est vrai [se: 'vre:] (French) — Верно.

5. ... with death in my heart. — ... с тяжёлым сердцем.

6. Suddenly I made up my mind. — Неожиданно у меня созрело решение.

7. I gave it up as a bad job. — Я бросил это безнадёжное дело.

8. ... to drive care away ... — ... чтобы развеяться ...

9. At this I entirely lost my temper. — И тут я совсем вышел из себя.

10. ... from women I have never set eyes on? — ... от женщин, которых я в глаза не видел?

11. One can never tell with women. — Кто их разберёт, женщин.

12. mademoiselle ["m{d@mw@'zel] — мадемуазель

13. She gave a start. —Она вздрогнула.

14. ... I was on tenterhooks. — ... я был как на иголках.

15. Passion is all very well, but... — Страсть — это прекрасно, но ...

Comprehension Check

1. What kind of people were there on board the ship?

2. How did the author guess that the Governor was a person of con­ sequence?

3. What did the Governor and his wife look like?

4. How did it happen that the Governor started telling his story?

5. What impulse did the Governor have to marry?

6. Why was it essential for the next Governor to be married?

7. What did the Governor suddenly decide to do?

8. What kind of response did the Governor get after he had handed in the advertisement?

9. Why did he give up reading letters?

10. Where did the Governor meet his friend?

11. What did his friend suggest?

12. Did the Governor agree to follow his advice? How?

13. What impression did the lady produce upon the Governor?

14. What reaction did the lady have to his proposal?

15. Was the Governor persistent? Support your opinion.

16. What happened in the end?

17. What piece of advice did the Governor give to the Belgian colonel?

18. How did the lady sum up the story?

Phonetic Text Drills

○ Exercise 1

Transcribe and pronounce correctly the words given below.

To encounter, colonel, tenor, proprietor, to accompany, con­sequence, moustache, diminutive, skyscraper, guitar, conven­ience, to withdraw, predecessor, to expostulate, adamant, ava­lanche, aspirant, hideous, boulevard, inducement, exile, quar­ter, outrageous, lunatic, adorable, to pause.

Exercise 2

Pronounce the words or phases where the following clusters occur.

1. plosive + plosive

Left Bangkok, had gone, had been, not to pass, watched, not before, should be, had caused, must be, bad job, sat down, remark to, dropped, must consult, got to do, shrugged, respect.

2. plosive + 1

Little, evidently, did look, poodle, husband like, decline, hopeless, glad, suitable, lately, accustomed life, replied, likely, let live, remarkable.

3. plosive + r

Trader, proprietor, secretaries, grey, eyebrows, skyscraper, promised, hundred, photographs, drive, troubles, control­ling, reproach, struck, presented, expression, outrageous, proper.

4. plosive + m/n

Told me, could not, confide my troubles, invalid mother, about marriage, did not, had not, should not.

5. consonant + w

Sight was, ours was, must withdraw, it was, did not want, is well, tell with women, was waiting, that wonderfully att­racts.

Exercise 3

Say what kind of false assimilation one should avoid in the following cus­ters.

Was thrown, had heard, wife was, is the anniversary, was strong, was sent, is something, was so, is pressing, was she.

Exercise 4

I. Listen to the following sentences with enumeration. Pronounce after the announcer, transcribe and intone the sentences.

There were 'two 'French /traders | and a 'Belgian /colonel, | an I'talian /tenor, | the A'merican proprietor of a 'circus with his/wife, | and a re'tired 'French official with \his. ||

The 'French official had been accompanied on /board by the 'French 'minister at Bang/kok, | one or two /secretaries | and a 'prince of a 'royal \family. ||

Talking of 'one 'thing and a/nother | we 'watched the 'day de/cline, | we /dined, | and 'then we 'sat 'out a'gain on 'deck un­der the \stairs. ||

II. Find other sentences with enumeration in the text and read them aloud.

EXERCISES

Exercise 1

Find in the text words similar in meaning to the following:

Nouns:

A human being, an owner, a statesman, getting to know some­one, the celebration of a date, a single man, a post, bad public gossip, a person who strives for getting something, a single lady, stimulus, a present, a madman, a precious stone.

Verbs:

To meet by chance, to travel together with somebody, to call somebody, to cease employment, to take back, to protest, to give to somebody, to finish abruptly, to ask for advice, to give instructions, to summarize.

Adjectives:

In bad condition, bad-looking, full-bodied, tiny, tender, silly, firm, appropriate, urgent, admirable, good enough, moving.

Exercise 2

Explain in other words the following phrases.

To confide troubles, to lose temper, without reproach, of a suitable age, to nurse somebody, to be taken aback, to do someone the honour of marrying him, to be on tenterhooks, to give a start, to come as a surprise, to pass the age, to be of full age, a proper foundation for marriage, a person of conse­quence, an aspirant to someone's hand, to be adamant, a mar­riage of convenience.

Exercise 3

Find in the text the English equivalents for the following Russian words and phrases.

A.

Брак по расчёту; годовщина; составить объявление; претендент(ка) на чью-либо руку; поделиться с кем-либо своими проблемами; любовное послание; подходящего возраста; незамужняя женщина; преподнести коробку конфет от чьего-либо имени; оказать честь выйти замуж; выйти из определённого возраста; быть совершеннолет­ним; один на тысячу; страсть — это прекрасно, но...; хо­рошая основа для брака; быть счастливым в браке; ува­жать друг друга; союз.

В.

Сопровождать; важная персона; обращаться к кому-либо; намного ниже среднего роста; возвышаться над кем-либо; познакомиться; говорить о том, о сём; на палу­бе; нарушить тишину; служить во флоте; ничего не помо­гало; решить; развеяться; изо всех сил; выйти из себя; в глаза не видеть кого-либо;никоим образом; быть удив­лённым; уронить; вздрогнуть; дело безотлагательное; по­

жать плечами;быть как на иголках;очень рекомендовать; закончить рассказ.

Exercise 4

Find in the text sentences with the following expressions and read them aloud. Translate them into Russian and let your classmates translate them back into English without a textbook.

to tower over somebody,

with death in one's heart,

to find an occupation,

to lose one's temper,

to relax into a smile,

to be ready to start in a month,

to control one's mirth,

to make up one's mind,

to withdraw one's offer,

to set eyes on somebody,

to be by no means a beauty,

to come as a surprise,

to be on tenterhooks,

no harm to be done,

to get to do with something,

to be less likely.

Exercise 5

Complete the sentences the way the author puts it in the text.

1. Passion is all very well, but...

2. I had gone on board early in the morning and soon discov­ ered that...

3. The Governor's wife was a large woman, tall and ...

4. I saw that the little French Governor had been holding ...

5. 'You see, ours was a marriage ...'

6. In that case I am afraid I must withdraw ...

7. It is too long a story to tell you, but ...

8. I walked to the offices of Figaro ...

9. You will never believe it but ...

10. I was glad to have someone to whom I could ...

11. Her morals are without reproach, she is of...

12. One can never tell with women. There is something about marriage ...

13. If you do not like the look of her...

14. I was so taken aback that...

15. I came to ask you

16. I will not deny ...

17. The fact is that in a marriage

Exercise 6

Express the same idea using different wording and grammar.

1. Ours was a marriage of convenience pure and simple.

2. But sometimes love comes after marriage and not before, and then it is better. It lasts longer.

3. I was strong and active and I was very anxious to find an occupation.

4. I told him that would be easy for an old bachelor.

5. I expostulated. I argued. Nothing would serve.

6. I had four thousand and three hundred and seventy-two re plies. It was an avalanche.

7. I gave it up as a bad job.

8. What is making you look so glum?

9. What inducement would there be for her to give up her ac­ customed life to accompany in exile a man of forty-nine who is by no means a beauty?

10. There would be no harm in asking her.

11. If you do not like the look of her you take your leave and no harm is done.

12. Within an hour I received her reply to the effect that she would be pleased to receive me at four o'clock in the after­noon.

13. I was so taken aback that I nearly dropped the box of chocolates.

14. You are of full age. The matter is pressing. I cannot wait.

15. For two people to be happy in marriage they must be able to respect one another, and their interests must be alike; then if they are decent people and willing to give and take, to live and let live, there is no reason why their union should not be as happy as ours.

Exercise 7

Translate the following verbal phrases into Russian. Mind the difference in the use of prepositions in the two languages if any.

1. To consult somebody, to address somebody, to pass the age, to shrug one's shoulders, to encounter somebody, to many somebody, to nurse somebody.

2. To sum up, to be taken aback, to give up, to hand in, to sit down, to come up.

Exercise 8

Put in the missing prepositions or postpositions if necessary.

1. I felt deep sorrow and wanted to confide my troubles ... somebody.

2. The children were so much taken ... that they could not speak for a while; then they decided to think it... .

3. You don't need to consult ... anybody, you have already passed ... the age when people depend on others.

4. The best way to drive care ... is to sit... a cafe.

5. One never knows how to address ... young ladies — Miss or Mrs.

6. A lot of people have never set eyes ... skyscrapers.

7. The lady at the table shrugged ... her shoulders and sent... the waiter.

8. Not everyone has enough tolerance to nurse ... elderly peo­ple but those who have, never give it... .

9. I encountered ... my old friend in the street, we went to a cafe and talked ... so many things.

10. The most difficult thing for a young author is to hand ... his manuscript to the editor.

11. Younger people are easily influenced ... all sorts of things they see or hear.

12. When the lady was pleased her lips relaxed ... a smile.

13. Quite often the students are asked to sum ... the story.

14. The tenor sang and his assistant accompanied him ... the guitar.

Exercise 9

Translate the sentences into English using the vocabulary of the text.

1. Кто сможет в сорок лет отказаться от привычной жизни и уехать куда-нибудь далеко, чтобы начать всё сначала?

2. Я думаю, не будет никакого вреда, если мы подробно обо всём поговорим.

3. Я прошу ответить сию секунду.

4. Хотя мне хотелось чем-нибудь заняться и мне пред­ложили хорошую работу, я всё же не был готов начать через день.

5. Говорят, Наполеон был намного ниже среднего роста.

6. Решение пришло неожиданно. Я ушел и отправился побродить, чтобы развеяться.

7. Союз двух людей не сбудет счастливым, если они не уважают друг друга.

8. В этой семье каждый год празднуют годовщину свадьбы.

9. Смотреть на супругов, проживших вместе пятьдесят лет — это трогательное зрелище.

10. В этом доме всегда с радостью принимают гостей.

11. Я очень рекомендую Вам отправиться в путешествие на корабле.

12. Спустя какое-то время ко мне подошёл старый приятель.

13. Подавая брачные объявления в газету, люди чаще всего ищут партнёров подходящего возраста.

14. Кто их разберёт, женщин? Они всё делают по-своему.

15. Изо всех сил стараясь сдержать смех, дама в ответ просто пожала плечами.

Exercise 10

Dramatize the dialogues between:

1. the narrator and the French Governor;

2. the minister and the prospective Governor;

3. the prospective Governor and his friend;

4. the prospective Governor and his future wife.

Exercise 11

Retell the Governor's story:

1. in the third person;

2. in the person of the Governor;

3. in the person of the Governor's wife;

4. in the person of the Governor's friend.

Exercise 12

Discussion points.

1. What do you think of the main characters — the Governor and his wife?

2. The characters' appearances are so different. Is it a plus or a minus?

3. Does their story sound true to life, in your opinion? Prove your point.

4. Was it really a marriage of convenience? Could it be a case of love at first sight?

5. Are you for or against marriages of convenience?

6. Do you think acquaintance services and marriage advertise­ments can be of help?

Exercise 13

Express your opinion about the following words of the characters in the text.

'But sometimes love comes after marriage and not before, and then it is better. It lasts longer.'

'One can never tell with women. There is something about marriage that wonderfully attracts them.'

'For two people to be happy in marriage they must be able to respect one another, and their interests must be alike ...'

Exercise 14

1. The Governor's wife had been a spinster and he had been a bachelor before they married. What other terms do you know to denote the mari­tal status of a person? Consult the Topical Vocabulary.

an unmarried person —

a person, having a spouse —

a person, who divorced his or her spouse —

2. The characters' marriage is called "a marriage of convenience". What other types of marriages do you know?

marriage, when people love each other —

marriage of people who are distantly related —

marriage of people with different social status —

3. The Governor and his wife celebrated the anniversary of their wedding. Do you know what we call the most often celebrated anniversaries?

25 years of family life —

50 years of family life —

75 years of family life —

Exercise 15

Imagine the following situation. Your parents have chosen a mate for you. They insist that you should marry the person they have found. How would you react? What do you think of arranged marriages in India and other ori­ental countries? Can an arranged marriage work?

Use the following expressions:

It is all very well, but...

One can never tell with ...

What have/has they/it got to do with ...

There would be no harm in ...

I don't see how ...

Imagine my surprise to ...

Even had I wished it ...

No wife, no ...

Exercise 16

Read the following short passage and compare the wedding traditions in Russia and Great Britain. Say what is different and what they have in com­mon. Speak about interesting wedding ceremonies in other countries.

Wedding Superstitions

In England the wedding preparations, ceremony and feast have all become loaded with ritual practices to ward off evil and bless the marriage with fortune and fertility.

The choice of date is important. May is traditionally un­lucky for weddings. The tradition that the bride's parents should pay for the wedding dates from two or three centuries ago, when wealthy families would pay an eligible bachelor to take an unmarried daughter off their hands in exchange for a large dowry. At most formal weddings, brides still get married in vilginal white — many other colours are considered un­lucky.

A bride will also ensure that her wedding outfit includes "something old, something new, something borrowed, some­thing blue". "Old" maintains her link with the past; "new" symbolizes the future; "borrowed" gives her a link with the present; and "blue" symbolizes her purity.

Even a modem bride will observe the taboos about wearing her dress before the ceremony. The groom mustn't see her in it until she enters the church. The veil should be put on for the first time as she leaves for the church.

It's a lucky omen if the bride should see a chimney sweep on her way to church. Sometimes a sweep is paid to attend the ceremony and kiss the bride - a relic of the idea that soot and ashes are symbols of fertility.

After the ceremony, the couple are showered with confetti. One old custom was for the bride and sometimes the groom to negotiate some obstacle as they left the church — guests would impede them with ropes of flowers, for example, or with sticks that had to be jumped over.

After that the bride is faced with the feast. The most impor­tant item is the wedding cake, whose richness symbolizes ferti­lity, just as it has done since Roman times. Today, the first slice is cut by the bride to ensure a fruitful marriage.

(from "Reader's Digest")

Exercise 17

Agree or disagree with the following statements. Give your reasons.

1. The husband should be more intelligent than the wife.

2. Spouses should be alike.

3. Money often keeps people together.

4. Marriage should be compulsory for everybody.

5. The best wife is a housewife.

6. The marriage contract is incompatible with romantic love.

► Use:

For agreement:

I couldn't agree more ...

That's just what I was thinking...

You know, that's exactly what

I think...

I agree entirely...

That's a good point ...

For disagreement:

Yes, that's quite true, but...

I'm not sure I quite agree ...

Perhaps, but don't you think

that ...

Well, you have a point there,

but...

I see what you mean, but,..

For more categorical and informal disagreement:

I can't agree with you there.

You can't be serious!

Come off it!

Don't be so silly!

Exercise 18

Bring pictures of your close or distant relatives. Show them to the class. Tell the class about a memorable event in the life of your relatives.

Exercise 19

Make up a list of positive and negative sides of family life. Compare your lists with those of your classmates. Comment on the results.

Positive Negative

Exercise 20

I. Translate the text.

Я ищу себе жену. Какой она должна быть?

Я не требую от неё интересной внешности. Пусть у неё будет только стройная фигура и красивое лицо.

Она должна быть весёлой, когда я шучу. И шутить, когда я прихожу домой навеселе.

Меня не интересует её жилплощадь. Главное — чтобы она была большая.

Не интересует меня и её зарплата. Лишь бы она была больше моей.

А вот расходы на свадьбу — поровну; половину внесёт она, а другую — её родители.

Я уверен: когда мы поженимся, у нас появятся общие интересы. Если, например, она не захочет идти со мной на футбол, то мы останемся дома и будем смотреть по те­левизору хоккей.

Я буду заботиться о её здоровье. Чтобы к ней не попа­дало спиртное, табачное, мучное и сладкое, я буду всё это уничтожать сам.

Она будет у меня одеваться как богиня: просто и недо­рого.

Я возьму на себя часть её работы, если, конечно, она возьмёт на себя всю мою.

Мне не важно, как она будет готовить. Лишь бы это было вкусно. И необязательно, чтобы это была только русская кухня. Здесь у неё полная свобода: сегодня кухня грузинская, а завтра — венгерская утром и китайская ве­чером.

Я ищу себе жену.

Я готов отдать ей полжизни, если она отдаст мне свою целиком.

Если её не будут удовлетворять мои требования, пусть ищет себе нового мужа.

Вот уже много лет я ищу себе жену.

(из "Литературной Газеты")

II. Say what you think of this man looking for an ideal wife. Does he strike you as an ideal husband?

Exercise 21

Study the following marriage advertisements and write one of your own.

1. Red-haired green-eyed lovely lady 33, busy social life, lots of friends, is looking for a special man to love and marry with style, sense of fun and who is likely to enjoy the same.

2. Cheerful professional female, 30, seeks intelligent humor­ous, preferably tall male (similar age) for hopefully long-term relationship.

3. Tall, generously constructed attractive woman (36) gradu­ate professional keen on history, music, smoking seeks tall, attractive, cultured man for friendship, perhaps more.

4. Non-boring accountant (39), divorced with two (b + g)*children in house — seeks lady in similar circumstances. Object: to live life to the full.

* b + g—boy+girl.

5. Workaholic professional seeks good woman 25—40 to cure him. 5.5'11",* unattached, non-smoker, likes travel, lan­guages, music, theatre, sailing, flying. Photograph appre­ciated.

* 5.5'11''' — five and a half feet, eleven inches.

6. Professional male, 24, tall, cheerful, presentable, solvent seeks female for caring and lasting relationship.

Exercise 22

Make up dialogues discussing the following problems:

1. Teenage marriage.

2. Leadership in the family.

3. Marriage contracts and romantic love.

4. Divorce and one-parent families.

5. A white wedding or no wedding?

You can start your dialogues with the following expressions:

Would you agree that...

Do you think it's right to say that...

Ask your classmates to explain their point of view more precisely by saying:

I didn't quite follow what you were saying about ...

I don't quite see what you are getting at, I am afraid.

If you need to rephrase your own statement, say:

Let me put it another way.

Sorry, let me explain.

That's not quite what I meant.

Exercise 23

Look at the excerpts from some letters to friends and imagine how they can be finished.

Exercise 24

Match the English idioms in the left column with their Russian equivalents in the right column. Use them in a proper context.

1. a maiden name А. маменькин сынок

2. extremes meetВ. быть под каблуком

3. a mother's boyС. с глаз долой, из сердца вон

4. to be out of hand D. строить глазки

5. to be under smb.'s thumbЕ. блудный сын

6. out of sight, out of mindF. плоть и кровь

7. to make eyes at smb.G. жить как кошка с собакой

8. the prodigal sonН. отбиться от рук

9. one's own flesh and bloodI. девичья фамилия

10. to lead a cat and a dog lifeJ. противоположности сходятся

Exercise 25

Explain the meanings of the proverbs given below. Make up five-sentence stories of your own to highlight their meanings.

1. Marriages arc made in heaven.

2. Faint heart never won a fair maiden.

3. Birds of a feather flock together.

5. Every family has a skeleton in the cupboard.

6. Spare the rod and spoil the child.

7. When children stand still they have done some ill.

8. Like father like son.

9. A good husband makes a good wife.

10. He that would the daughter win, must with the mother first begin.

11. A tree is known by its fruit.

Exercise 26

Translate the following quotations and comment upon them.

'Though women are angels, yet wedlock is the devil.'

George Gordon Byron

'The dread of loneliness is greater than the fear of bondage, so we get married.'

Cyril Connolty

'Every woman should many — and no man.'

Benjamin Disraeli

'Keep your eyes wide open before marriage, half shut after.'

Benjamin Franklin

'A man should be taller, older, heavier, uglier, and hoarser than his wife.'

Edgar Watson Howe

'Marrying a man is like buying something you've been admir­ing for a long time in a shop window. You may love it when you get it home, but it does not always go with everything else in the house.'

Jean Kerr

'An ideal wife is any woman who has an ideal husband.'

Booth Tarkington

Exercise 27

Role-Play "Handing in Marriage Advertisements".

Setting: The office of the "Lonely Hearts Column" of a popular magazine.

Situation: Diferent people come to the office and leave their advertisements. The journalists give advice on how to write an advertisement for the acquaintance service.

Characters:

Card I — Amanda, a 16 year-old girl who wants to get acquainted with a "blue-eyed prince" or a pop star.

Card II — Miranda, the girl's older female friend who tries to talk her out of writing the advertise­ment.

Card III — Belinda, a middle-aged woman who is a frequenter of the "Lonely Hearts Column" because her expectations of the financial position of her prospective fiance are too high.

Card IV — Donald, a very shy young man.

Card V — Ronald, an old bachelor.

Card VI — Archibald, a divorcee with 3 children.

Card VII—VIII — Millard and Lynda, a couple who are hap­pily married thanks to the "Lonely Hearts Column" and who came to thank the jour­nalist for his/her help and to share the news that they are expecting a baby.

Card IX—X — Harold and Brenda, a young man and a young woman who fall in love at first sight and decide to get married. They wish to publish the announcement of their wed­ding instead of the advertisements which they have brought to the magazine.

Card XI—XII — the journalist who give advice on writing marriage advertisements.*

* Cards with roles are handed out to the students. The students are supposed to think of the details of the dialogues in the role-play they are going to enact.

WRITING

Exercise 1

Prepare to write a dictation. Learn the spelling of the italicized words from Introductory Reading and the words from exercise 1 on page 15.

Exercise 2

Prepare a written translation of the following text:

По мнению многих сегодняшних мужчин, идеальная жена должна обладать следующими качествами: хозяйст­венностью, верностью, внешней привлекательностью, добротой, снисходительностью, опрятностью. А как дол­жен вести себя обходительный муж? Вот некоторые из со­временных правил этикета.

1. Муж должен подавать пальто жене, причем как дома, так и в общественном месте.

2. Муж не должен читать во время еды за общим сто­лом.

3. Вопреки взглядам, что обычай целовать женщине ру­ку устарел, жене в порядке исключения можно и да­же нужно целовать руку.

4. На дружеской вечеринке первый танец принадлежит жене. Отступить от этого правила можно лишь в исключительных случаях.

5. Муж должен всегда обращать внимание на новое платье жены, говорить ей по этому поводу что-ни­будь приятное и вообще не скупиться на компли­менты.

6. Муж должен делать жене подарки даже без особого повода, преподносить ей время от времени цветы.

7. Муж не должен заглядываться на других женщин в присутствии жены.

8. Муж не должен ходить по квартире неопрятно оде­тым.

9. Муж должен благодарить жену за вкусный обед.

10. Муж должен иногда спрашивать жену, что она сделала в его отсутствие, в общем, разговаривать с женой не только о делах. Но, как сказал один старик, если жена не разговаривает с вами весь выходной, значит, ей есть что сказать.

(из "Литературной Газеты ")

Exercise 3

Write a composition on one of the following topics. Discuss your composi­tions in class.

1. Families with Many Children Versus Families with One Child.

2. The Effect of Divorce on Children.

3. Grandparents. A Blessing or a Burden?

4. How to Bridge the Generation Gap.

5. The Ideal Family of the Future.

Note:

In England the practice of setting out written work varies considerably, but college and university students are expected to present their written works neatly and in accordance with certain basic standards.

Students draw a margin on the left-hand side of each page, about three centimetres wide usually in pencil. The margin is left free for the teacher's marking.

The date is usually written in the top right-hand comer, and often underlined. If the day of the week is included, it is always put at the beginning (e.g. 1 September, 1999 or: Monday, 1st. September).

The title of the composition is usually written in the middle of the page, often on the line below the date. Sometimes it is put on the left, against the margin. The first word of a heading and all the following words except articles and prepositions should be written with a capital letter.

Each paragraph should be indented, which means that it should begin a little way in from the margin.

Present your composition in the following form.

Lesson 2 HOME

INTRODUCTORY READING AND TALK

Home, sweet home. It does not matter what your home is like — a country mansion, a more modest detached or semi-detached house, a flat in a block of flats or even a room in a communal flat. Anyway, it is the place where you once move in and start to f urnish and deco­rate it to your own taste. It becomes your second "ego".

Your second "ego" is very big and disquieting if you have a house. There is enough space for everything: a hall, a kitchen with an adjacent dining-room, a living-room or a lounge, a couple of bed­rooms and closets (storerooms), a toilet and a bathroom. You can walk slowly around the house thinking what else you can do to reno­vate it. In the hall you cast a glance at the coatrack and a chest of drawers for shoes. Probably, nothing needs to be changed here.

You come to the kitchen: kitchen furniture, kitchen utensils, a refridgerator (fridge) with a freezer, a dishdrainer, an electric or gas cooker with an oven. Maybe, it needs a cooker hood?

The dining-room is lovely. A big dining table with chairs in the centre, a cupboard with tea sets and dinner sets. There is enough place to keep all cutlery and crockery in. You know pretty well where things go.

The spacious living-room is the heart of the house. It is the place where you can have a chance to see the rest of your family. They come in the evening to sit around the coffee table in soft armchairs and on the sofa . You look at the wall units , stuffed with china , crys­tal and books. Some place is left for a stereo system and a TV set . A fireplace and houseplants make the living-room really cosy .

Your bedroom is your private area though most bedrooms are alike: a single or a double bed, a wardrobe, one or two bedside tables and a dressing-table.

You look inside the bathroom: a sink, hot and cold taps and a bath. There is nothing to see in the toilet except a flush-toilet.

You are quite satisfied with what you have seen, but still doubt disturbs you: 'Is there anything to change?' Yes! The walls of the rooms should be papered, and in the bathroom and toilet — tiled! Instead of linoleum there should be parquet floors. Instead of pat­terned curtains it is better to put darker plain ones, so that they might not show the dirt. You do it all, but doubt does not leave you. Then you start moving the furniture around in the bedroom, because the dressing-table blocks out the light. You are ready to give a sigh of relief, but... suddenly find out that the lounge is too crammed up with furniture.

Those who live in one-room or two-room flats may feel pity for those who live in houses. They do not have such problems. At the same time they have a lot of privileges: central heating, running wa­ter, a refuse-chute and... nice neighbours who like to play music at midnight. Owners of small flats are happy to have small problems and they love their homes no less than those who live in three-storeyed palaces. Home, sweet home.

1. What category of owners does your family belong to?

2. Say what else one can see In a hall, a kitchen, a dining room, a lounge, a bedroom.

3. Look at the plan of a flat and decide how you would arrange it. Discuss with the classmates what you would buy to furnish it. Make use of the phrases below:

Let's ... in the middle

What about putting ... in the far end of the room

What do you think of... in the right corner by ...

I think we should ... in the left comer at...

Shall we ... on the right

Perhaps the best thing would be to ... on the left

Everybody puts ... beside

Well, couldn't we ... near

Why don't we ... (just) opposite

4. Do you have a room of your own? Is there anything special about it?

○ TEXT

Clara in the Denhams' House.

(Extract from the book by Margaret Drabble "Jerusalem the Golden ". Abridged)

The Denhams' house was semi-detached. It was a large, tall, four-storeyed building, on one of the steep hillsides of Highgate. In front of the building was a large paved courtyard. It was separated from the pavement by a high, elaborate, wrought iron fence,1 the gate of which stood open.

The door of the Denhams' house was painted black, and it was solid, and heavily panelled,2 in the centre of the middle panel there was a lion's head with a brass ring in its mouth. There was also a bell, and Clara chose the bell. The door was opened by a thin, brown, balding, youngish looking man.

'I've come to see Clelia,' said Clara, standing on the doorstep. The man gulped nervously, and nodded, and said, 'Clelia, oh yes, Clelia, just a moment, I'll go and get her.'3

And he disappeared. Clara, uninvited, thought she might as well step in, so she did. The hall into which she stepped wasnot a hall at all, but a large and very high room, with doors leading off it in most directions, and it was so full of unexpected things that she found it hard to know where to look first.

The floor was tiled, in diagonal squares of grey and white mar­ble, and the walls were so densely covered with pictures and looking glasses that it was hard to tell whether or how they were papered, but the general tone and impression was of a deep purple and red. At the far end of the hall there was a marble fireplace, and under it was a large pot of dying flowers. There was also, she vaguely noted, in one corner a piano, and the windows had shutters of a kind that she had never seen in England.

After a while, Clelia appeared, from one of the doors at the far end of the hall.

'Well, I came,' Clara said.

'So I see,' said Clelia. 'I'm glad you came. Let's go up into my room.'

'Who was that that let me in?' said Clara, following Clelia meekly up the staircase, and up and up, to the second floor.

'That was Martin,' said Clelia. 'He's rather lovely, don't you think?' Clara could not think of any scheme in which the man she had just seen could have been described as lovely, but she instantly invented one.4

'Yes,' she said.

'And this,' said Clelia, suddenly throwing open a high white door, 'is my room.'

And she said it with such pride and such display that Clara did not feel at all obliged to conceal the amazement. And it was, by any standards, amazing.

It was a tall, square room, facing towards the back of the house and garden. The room's function — for it was, beneath all, a bed­room — was all but concealed.5 Clara, when she looked hard, could just descry a bed, almost lost beneath a grey and pink flowered cover, a heap of books, and a large half-painted canvas. There were a good many books in the room; one wall was lined with them, and they lay in heaps on chairs and on the floor. There were photo­graphs and postcards and letters pinned up and pasted on tables and walls, and amongst these more adult decorations, there was also a great quantity of carefully arranged and ancient toys. Clara was staggered and bewitched, she had never in her life seen anything like it.

She got round to thinking that one of the most charming fea­tures of Clelia's room was its sense of prolonged nursery associa­tions.6 The childhood objects were not only lovely in themselves, they were a link with some past and pleasantly remembered time.

They stayed in the bedroom for half an hour or so, talking, look­ing at the things, talking.

'I think it must be tea time,' said Clelia. 'I think we'd better go down.'

When they reached the drawing room, the only people there were Mrs Denham and Martin.

'This is Clara, mama,' said Clelia.

'Clara, yes,' said Mrs Denham. 'Clelia told me about you. Do sit down, have a cup of tea. Clara, will you have milk or lemon?'

'Lemon, please,' said Clara. And as she stirred her cup of tea, and sipped it, she lost track of the conversation entirely, so en­grossed was she in the visual aspect of the scene presented to her:7 She did not know where first to look, so dazzling and amazing were the objects before her.

It was a large, high, long room, and so full of furniture and mir­rors and pictures and books and chandeliers and hangings and re­fracted angles of light that the eye could at first glimpse in no way assess its dimensions.8 It seemed to be full of alcoves and angles,9 though the room itself was a plain rectangle: fish swam in a goldfish bowl on top of a bookcase, and flowers stood on small pedestals here and there. Over the marble mantelpiece was a huge oval mirror with an eagle adorning it. The floor was wooden, and polished, but most of it was covered by a large, intricately patterned coloured carpet.

On one wall hung a large picture of a classical, mythological na­ture: on another wall was an equally large picture of pale yellow and beige lines. The third wall was lined entirely with books, and the wall that looked over the garden was not a wall but a window, heavily shrouded with curtains of different fabrics and densities.10 Clara was astonished; she could compare the room to nothing in her experience. Mrs Denham herself made a fitting occupant for such a room.11 She talked of books, from what Clara, in her haze of observation, could hear:12 about some books that she was, ah yes, what was that word, reviewing? A critic, then? No, not a critic. A writer, then, perhaps: and Clara, searching for help, directed her excellent vision at the distant titles of the books on the shelves13 be­hind Martin's head. And help was forthcoming for there was a whole row of somehow familiar books, and the name on the back, she could just decipher it, was Candida something.14 Why, yes, of course, Candida Gray, a name that she had known for as many years as she had known any such names. In the sudden satisfaction of recognition, Clara nearly cried out, into the midst of the conver­sation, I read your book, I read that book of yours, I read Custom and Ceremony, but she didn't, she kept quiet, she did not want to betray, even directly, the novelty of her discovery.15 And she thought, a little aggrieved: I do think Clelia might have told me, how could she assume that I knew her mother's maiden name? Her discovery did, however, do much to help her understanding of the conversation. She began to feel that she knew where she was, a lit­tle: and after a while she too began to talk.

Proper Names

Clara ['kle(@)r@] — Клара

Denham ['den@m] — Денем

Margaret Drabble ['m¸g(@)rIt 'dr{bl] — Маргарет Дрэббл

Jerusalem [³@'rüs@l@m] — Иерусалим

Highgate ['haIgeIt] — Хайгейт

Clelia ['kli:lI@] — Клелия

Martin ['m¸tIn] — Мартин

Candida ['k{ndId@ 'greI] — Кандида Грей

Vocabulary Notes

1. ... wrought iron fence ... — ... кованая железная ограда ...

2. ... it was solid and heavily panelled ... — ... она была массивная, с тяжелой панельной обшивкой ...

3. 'I'll go and get her' — «Пойду и найду ее.»

4. Clara could not think of any scheme in which the man she had just seen could have been described as lovely, but she instantly in­vented one. — Клара не могла представить, с какой же сто­роны можно было бы охарактеризовать как привлекатель­ного человека, которого она только что видела, но она тут же придумала, с какой.

5. The room's function — for it was, beneath all, a bedroom — was all but concealed. — Комната эта всё же служила спальней, хотя угадать это было непросто.

6. She got round to thinking that one of the most charming features ofClelia's room was its sense of prolonged nursery associations. — Она подумала, что одной из самых приятных особенностей комнаты Клелии было то, что в ней возникало ощущение, будто детство не ушло.

7. ... she lost track of the conversation entirely, so engrossed was she in the visual aspect of the scene presented to her. — ... она совершенно не слушала, о чём говорят, настолько она была очарована тем, что предстало перед ее глазами.

8. ... the eye could at first glimpse in no way assess its dimensions. — ... с первого взгляда нельзя было даже определить её раз­меры.

9. It seemed to be full of alcoves and angles ... — Казалось, в ней было полно ниш и закутков ...

10. ... heavily shrouded with curtains of different fabrics and densi­ties. — ... плотно задрапированное занавесками из тканей разной выделки и плотности.

11. Mrs Denham herself made a fitting occupant for such a room. — Образ самой миссис Денэм очень соответствовал такой обстановке.

12. She talked of books, from what Clara, in her haze of observation, could hear... — Она говорила о книгах, и из её слов Клара, не вдумывавшаяся в их смысл, так как разглядывала предметы, могла уловить ...

13. ... and Clara, searching for help, directed her excellent vision at the distant titles of the books on the shelves ... — и Клара, у которой было отличное зрение, в поисках подсказки устре­мила взгляд на корешки с названиями книг, стоявших на полках у дальней стены ...

14. ... Candida something — ... какая-то Кандида.

15. ... she did not want to betray, even directly, the novelty other dis­covery. — ... даже прямо она не хотела обнаружить, что сделала для себя неожиданное открытие.

Comprehension Check

1. What was the Denhams' house like?

2. What was there in front of the building?

3. What did Clara choose, the bell or the brass ring?

4. Who opened the door?

5. Was Clara left alone on the doorstep or did the man let her in?

6. What was the hall like?

7. Where did Clelia take Clara?

8. Why was Clara staggered and bewitched mClelia's room?

9. Where did the girls go after half an hour?

10. Who was there in the drawing room?

11. What did Clara see in the drawing room?

12. What impression did the drawing room produce upon Clara?

13. Was Clara listening to the talk? Why?

14. How did Clara make her discovery?

15. Did Clara's discovery help her somehow or not?

Phonetic Text Drills

○ Exercise 1

Transcribe and pronounce correctly the words from the text.

Courtyard, elaborate, wrought iron, balding, diagonal, vaguely, scheme, quantity, bewitched, engrossed, chandelier, assess, di­mension, intricately, mythological, beige, fabric, to review, forthcoming, to decipher, to aggrieve, to assume.

○ Exercise 2

Pronounce the words or phases where the following clusters occur.

1. consonant + w

It was, squared, and white, covered with, that way, in­vented one, lined with, and walls, was wooden.

2. plosive + 1

Middle, marble, instantly, almost lost, and letters, tables, glimpse, rectangle, mantelpiece, eagle, that looked, little.

3. plosive + m/n

Gulped nervously, and nodded, had never seen, could not think, did not feel, good many, but most of it, had known, told me.

4. plosive + fricative

Get her, and he, had shutters, glad you came, could have been, but she, looked hard, stirred her cup, occupant for, could hear, that she, directed her, and help, could she.

5. plosive + plosive

Paved courtyard, deep purple, had just seen, white door, but concealed, flowered cover, and postcards, adult deco­rations, great quantity, ancient toys, sit down, coloured carpet, could compare, kept quiet.

○ Exercise 3

Pronounce after the announcer and explain what kind of false assimilation may occur in the phrases below.

1. Was semi-detached, was separated, was painted, was tiled, was hard, was staggered, was she.

2. Of which, of tea, of furniture, of pale yellow, of somehow familiar, of course, of her discovery.

○ Exercise 4

Transcribe and intone the following sentences from the text. Note that the intonation pattern of sentences, starting with "there" is similar to the pattern of predicative statements. Explain the use of the intonation marks.

1. There was 'also a'\bell | and 'Clara 'chose the \bell ||

2. There \was 'also | she 'vaguely \noted | in 'one 'comer a pi\ano | and the 'windows had 'shutters of a ­kind that she had 'never 'seen in \England ||

3. There were a 'good 'many \books in the 'room | 'one 'wall was \lined ,with them | and they 'lay in 'heaps on 'chairs and on the \floor ||

EXERCISES

Exercise 1

Work with the text and say what we call:

— large pieces of cloth that we put as a decoration on a wall or a curtain over a window;

— a measurement in space such as length, width,or height;

— an open space wholly or partly surrounded by buildings, next to or inside a large house;

— a house that is one of a pair of joined houses;

— a paved surface or path at the side of a street for people to walk on;

— a sort of stone that is hard, cold to the touch, smooth when polished, and used for buildings and statues, etc.;

— the opening for a coal fire in the wall of a room, with a chimney above it and a hearth;

— a pair of wood or metal covers that can be unfolded in front of the outside of a window to block the view or keep out the light;

— a block of stone or wood forming the base of a doorway;

— a flight of stairs with a handrail;

— a small partly enclosed space in a room;

— a flat shape with four straight sides forming four right an­gles;

— a person who lives in a place, though without necessarily owning it;

— a frame surrounding a fireplace, especially the part on top which can be used as a small shelf;

— number of things, mass of material, piled up.

Exercise 2

Pick out all the words and word combinations which describe:

1. The hall in the Denhams' house;

2. The bedroom in the Denhams' house;

3. The drawing room in the Denhams' house.

Exercise 3

I. Find in the text nouns modified by the adjectives:

1. tall/high;

2. flowered/patterned;

3. large/huge.

II. Explain the difference in meaning between these adjectives and say in what other collocations they can be used. Give examples.

Exercise 4

I. Three names of building materials occur in the text: brass, marble, wood. Think of other names of materials and say what is usually made of them.

II. Three nouns denoting a certain number of things are used in the text: heap, quantity, row. Think of other similar nouns and say in what colloca­tions they may occur.

Exercise 5

I. Work with the text and complete the list of participles II:

Paved, painted, ...

II. Complete the list of nouns, denoting furnishings or pieces of furniture:

A fireplace, a pot, ...

III. Complete the list of adjectives, used to describe a building, a room or furniture:

Tall, lovely, ... '

Exercise 6

I. Find sentences with the following adjectives and adverbs in the text. Read and translate the sentences.

elaborate distant solid

amazing ancient familiar

densely deep plain

huge classical intricately

II. Make up other parts of speech from these words where possible.

Exercise 7

Translate into English.

A .

Один из домов под общей крышей; четырёхэтажное здание; кованая железная ограда; калитка; звонок; стоять на пороге; общее впечатление; быть завешанным карти­нами; появиться из дверей; впустить кого-либо; распах­нуть; выходить на что-либо (об окнах, комнате); цвета­стый; незаконченное полотно; отражённые лучи света; определить размеры; правильный прямоугольник; аква­риум; украшать; с затейливым рисунком; плотно задрапи­рованный; разной выделки.

В .

Было трудно сказать; такие, каких никогда не видел; следовать за кем-либо; по всем меркам; всматриваться; различить; никогда в жизни; размешивать сахар в чае; со­вершенно не слушать, о чём говорят; с первого взгляда; в поисках подсказки; знакомый; в середине разговора, не­много огорчённо.

Exercise 8

Make up phrases opposite in meaning to the phrases from the text.

a tall building different fabrics

a steep hillside amazing objects

a large courtyard pale lines

deep purple charming features

throw open familiar books

Exercise 9

I. Find in the text sentences with phrases denoting location of things, translate them into Russian and ask your classmates to translate them back into English.

In front of, in the centre, on the doorstep, in most directions, at the far end, in one comer, to the second floor, on top of a bookcase, on small pedestals, over the mantelpiece, on one wall, on the shelves.

II. Try to reproduce the context where the following phrases occurred.

Covered with, lost beneath, lined with, pinned up, pasted on, carefully arranged, covered by.

Exercise 10

Put in the missing prepositions.

1. There was a marble statue of a Greek warrior... the far end of the hall.

2. The window of the bedroom looked ... the green park.

3. A long corridor led... the direction of a huge home library.

4. The garden was separated ... the street... a hedge running in a neat line.

5. The piano was placed ... the corner of a big dancing hall and so there remained enough space for dances.

6. Small semi-detached houses are scattered ... the hillside.

7. All walls in the library were lined ... bookshelves.

8. The two girls were standing ... the doorstep when they saw somebody in the garden.

9. The room was in a mess: everything lay ... heaps on the floor.

10. The hostess appeared... the back door so that it was hard to notice when she entered.

11. The house gave the impression ... a glass cube under a steel roof.

12. The walls of the bathroom were tiled ... green and white squares.

13. The book was lost... a heap of papers on the table.

14. There were lots of framed photographs... the mantelpiece.

Exercise 11

Paraphrase the italicized part of each sentence choosing the appropriate phrase from the text.

1. Clara, uninvited, thought she might as well come in, and did it.

2. There were plenty of books in the room; and they lay in piles on chairs and on the floor.

3. The man swallowed and nodded.

4. There were so many pictures on the walls that it was hard to tell whether or how they were papered.

5. It was separated from the pavement by a high, ornamented, wrought iron fence.

6. The door of the Denhams' house was covered with wooden panels.

7. The floor was covered with squares of marble.

8. It was such a large, high, long room crammed with furni­ ture and mirrors and pictures that the eye could not at first sight evaluate its size.

9. She did not feel that she had to hide her astonishment.

10. Clara, when she looked closely, could just make out a bed, almost hidden, beneath a cover.

11. There was a great quantity of toys, neatly put in order.

12. Clara felt amazed and charmed.

13. She didn't follow the conversation, so absorbed was she by the visual aspect of the scene presented to her.

14. Over the maible mantelpiece was an enormous oval mirror, embellished with an eagle.

15. And help was coming for there was a whole line of books which she somehow knew.

16. The name on the back, she could just discern it, was some­thing like Candida.

17. Most of the floor was covered by a big elaborately orna­mented carpet.

18. Clara, seeking for help, directed her excellent vision at the distant titles of books.

19. Mrs Denham herself was a suitable inhabitant for such a room.

20. 'Who was that that opened the door and allowed me to ente r' asked Clara.

Exercise 12

Complete the following sentences choosing the appropriate word or phrase from the list. Change the form of the words if necessary. Translate the sen­tences into Russian.

to be lined to be full of to be covered

to be pinned up to lie in heaps to be concealed

to be lost beneath to stand open to be pasted

to lead to be arranged to be tiled

to be separated to be painted to be papered

1. If the floor ... ... one can easily hear footsteps on it.

2. Other walls ... ... with white bookshelves from which books overflow to the floor.

3. The door between the office and a small dark room at the back always ... ... .

4. The floors downstairs ... ... with Indian carpets.

5. The walls ...... with pictures of aircrafts.

6. A staircase ... from the ground floor to the first floor.

7. The notice ... ... ... and became the centre of attention.

8. A typewriter, some writing paper, pens and pencils — everything ... carefully ... on top of the bookcase.

9. The walls in the sitting-room ... ... but not painted, which made the room look a lot cosier.

10. The room ... ... ... dark expensive furniture. Oriental car pets, smart lamps, everything first-class.

11. The incident...... and nobody ever learned anything.

12. A sick child ... nearly ... ... the heap of blankets.

13. Books, papers, manuscripts, stacks of letters ... ... ... all around the study.

14. The dining room ... ... from the rest of the house by a nar­row passage.

15. As the tiny house ...... green, it was almost lost on the green background of the garden.

Exercise 13

Remember a situation when you came to somebody's place and experi­enced strong emotions. Tell the class about it, ending the story with one of the sentences given below.

1. I vaguely noted.

2. I said it with pride and display.

3. I did not feel at all obliged to conceal the amazement.

4. I was staggered and bewitched.

5. I was engrossed in the visual aspect of the scene presented to me.

6. I did not betray the novelty of my discovery.

Exercise 14

Speak of Clara's visit to the Denhams' house.

1. in the third person;

2. in the person of Clara;

3. in the person of Clelia;

4. in the person of Mrs Denham.

Exercise 15

Discussion points.

1. What impression does the description of the Denhams' house produce on you?

2. What can you say about the people who inhabit it?

3. What do you think of Clara?

4. Have you ever experienced anything like that in your life?

5. Do you believe that homes reflect their owners' mode of life, occupation, character?

Exercise 16

Translate into English.

1. Мы хотели купить собственный отдельный дом, хо­тели, чтобы был большой сад и озеро, но денег нам хватило только на половину дома.

2. Газон перед домом — гордость всех англичан. Га­зон тщательно стригут и высаживают по дорожкам розы.

3. Прихожая была тёмная и мрачная, и я решила, что нужно переклеить обои — подобрать более светлые.

4. Длинный коридор заканчивался лестницей, ведущей на второй этаж.

5. В Европе мало кто живёт в многоквартирных домах. Большинство людей являются собственниками домов в пригородах.

6. В английских домах количество комнат может быть разным, но традиционно всегда есть небольшая при­хожая, кухня, столовая, гостиная, ванная, туалет, пара кладовок, одна или несколько спален.

7. В домах, где есть дети, желательно сделать детскую. Там должна быть особая мебель и хорошее освещение.

8. К гостиной примыкает столовая, которая, в свою оче­редь, соединена с кухней.

9. Нужно покрыть кафелем не только стены в ванной и туалете, но и ту стену на кухне, где расположена раковина, а то будет видна вся грязь. С краски её смыть не так легко, как с кафеля.

10. Я предпочитаю электрическую плиту газовой — её го­раздо легче мыть, да и вытяжка не очень нужна.

11. На полках я храню фаянсовую посуду, а в этих ящичках — столовые приборы. Запоминай, что куда класть.

12. Комната так заставлена мебелью, что трудно подойти к окну.

13. У Гаррисонов очень просторная четырёхкомнатная квартира в центре города. Она прекрасно отделана и обставлена.

14. Надо бы сделать ремонт — подновить потолки, на­стелить паркет вместо линолеума и поклеить мою­щиеся обои.

15. Такие яркие цветастые занавески не годятся для спальни. Нужно выбрать расцветку поспокойней.

16. Это комнатное растение у окна загораживает свет. Переставь его в угол.

17. Мы живём в этом девятиэтажном доме. Район нам не нравится, хотелось бы куда-нибудь переехать.

18. Я не смогла бы жить в деревне, так как не могу обходиться без удобств — водопровода, горячей воды, мусоропровода, центрального отопления, телефона.

19. Все гостиные в наших квартирах похожи одна на другую — стенка, журнальный столик, диван и кресла, телевизор и стереосистема.

20. В Англии никогда не вешают ковры на стены, их кладут только на пол.

Exercise 17

Look at the picture. It depicts the living-room of a large family. Look at it for two minutes, then hide it and agree or disagree with the following state­ments. Test your perception and memory.

Pattern : The living-room is rather small. — No, I don’t think so, it is rather spacious.

1. In the middle of the room there is a big table.

2. The table is laid for dinner.

3. At the table there are two armchairs.

4. The armchairs are very comfortable with tall backs.

5. On the right there is a fireplace.

6. On the mantelpiece there is a clock.

7. Just opposite the fireplace there is a sofa.

8. There are four cushions on the sofa.

9. The sofa is small and comfortable.

10. In the foreground we can see a desk.

11. In the far left comer there is a standard lamp.

12. The walls are covered with beautiful carpets.

Exercise 18

Look at the picture. Describe this picture in detail. What would you bring in or take away to make it look cosier? How would you furnish it to your taste?

Exercise 19

Read and translate the text.

The Randolf sisters, Sadie and Esther, live just a block away from each other. Sadie constantly complains that the people in town are cold and unfriendly, while Esther finds them warm and pleasant.

Although Sadie can't see it, the difference is in the way they approach those people. Sadie and her husband have a lovely house. It's filled with beautiful antique furniture and glassware that is so fragile it could easily be broken by a careless guest or adventurous child. Whenever someone is visiting, Sadie and her husband are constantly "straightening up". Their beha­viour seems to indicate that they put more of an emphasis on the looks of their house than on the comfort of their guests. As a result, their nervous guests behave with excessive care — and they leave as soon as possible.

In contrast, Esther's house is not fancy at all. In fact, it's al­most shabby. But she and her husband have a relaxed, friendly attitude toward visitors, who don't have to worry about an ac­cident occurring with an expensive piece of furniture or vase. Esther's house is a place where people can drop in, put their feet up on the coffee table, and feel at home.

(from "Grammar Dimensions")

I. Answer the questions.

1. Whose house, Sadie's or Esther's, appeals to you? Why?

2. Which one would you drop in? Why?

3. In what houses do you feel at home? Why?

4. What do you think of those hosts who put more of an em­phasis on the looks of their house than on the comfort of their guests?

5. What house would you call lovely?

6. What house would you call shabby?

7. What does home mean to you?

II. Make up dialogues:

1) between Sadie, her husband and their guests;

2) between Esther, her husband and their guests.

Exercise 20

Have a look at Picture A and B. Answer the questions. Make use of the phrases and words below:

Picture A

Picture В

It needs cleaning; to scatter; to throw around; to tidy up; to be piled with something; to lack; to be in disorder; untidy; in a mess.

Picture A

1. What can you see in Picture A?

2. Could you describe it in detail?

3. What attracts your attention in particular?

4. What's your impression of this room?

5. Do you like it?

6. What do you think of its occupant?

Picture В

1. What can you see in it?

2. Do you like the room now?

3. Could you describe Picture В in detail?

4. What changes have been made? Why?

5. What is missing in Picture B?

6. Could you compare these two pictures?

7. Which picture do you like better and why?

8. What would you add to make it look cosier?

○ Exercise 21

Read the telephone conversation and draw a plan of the house and the garden. Tell other students how you would furnish the house and use the rooms.

Martin: Hello, Linda!

Linda: Hi!

Martin: Well, good news at last. After looking at about two hundred houses, I've found just the place for us. It's in Blackwood, which is an outer suburb about twenty five minutes drive from the city. I think you'll love it. It's got a lovely big garden and lots of trees.

Linda: Yes, fantastic. Now tell me all about it.

Martin: Well, it's basically a three bedroom house. Very individual in style. There's no front door at all. You come into the hall from a side door. As you walk down the hall, there are two bedrooms on the left. On the right there is a door leading into a huge lounge.

Linda: What about the third bedroom?

Martin: Well, if you keep going down the hall, it is on the right, past the lounge room. The room on the left would make a useful study or family room. The one on the right, which has a wine cellar by the way, would be a very good store room or junk room.

Linda: I see.

Martin: What sold me on the house was the kitchen. It leads off the lounge and is huge. We can eat in there when we don't feel like having a formal meal in the dining room.

Linda: What about outside?

Martin: Well, there's a big wide verandah running across the front of the house. The two main bedrooms look out onto this. It also continues down the left-hand side of the house. Part of it, on the western side acts as a passage to the bathroom and toilet.

Linda: And the garden? You said something about a gar­den.

Martin: Yes, it is one of the nicest things about the place. A driveway runs down the left-hand side of the house to the garden. On the right of the house there is an orchard with apple, plum and orange trees. At the rear there is a large grassed area surrounded by a border of trees and shrubs. In the middle of the lawn there is an old clothes line.

Linda: That'll have to go!

Martin: Well, it is usefiil.

Linda: I don't care, it is ugly.

Martin: OK, the clothes line goes.

Linda: Well, then, when can I see it?

Martin: As soon as you arrive tomorrow..

Linda: Great. I'll see you then. Bye.

Martin: Bye.

Exercise 22

Speak about the room where you live. Make use of the topical vocabulary.

Exercise 23

Speak about the flat where you live. Make use of the following questions and topical vocabulary.

1. Where do you live? How many floors does the house have? Is it a block of flats or not?

2. What modern facilities does your flat offer? Do you have electricity, running water, gas, a telephone, a radio?

3. What kind of flooring do you have in your flat?

4. How are the walls of your flat finished? Are they white­washed, tiled or wallpapered? Do you like to adorn the walls?

5. How is your flat lighted?

6. What kind of curtains (hangings, blinds) do you have? Do they go well with the wallpaper?

7. Is your flat crammed with things?

8. What makes your flat look cosy?

9. Do you have a convenient working space or a desk at home? Where do you keep your books?

Exercise 24

Find a photograph or a picture of an interior in which you recognize a taste that is radically different from your personal style. Tell your classmates what you like or dislike about it.

Exercise 25

If you have travelled abroad, speak about the difference in interior decora­tions which one may observe in foreign (British, American, German, etc.) and Russian homes.

Exercise 26

Ask your partner the following questions and fill in his or her answers. Then summarize what his/her answers suggest about his or her ideas about home.

Do you think a home is somewhere Yes No Don't Know

you are secure and warm? ____________________

you can be alone? __________________________

Exercise 27

I. Match the idioms in the left column with their Russian equivalents in the right column.

1. to build one's castle upon the sand А. выступать (перед аудиторией)

2. to build castles in the air В. указать кому-либо надверь

3. room at the top С. припереть кого-либо к стенке

4. to do something under the table D. создавать что-либо непрочное

5. to be in the chair Е. ковёр-самолёт

6. to take the floorF. захлопнуть дверь перед носом

7. a window on the world G. председательствовать

8. to camp on somebody's doorstep Н. верхняя ступенька социальной лестницы

9. to shut the door in somebody's face I. ломиться в открытую дверь

10. to show somebody the door J. строить воздушные замки

11. to force an open door К. окно в мир

12. to call somebody on the carpet L. у стен есть уши

13. a magic carpet M. дать кому-либо нагоняй

14. walls have ears N. делать что-либо секретно

15. to drive somebody to the О. обивать пороги wall

II. Think of the situations where you can use these idioms.

Exercise 28

Highlight the meanings of the proverbs, making up short situations. Tell them in class.

1. People who live in glass houses should not throw stones.

2. Do not burn your house to get rid of the mice.

3. As you make your bed, so you must lie on it.

4. A rolling stone gathers no moss.

5. Charity begins at home.

6. Home is where the heart is.

7. East or West — home is best.

Exercise 29

Translate the following quotations and comment upon them.

'A man travels the world over in search of what he needs and returns home to find it.'

George Moore

'A house is not a home.'

Pol ly Adler

'Houses are built to live in and not to look on; therefore let use be preferred before uniformity, except where both may be had. '

Francis Bacon

'Mid pleasures and palaces though we may roam, Be it ever so humble, there's no place like home.'

John Howard Payne

Exercise 30

Role-play "Buying a House"

Setting: A real estate agency in London.

Situation: Different people come to the office and have a talk with real estate managers. All of them want to move somewhere: to sell or to buy houses or flats. The managers offer them different housing variants.

Characters:

Card I—II — Mr Sinless and Mrs' Pure, the real estate managers.

Card III-IV - Mr and Mrs Woolworth. Their family of three wants to move to the countryside from the centre of London.

Card V—VI — Mr and Mrs Littlewood, a retired couple who want to move from a huge house to a smaller one.

Card VII—VIII — Mr and Mrs Sunwin, a young couple who before anything else want to buy a house of their own.

Card IX—X — Mr and Mrs Hewlett. Their family of se­ven wants to move to a bigger house in the suburbs.

WRITING

Exercise 1

Prepare to write a dictation. Learn the spelling of the italicized words from Introductory Reading and the words from exercise 1 on page 41.

Exercise 2

Render this text in English and write it down.

В маленьких квадратных комнатах с низкими потолка­ми Лиза бродила минут десять.

Это были комнаты, обставленные красным деревом и карельской березой — мебелью строгой, чудесной. Два квадратных шкафа стояли против письменного стола. Стол был безбрежен. По углам стояли кресла с высоки­ми спинками. Солнце лежало на персиковой обивке кресел.

По левую руку от самого пола шли низенькие полу­круглые окна. Сквозь них, под ногами, Лиза увидела огромный белый зал с колоннами. В зале тоже стояла ме­бель. Лиза остановилась. Никогда еще она не видела зала у себя под ногами.

Она попала в красную гостиную, в которой стояло предметов сорок. Это была ореховая мебель. Из гостиной не было выхода. Пришлось бежать назад через круглую комнату с верхним светом, меблированную, казалось, то­лько цветочными подушками.

Невольно она приспосабливала виденную мебель к своей комнате и потребностям. Кровать ей совсем не по­нравилась. Кровать была слишком велика.

Мебель была представлена многочисленными комп­лектами. Сравнительно небольшие ее размеры привели Лизу в восторг.

— Смотрите, смотрите! — доверчиво кричала она.

— Видите это бюро? Оно чудно подошло бы к нашей комнате. Правда?

— Прелестная мебель! — гневно сказал Остап.

— А здесь я уже была,— сказала Лиза, входя в крас­ную гостиную.

Большая комната была перегружена мебелью. Стулья расположились вдоль стены и вокруг стола. Диван в углу тоже окружали стулья. Их ножки и удобные спинки были знакомы Ипполиту Матвеевичу.

(И. Ильф, Е. Петров «Двенадцать стульев»)

Exercise 3

Write a composition or an essay on one of the topics:

1. My Dream House.

2. Home Sweet Home.

3. One's Character Shows in His or Her Home.

4. Why There Is Always a Mess in My Room.

5. I Like to Stay at My Grandma's Place.

Note:

Composition and essay are both translated into Russian as "сочинение" but there is a distinction between them. A com­position is fairly short (1—3 pages) and simple. Compositions may be written by students as long as they are capable of wri­ting only on simple narrative or descriptive subjects.

An essay is usually longer (may be up to 20 pages). It ex­presses ideas, as opposed to simply telling a story or describing something, though it may also be narrative or descriptive. An essay should have some literary merit. Essays are usually writ­ten by those who have sufficiently mastered the language to be able to express their ideas in it.

If you choose a topic for an essay, plan carefully before you write. First of all try to explain what the statement means to you. A simple explanation in your own words will help to cla­rify the issue in your mind. The best approach to plan an essay is to make a list of points, in note form, which you want to in­clude.

There should be an introduction. Plan an opening para­graph that will express your approach. It may be a clear state­ment of your understanding the point; some illustration of the point or even an expression of disagreement. Whichever you choose, the opening paragraph should lead logically into the body of the essay.

Plan the ideas for the succeeding paragraphs. Do not forgetthat each paragraph develops the idea one step farther. Pay special attention to the logical linking of clauses and sentences.

All points are put in logical order or in order of importance, with quotations if necessary.

Plan a conclusion which brings together the ideas of the es­say and represents some kind of resolution of the conflicting arguments.

Lesson 3 DAILY ROUTINE

INTRODUCTORY READING AND TALK

I'm in the first year at the university, where I'm studying Eng­lish. My elder sister, Betty, is studying history at the same univer­sity. Betty can organise her time wisely, whereas I do not know what order I should do things in. I find it hard to get up on time, and usu­ally I do not get enough sleep. I have to wind two alarm-clocks to make sure I do not oversleep.

My sister, an early riser, is awake by 7 o'clock, refreshed and full of energy. While I'm wandering round the kitchen, fighting the urge to go back to bed, Уравнения химических реакций my sister man­ages to have a quick shower, make her bed, put on make up, do her hair, eat a full breakfast and set off to the university. It takes me an hour and a half to get ready. I have a hasty bite and rush out of the house. Even if I catch a bus at once I still arrive at the university 15 minutes late, which always makes me feel guilty.

My studies keep me busy all day long. I have 14 hours of English a week. I also have lectures and seminars. At lunchtime I meet up with my sister and we have a snack at the university cafe. After classes I make myself go to the library where I spend about six hours a week reading for my seminars.

My sister and I come home tired. I always find excuses to put my homework off. Unlike me, my sister manages to do the housework and get down to homework. I like the idea of going to bed early, but quite often I have to sit up late, brushing up on my grammar and vo­cabulary, though I feel sleepy. My sister says that keeping late hours ruins one's health. Of course, I agree.

As my sister and I do not get any time off during the week, we try to relax on the weekends. One of my greatest pleasures is to lie in bed and read my favourite books. My sister is a sporty person. To keep herself fit, Betty goes for a run in the park; from time to time she works out in the gym.

I hate staying in, and sometimes on Saturday night my sister takes me out to a concert or a play. Sometimes we go to a party or to a disco. But more often than not I end up catching up on my stu­dies and my sister goes out. I wonder how I manage to spoil my lei­sure time.

Every Monday when I awaken I think I should start a new life. I honestly think that I must become well-organised and correct my daily routine. I make plans to go to keep-fit classes, to do shopping with my sister, to do the cleaning and to do a hundred other good things. But then I remember that I have to call on my school friend in the evening, and I put off my plans till next Monday. It is always better to start a new life in a week.

1. What is your usual day like? Is it very different from this girl's day?

2. What takes up most of your day?

3. Look at the pictures below and say what can be said about you and what cannot.

Pattern: She usually gets up at six. But I don't. I get up at seven. She usually has breakfast at eight. So do I. I have breakfast at eight.

seven o'clock

eight o'clock

nine o'clock

twelve o'clock

five o'clock

seven o'clock

ten o'clock

4. Is your daily routine alwaysthe same?

TEXT

One Day of Peter's life

(Story by Peter and Heidi El liott)

I usually manage to be first at waking up — my brother Daniel (he's six) would stay in bed until seven o'clock. Mum can't under­stand it but it seems obvious to me that this is when the day starts, so why miss the beginning? After a quick warm-up and a chat we creep downstairs to see what's been left around from the night be­fore, although Mum is wise to this and has usually put away any­thing really interesting.

The refrigerator is always a fairly good place to start, and cold rice pudding tastes much better for breakfast than it does for pud­ding.1 In fact I've tried most things at this hour, from cold stuffed marrow to raw sausages; some of it isn't recommendable and some of it can get you into a lot of trouble. Anyway, I can always make my own breakfast of cereals with plenty of sugar and not much milk. We made Mum's2 the other day but she didn't like the chopped peppercorns and Oxos3 that we added to it. Mind you, it didn't look too good.

Well, just when we get into a good game, Mum comes down and says that we have to put all the furniture back and get dressed. I al­ways have the last say in what I'm going to wear, which is always jeans and a tee-shirt. I'm just not relaxed if I'm wearing smart trou­sers. I like a loose jacket and a hat; my old cowboy hat is a bit mis­shapen but I do not mind that, it seems to put me in the right mood for the day.

It's time to take Daniel to school. I really enjoy this trip at the moment because I've got a super little bike which I ride there and back. Well, I don't exactly ride it because both pedals have fallen off and the chain has snapped, so now it's more like a hobby-bike. I use my feet for brakes and propulsion.4 It works very well and my bal­ance is now so good that I can ride my brother's big bike if someone helps me to get on and off.

When we get to Daniel's school I have a race around the play­ground and annoy a few of Dan's friends before the whistle goes, and then, as the trip home is up-hill and rather boring. Mum usu­ally has to give me a push. I generally play then, or visit a friend down the lane whose brother has some super toys, which compen­sates for the fact that she's a girl.5

Lunch can vary from day to day because I'm quite fussy about my food. I find it hard to sit still long enough to eat a whole dinner, so sometimes Mum reads a book to me which makes it much more enjoyable, and if the story is very good, I've even been known to eat things that I didn't think I liked.

I suppose that the way I spend my day must seem fairly routine to some people, but I like to use it to the full no matter what I'm doing. I do everything with enthusiasm — whether constructing a rocket with bricks or practising gymnastics on the bed or just sliding down the banisters, and I've noticed that people who are older than me don't seem to have half as much fun, so I say that I'm going to enjoy myself for as long as possible.

The afternoons are unpredictable. On a fine day I may go swim­ming or visit a park or the shops. Personally, I think the shops are best, especially the ones with toys in. My mother just doesn't seem to understand that I need them all, anyway I have a good try with as many as I can before getting into trouble with the assistant. Then I move on to the sweets, which I generally get one of. Friends' houses can be a good source of entertainment, although if they haven't got any children it can be a bit frustrating not being allowed to touch anything. Luckily most of mother's friends have got children.

The best treat of all, though, is visiting Nanny.6 She's got much more time to spend on you than parents have and I do all sorts of things there. I have made some very tasty cakes in Nanny's kitchen and she doesn't mind how much mess goes on the floor.7

I also enjoy gardening with her. She is extremely patient with my pruning efforts.8 So my afternoons vary until we collect my brother from school at 3.30. He's not so much fun in the after­noons, but I do a bit of insect searching on the way home and col­lect any interesting sticks and stones that I think I could use in our small garden.

My bedtime is fixed at 7.30 and to be honest I'm just about ready for it by then. After doing my duty — by eating some tea — I play for a while or watch television. I'm not a TV addict but car­toons I do enjoy9 and my favourite programme is Tarzan. When this is on I strip off to my underpants and really get into the part. (I'm fantastically brave.) I then have a trip down a shark-infested river10 at bathtime or practise swimming in the bath, but my room is rather restricted and Mum doesn't appreciate how far I get the wa­ter up the wall.11 So, when the water has got fairly cold, I reluctantly agree to get out and put my pyjamas on. I don't like cleaning my teeth but I do.

Mum has to read a book at bedtime: it gives me a few minutes to have a last play and select my favourite toys before the light goes out. After all, even in my dreams I've had to fight some pretty fierce tigers.

Proper Names

Daniel ['d{nj@l] — Дэниел

Tarzan ['t¸z{n] — Тарзан

Vocabulary Notes

1. ... than it does for pudding — ... чем когда его подают как десерт.

2. ... we made Mum's the other day — на днях мы приготовили завтрак маме.

3. Oxos — «Оксоз» (Прим.: название бульонных кубиков)

4. I use my feet for brakes and propulsion. — Я торможу и от­талкиваюсь ногами.

5. ... visit a friend down the lane whose brother has some super toys, which compensates for the fact that she's a girl. — ... хожу к подружке, которая живёт на нашей улице; у её брата есть потрясающие игрушки, и это смиряет меня с тем, что она — девочка.

6. Nanny — здесь: бабушка (Прим.: в других контекстах может означать «нянечка»).

7. She doesn't mind how much mess goes on the floor. — Ей всё равно, сколько мусора на полу.

8. ... she is extremely patient with my pruning efforts. — Она очень терпеливо относится к моим неловким попыткам подстричь деревья и кусты.

9. ... but cartoons I do enjoy ... — ... но вот мультики мне нра­вятся.

10. shark-infested — кишащий акулами.

11. Mum doesn't appreciate how far I get the water up the wall. — Мама не одобряет, что я забрызгиваю водой всю стену.

Comprehension Check

1. Why does the child wake up first?

2. What do the brothers do after a warm-up and a chat?

3. What does the child like to wear?

4. Why does the boy enjoy his trip to Daniel's school?

5. Is he fussy about his food?

6. Does the boy find his days boring?

7. How does he spend the afternoons?

8. Whom does he enjoy visiting most? Why?

9. When does the boy go to bed?

10. Is he a TV addict?

11. How does the boy entertain himself at bathtime?

12. What does he do before the light goes out? .

Phonetic Text Drills

○ Exercise 1

Transcribe and pronounce correctly the words from the text.

Obvious, to creep, stuffed, marrow, raw, recommendable, ce­reals, peppercorns, loose, cowboy, misshapen, super, propul­sion, balance, to compensate, to vary, enthusiasm, gymnastics, banister, unpredictable, frustrating, treat, pruning, insect, ad­dict, cartoon, underpants, appreciate, reluctantly, pyjamas, fierce.

○ Exercise 2

Pronounce the words or phrases where the following clusters occur.

1. plosive + plosive

managed to be, creep downstairs, good place, and cold rice, look too, good game, get dressed, to take Daniel, hard to sit, bedtime, but cartoons, trip down, and put.

2. plosive + w

at waking up, quick warm-up, that we added, just when, that we, it works, a rocket with bricks, patient with.

3. plosive + r

brother, creep, breakfast, tried, trouble, trousers, trip, brakes, propulsion, unpredictable, try, children, treat, ex­tremely, programme, brave, practise, agree, pretty.

4. plosive + s

would stay, it seems, starts, what's, tastes, last say, its time, sit still, must seem, good source, fight some.

Exercise 3

Avoid false assimilation in the clusters:

1. z + s

he's six, has snapped, has some.

2. voiceless plosive + D

that this, at the moment, noticed that, think the shops.

3. s/z + D

miss the beginning, Mum's the other day, as the trip, sup­pose that.

Exercise 4

Practise the pronunciation of predicative structures.

It's 'time to 'take 'Daniel to \school. ||

The ,after'noons are 'unpre'dictable. ||

The 'best 'treat of \all, | though, | is 'visiting \Nanny. ||

My bedtime is 'fixed at 'seven \thirty | and | to be \honest | I'm 'just a'bout \ready for it by ,then. ||

I'm 'not a 'TV \addict | but car'toons I 'do en'joy | and my 'favourite 'programme is \Tarzan. ||

EXERCISES

Exercise 1

Reproduce the sentences in which the following words and expressions are used.

to wake up to vary from day to day

to leave around to use the day to the full

to get somebody into trouble to do everything with enthusiasm

to have the last say into be a good source of

something entertainment

to be relaxed the best treat

to put somebody in the to be a TV addict

right mood

boring to strip off

to be fussy about something bedtime

Exercise 2

Agree or disagree with the following statements. Give your reasons.

1. The child is the last to wake up.

2. In the kitchen the boy tries a lot of things from cold mar­ row to raw sausages.

3. The child's mother has the last say in what he's going to wear.

4. The boy likes to wear smart suits.

5. He finds his trip to Daniel's school boring.

6. The boy is fussy about his food.

7. The child's routine is boring and predictable.

8. He likes spending his time in the shops.

9. The child enjoys visiting Nanny.

10. He is a TV addict.

11. The child enjoys swimming in the bath.

Exercise 3

I. Give the three forms of the irregular verbs from the text:

Creep, put, get, ride, go, give, find, read, think, slide, make, fight.

II. Give the past form of the regular verbs:

Manage, stay, start, add, enjoy, snap, use, annoy, visit, com­pensate, vary, suppose, construct, practise, seem, touch, mind, collect, search, fix, watch, strip, appreciate, agree, select.

Exercise 4

Fill the gaps in these sentences with the suitable words below.

I. frustrating unpredictable

loose smart

boring relaxed

fussy

1. She likes to feel comfortable and relaxed in clothes, that's why she always wears ... sweaters and jackets and not ... suits.

2. Jane is fed up with this ... town — all they have is a bar, a cinema and a Chinese restaurant.

3. There must be nothing more ... than having a job you don't like.

4. You can't feel ... and enjoy yourself if there are exams co­ming.

5. Since the time she was ill, she's been ... about what she eats.

6. She behaves like the weather in Great Britain; she's so ...

II. to creep to strip offto vary

to select to annoy to leave around

1. There was a large number of beautiful toys and dolls in the shop and it took the girl a lot of time ... one.

2. Someone ... into the house and stole jewellery.

3. She ran upstairs,... her wet jeans and sweater and pulled on a dressing gown.

4. I don't want to stay in the house with these two screaming kids. They ... me.

5. To make kids eat, you should ... the menu as much as pos­sible.

6. Please, don't... your toys ... . I have to put them away be­fore I can do the cleaning.

Exercise 5

Find in the text words and expressions similar in meaning to the italicized ones.

1. Somehow he got involved in a boring conversation about food prices.

2. I always start my day with morning exercises and a cold shower. And, of course, I very much like a cup of hot coffee.

3. Nurses should do all they can to make their patients feel at ease.

4. The child abandoned his favourite toy; a little squirrel in the grass had become better entertainment.

5. When I go to the countryside I like to observe insects.

6. I always go to bed at half past seven and nothing can change my habit.

7. I spent my holiday in Spain and enjoyed it fully.

8. I can't think of anything more tedious than washing and cooking for the family all day long.

9. I feel that you are doing that unwillingly.

10. My brother is always enthusiastic, no matter what he is do­ing — playing or working.

11. We moved quietly upstairs so as not to wake the baby.

12. Morning exercises may be hard work, but they can also be great fun.

13. A meal in a restaurant came as a real pleasure after all the food at the university.

14. You are just saying that to irritate me.

15. In the afternoons Mother takes my sister from school.

Exercise 6

Find in the text sentences containing:

I. synonyms and synonymous expressions for the following:

depressing untidiness

to pick somebody up to take off the clothes

physical exercises to be different

II. words or phrases with the opposite meaning:

to get out of bed to get undressed

not much boring

to stay out of trouble predictable

Exercise 7

Find in the text the English equivalents of the following words and expres­sions.

A.

Просыпаться; оставаться в постели; день начинается; разминка; приготовить завтрак; одеваться; пора (делать что-либо); добираться до школы; звучит свисток; съесть весь обед; ходить в парк; забирать из школы; ложиться спать ровно в 7.30; не отрываться от телевизора; раздеться до чего-либо; увлечься игрой; заниматься плаванием; на­девать пижаму; чистить зубы; читать книгу на ночь; свет гаснет; во сне.

В .

Оставаться с вечера; убирать; причинить неприятно­сти; разыграться; оставить за кем-либо последнее слово; потерять форму (о предмете одежды); создавать хорошее настроение; туда и обратно; хорошо получаться; быть привередливым; использовать в полной мере; скатывать­ся вниз; попробовать как можно больше; забрызгать во­дой стену; неохотно согласиться.

Exercise 8

Express the same idea using different wording and grammar.

1. After a quick warm-up and a chat, we creep downstairs to see what's been left around from the night before.

2. I suppose the way I spend my day must seem fairly routine to some people, but I like to use it to the full.

3. Personally, I think the shops are best, especially the ones with toys in.

4. Friends' houses can be a good source of entertainment.

5. I'm not a TV addict but cartoons I do enjoy and my favour­ite programme is Tarzan.

6. The best treat of all is visiting Nanny.

7. She is extremely patient with my pruning efforts.

8. When Tarzan is on I strip off to my underpants and really get into the part.

9. I then have a trip down a shark-infested river at bathtime or practise swimming in the bath, but my room is rather re­stricted and mum doesn't appreciate how far I get the water up the wall.

10. Mum has to read a book at bedtime, it gives me a few min­utes to have a last play and select my favourite toys before the light goes out.

Exercise 9

1. Draw a chart like the one below and arrange the child's activities into two columns.

Enjoyable Boring

II. After you have finished the chart, compare it with the rest of the class. Discuss the child's activities using the following words:

Interesting, creative, exciting, good fun, dangerous, boring, good exercise, relaxing, crazy, wonderful, enjoyable, terrible.

Start your discussion with the following phrases:

I think/I don't think he enjoys/likes ...

It must be dangerous/interesting to swim/to play... etc.

That sounds/does not sound like much fan/crazy... etc.

I'd like to try ... myself.

He doesn't mind ...

If I had time, I'd like to ...

Exercise 10

Speak about your daily activities using the patterns given below.

1. I'm not a TV addict/ardent reader, etc. but cartoons/nov­els, etc. I do enjoy.

2. I don't like cleaning my teeth/watching newsreels, etc. but I do.

3. I find it hard to sit still long enough/to work in the library, etc.

4. It can be a bit frustrating not being allowed to touch any­thing/to go to a disco, etc.

Exercise 11

Speak about the child's daily routine:

1. in the third person;

2. in the person of his mother;

3. in the person of his brother Daniel.

Exercise 12

Discussion points.

1. What can you say about the boy's character? Support your opinion.

2. What do you think of his mother? What is her daily routine like?

3. What takes up most of the boy's day?

4. What activities mentioned by the boy seem to be most en­tertaining to you? Why?

Exercise 13

I. Discuss activities we do as part of our daily/weekly routine. In five min­utes write down as many things as you can think of. You should write your routines in full sentences, using adverbs of frequency. Read out your list to the class and delete anything you have written down which someone else has as well. Thus make a list of your special routines, that no one else has.

Pattern: I hove parties every week.

II. Express your own feelings about the special routines of your fellow stu­dents. Use the expressions of likes and dislikes.

Pattern: — I have parties every week.

— Well, to be honest/No, I'm not too keen on arranging parties every week.

Exercise 14

Tell about your daily routine when a child. Compare it with your present daily routine. Think about the following points: studies, everyday activities, leisure activities, food/clothes, likes/dislikes. Use the following phrases:

When a child, I used to ..., but now I ...

I never used to ...

I spent most of my time ..., but now I ...

I was/am keenon ...

I was/am a ... addict.

I couldn't/can't live without ...

The best treat of all was/is ...

I found ... enjoyable, but now

I find ... boring/interesting.

I've decided to give up ...

But I'm not going to give up ...

Exercise 15

I. Read the following text and get ready to answer the questions.

John Naylor, 24, is a successful businessman. Let's follow him through a typical day.

The alarm clock goes off at 7:00 a. m. John jolts out of bed at the same time. The automatic coffee maker kicks on in the kitchen. He jumps in the shower, shaves, opens one of the half-dozen boxes of freshly laundered white shirts waiting on the shelf, finishes dressing, and pours a cup of coffee. He sits down to a piece of whole wheat toast while he nips through the Fleet Street Journal. It takes him about 15 minutes to wake up and get ready. His briefcase in one hand and gym bag in the other, he hops in the car, ready to start the day.

He clocks in at exactly 7:45 a. m. He takes a seat in front of the computer and prepares for hours of phone calls and meet­ings that occupy his mornings.

At noon John rashes to the health club where he strips off the grey suit and changes into his T-shirt, shorts and the latest in design running shoes for tennis. In an hour he is sitting in the club dining room where he has scheduled lunch with a po­tential client. They discuss business over sparkling water, pasta and a cup of coffee.

At 2:30 p. m. he is back at his office, eager for several more hours of frantic meetings and phone calls. At 6:00 p. m. John phones out for delivery of dinner to keep him going through the next two to three hours he'll spend at his office.

John gets home at 10:00 p. m. just in time to sit down to a bowl of frozen yoghurt and a reran of this season's most popu­lar drama series before turning in.

II. Make brief notes of John's daily routine. Use these times as a guide.

7:00 7:45 2:30 10:00

7:15 12:00 6:00 - 9:00 1:00

III. Answer the following questions:

1. What takes up most of his time?

2. What things do you dislike about his daily routine?

3. Is his daily routine always the same?

4. Is his daily routine very different from yours? How?

5. What do you think about his social life? What daily routine may his girlfriend have?

6. Is he happy? Why?

7. What problems may arise if John gets married and starts a family? Will children fit into this hectic schedule?

IV. Work in groups of two.

Student A: You are going to interview John. Ask him questions about his daily routine, and ask any­thing else you like. (E. g. How he feels about his life, what he likes about his work, his future plans).

Student B: You are John. Answer the interviewer's ques­tions about your daily routine. When you are asked about other things, invent suitable an­swers.

Exercise 16

Pair work: Talk about your busiest day. Ask the following and more:

1. What's your busiest day?

2. What do you usually do?

3. What time do you get up?

4. Where do you usually have breakfast, lunch?

5. What do you usually do after classes?

6. What time do you usually go home?

7. What do you do at the end of the day?

8. What do you do in your spare time?

9. What time do you usually go to bed?

10. What activities do you enjoy? Which do you dislike?

Exercise 17

Imagine you can do what you like and work where you want. Plan your daily routine. When you are ready tell the class.

Exercise 18

I. Carry out a survey titled "How to Organise Your Day". Ask your fellow students:

1. how much time they spend: working, sleeping, washing and getting dressed, eating and drinking, shopping, travelling, doing housework, studying, reading, watching TV or liste­ning to the radio, performing other leisure activities, doing nothing;

2. which activities they enjoy doing and how long they spend on them;

3. which activities they do not enjoy doing and how long they spend on them;

4. if there is something they don't have time to do or would like to spend more time doing;

5. if there is some way they could organise their time diffe­rently and how.

II. Make notes and analyse the results of the investigation. Write a short report giving the results of your survey. Use words and expressions like these:

None of... A great many of...

Hardly any of... Some of...

Very few of... A large number of.

Not many of... A lot of...

The majority of...

III. Use the following phrases for summarising or generalising:

on the whole, ... at first glance, ...

apparently, ... it seems/appears that ...

generally, ...

IV. When you have finished your report, show it to the other students in the class and discuss.

Exercise 19

Retell the following text in English.

Самое главное, подумал я, это режим. Спать буду ло­житься пораньше, часов в десять. Вставать тоже буду по­раньше и повторять перед школой уроки. После школы буду играть часа полтора в футбол, а потом на свежую го­лову буду делать уроки. После уроков буду заниматься чем захочется: или с ребятами играть, или книжки читать, до тех пор пока не придёт время ложиться спать.

Так, значит, я подумал и пошёл играть в футбол, перед тем, как делать уроки. Я решил играть не больше, чем полтора часа, от силы — два, но, как только я попал на футбольное поле, у меня всё из головы вылетело, и я оч­нулся, когда уже совсем наступил вечер. Уроки я опять стал делать поздно, когда голова уже плохо соображала, и дал сам себе обещание — на следующий день не буду так долго играть. Но на следующий день повторилась та же история. И стал я думать, почему же у меня так получает­ся. Вот я думал, думал, и наконец мне стало ясно, что у меня совсем нет воли. То есть у меня воля есть, только она не сильная. Если мне надо что-нибудь делать, то я никак не могу заставить себя это делать, а если мне не надо чего-нибудь делать, то я никак не могу заставить себя этого не делать. Вот, например, если я начну читать какую-нибудь интересную книжку, то читаю и читаю и никак не могу оторваться. Мне, например, надо делать уроки, или пора уже ложиться спать, а я всё читаю. Мама говорит, чтоб я шел спать, а папа говорит, что пора уже спать, а я не слушаюсь, пока нарочно не потушат свет, чтоб мне нельзя было больше читать. И вот то же самое с этим футболом. Не хватает у меня силы воли кончить вовремя игру, да и только!

... Я решил, что мне надо развивать сильную волю ... Для этого я буду делать не то, что хочется, а то, чего во­все не хочется. Не хочется утром делать зарядку, — а я буду делать. Хочется идти играть в футбол, — а я не пойду. Хочется почитать интересную книжку, — а я не стану. Начать решил сразу, с этого же дня. В этот день мама ис­пекла к чаю мое самое любимое пирожное, но я решил, что раз мне хочется съесть это пирожное, то я не буду его есть.

Наутро я встал — мне очень не хотелось делать заряд­ку, но я всё-таки сделал, потом пошел под кран обмыва­ться холодной водой, потому что обмываться мне тоже не хотелось. Потом позавтракал и пошел в школу, а пирож­ное так и осталось лежать на тарелочке, когда я пришел, оно лежало по-прежнему. Я посмотрел на него. Мне очень захотелось тут же это прикончить, но я поборол в себе это желание.

В этот день я решил в футбол не играть, а просто отдохнуть часика полтора и тогда уже взяться за уроки. И вот после обеда я стал отдыхать. Но как отдыхать? Просто так отдыхать ведь не станешь. Отдых — это игра или какое-нибудь интересное занятие. «Чем же занять­ся?» — думаю.— «Во что поиграть?» Потом думаю: «Пойду-ка поиграю с ребятами в футбол». Не успел я это подумать, как ноги сами вынесли меня на улицу, и пи­рожное так и осталось лежать на тарелке.

(Н. Носов. «Витя Малеев в школе и дома»)

Exercise 20

I. Read the list of English idioms and find their Russian equivalents in the second list.

A.

To be back on track; a whole good hour; from time to time; year in, year out; on the run; in the dead of night; day in, day out; to play the fool; to twiddle one's thumbs.

B .

Время от времени; валять дурака; изо дня в день; из года в год; глубокой ночью; на бегу; битый час; войти в колею; бить баклуши.

II. Use the English idioms in sentences of your own speaking about your daily routine.

Exercise 21

I. Match the two halves of each proverb correctly. Translate them into Russian or give their Russian equivalents.

An early bird catches Jack a dull boy

Time is two things at once

Never put off till tomorrow a virtue

Time and tide a worm

Better late money

Everyday is not what you can do today

No man can do wait for no man

All work and no play makes Sunday

Punctuality is than never

II. Make up a story to illustrate one of these proverbs.

Exercise 22

Translate the quotations and comment upon them.

'A day is a miniature eternity.'

Ralph Emerson

'Write it on your heart that every day is the best day in the year.'

Ralph Emerson

'Three o'clock is always too late or too early for anything you want to do.'

Jean-Paul Sartre

'The day is for honest men, the night for thieves.'

Euripides

'Every day, in every way, I am getting better and better.'

Emile Coue

Exercise 23

Role-play "Making a TV Programme".

Setting: The streets of a big modern city.

Situation: A television crew is making a programme about dif­ferent lifestyles. The journalists stop people in the street and interview them. They ask questions about their daily routine. They try to find out what time they get up, whether they get enough sleep, what they have for breakfast/dinner/supper, whether they are fussy about food, how they get to work, whether they are late for work, what time they come back home, who does the cooking/clean­ing/shopping/washing, etc., whether they are more awake in the morning or in the evening, what time they go to bed, what they do to keep fit, what they do to relax, whether they have any kind of social life, what puts them in a good mood, whether their daily routine is always the same.

Characters:

Card I—II — Christian and Christine, the journalists.

Card III—IV — Daniel and Diana, an actor and an actress. Famous and well-known.

Card V — Sheppard, a university student. Not very di­ligent.

Card VI — Shirley, a model. Willing to make a career.

Card VII — Patricia, a school teacher. Very responsible.

Card VIII — Felicia, a housewife. Has a large family.

Card IX — Raymond, a businessman. Very busy and very rich.

Card X — Letitia, a waitress in a restaurant. Young and carefree.

Card XI — Simon, a professional driver. Works hard and long hours.

WRITING

Exercise 1

Learn the spelling of the words in bold type from Introductory Reading and exercise 1 on page 68 and be ready to write a dictation.

Exercise 2

Write a short description of a) your busiest day; b) your day off; c) your fa­vourite day in the form of diary notes. Follow the pattern:

Exercise 3

Write a composition or an essay on one of the following topics.

1. The Day Everything Went Wrong.

2. How I Organise My Time.

3. The Day Before You Came. (ABBA)

4. 'Never put off till tomorrow, what you can do the day after tomorrow.' (O. Wilde)

5. The Day of a Person Is a Picture of This Person.

Note:

Punctuation.

In writing it is very important to observe correct punctuation marks.

A full stop is put:

1) at the end of sentences;

2) in decimals (e.g. 3.5 — three point five).

A comma separates:

1) homogeneous parts of the sentence if there are more than three members (e.g. I saw a house, a garden, and a car);

2) parentheses (e.g. The story, to put it mildly, is not nice);

3) Nominative Absolute Constructions (e.g. The play over, the audience left the hall);

4) appositions (e.g. Byron, one of the greatest English poets, was born in 1788);

5) interjections (e.g. Oh, you are right!);

6) coordinate clauses joined by and, but, or, nor, for, while, whereas, etc. (e.g. The speaker was disappointed, but the audience was pleased);

7) attributive clauses in complex sentences if they are com­menting (e.g. The Thames, which runs through London, is quite slow. Compare with a defining clause where no comma is needed — The river that/which runs through London is quite slow);

8) adverbial clauses introduced by if, when, because, though, etc. (e.g. If it is true, we are having good luck);

9) inverted clauses (e.g. Hardly had she entered, they fired questions at her);

10) in whole numbers (e.g. 25,500 — twenty five thousand five hundred).

Object clauses are not separated by commas (e.g. He asked what he should do).

To be continued on page 140.

Lesson 4 DOMESTIC CHORES

INTRODUCTORY READING AND TALK

Have you ever met a woman who never touched a broom or a floor-cloth in her life? Nearly all women but a queen have to put up with the daily routine doing all sortsof domestic work. But different women approach the problem differently.

The so-called lady-type women can afford to have a live-in help who can do the housework. She is usually an old hand at doing the cleaning and washing, beating carpets and polishing the furniture. She is like a magician who entertains you by sweeping the floor in a flash or in no time making an apple-pie with one hand. Few are those so lucky as to have such a resident magician to make them free and happy.

Efficient housewives can do anything about the house. Tidying up is not a problem for such women. An experienced housewife will not spend her afternoon ironing or starching collars; she gets every­thing done quickly and effortlessly. She keeps all the rooms clean and neat, dusting the furniture, scrubbing the floor, washing up and put­ting everything in its place. She is likely to do a thorough cleaning every fortnight. She removes stains, does the mending, knits and sews. What man doesn't dream of having such a handy and thrifty wife?

The third type of woman finds doing the everyday household chores rather a boring business. You can often hear her say that she hates doing the dishes and vacuuming. So you may find a huge pile of washing in the bathroom and the sink is probably piled high with plates. A room in a mess and a thick layer of dust everywhere will al­ways tell you what sort of woman runs the house. What could save a flat from this kind of lazy-bones? Probably a good husband.

Finally, there are housewives who do not belong to any group. They like things in the house to look as nice as one can make them. But they never do it themselves. They'd rather save time and effort and they do not feel like peeling tons of potatoes or bleaching, and rinsing the linen. It is simply not worth doing. They persuade their husbands to buy labour-saving devices — a dish-washer, a vacuum-cleaner, a food processor or... a robot-housewife. Another way for them to avoid labour-and-time-consuming house chores is to send the washing to the laundry, to cook dinner every other day, or at least make their husbands and children help them in the home.

In the end, there exist hundreds of ways to look after the house. You are free to choose one of them. What kind of housewife would you like to be?

1. Four types of a housewife have been described in the text above. The first three types have been given names — the lady-type, the lazy-bones type, the efficient housewife. What would you call the fourth type?

2. Which of the types is preferable, to your mind? Why?

3. Name the activities which you see in the pictures below.

Pattern: The lady is working about the house.

4. Say how you share domestic chores in your family. Who does the major part of the household work? Which of you is good at helping your mother?

○ TEXT

Some Practical Experience

(Extract from the book by Monica Dickens "One Pair of Hands". Abridged)

I think Miss Cattermole* refrained from telling the agency what she thought of me, for they rang me up a few days later and offered me another job. This time it was a Mrs. Robertson, who wanted someone twice a week to do washing and ironing and odd jobs. As I had already assured the agency that I was thoroughly domesticated in every way, I didn't feel like admitting that I was the world's worst ironer.

* Miss Cattermole is the name of the lady who was the first to hire Monica through a job agency.

They gave me the address, and I went along there. The por­ter of the flats let me in, as Mrs. Robertson was out, but she had left a note for me, and a pile of washing on the bathroom floor. I sorted it out, and it was not attractive. It consisted mainly of se­veral grubby and rather ragged pairs of corsets and a great many small pairs of men's socks and stockings in a horrid condition of stickiness.

I made a huge bowl of soap suds, and dropped the more nause­ating articles in with my eyes shut. I washed and rinsed and squeezed for about an hour and a half. There was no one but me to answer the telephone, which always rang when I was covered in soap to the elbow. I accepted a bridge party for the owner of the corsets, and a day's golfing for the wearer of the socks, but did not feel in a position to give an opinion on the state of cousin Mary's health.

I had just finished hanging out the clothes, and had wandered into the drawing-room to see what sort of books they had, when I heard a latch key in the door. I flew back to the bathroom, and was discovered diligently tweaking out the fingers of gloves when Mrs. Robertson walked in. She was horrified to see that I had not hung the stockings up by the heels, and told me so with a charming frank­ness. However, she still wanted me to come back the next day to iron the things I had washed.

I returned the next day and scorched Mrs. Robertson's best camisole. She was more than frank in her annoyance over this tri­fling mishap and it made me nervous. The climax came when I dropped the electric iron on the floor and it gave off a terrific burst of blue sparks. I supposed it had fused. It ended by her paying me at the rate of a shilling an hour for the time I had put in, and a tacit agreement being formed between us that I should never appear again.

I was still undaunted, however, and I told myself that there are so many people in the world that it doesn't matter if one doesn't hit it off with one or two of them.2 1 pinned my faith in the woman in the agency,3 and went and had a heart-to-heart talk with her.

'What I want is something where I'll really get a chance to get some practical experience,' I told her.

'Well, we have one or two people asking for cook-generals,' she said. 'You might go and see this Miss Faulkener, at Chelsea. She wants someone to do the work of a very small flat,4 and cook dinner at night, and sometimes lunch.'

I went off, full of hope and very excited, to Miss Faulkener's flat. A sharp-featured maid opened the door.

'You come after the job?'5

'Yes,' I whispered humbly. I gave her my name and she let me in reluctantly. On a sofa in front of a coal fire, groomed to the last eyebrow,6 sat my prospective employer. She looked an amusing woman, and it would be marvellous to have the run of a kitchen to mess in to my heart's content.7 It was all fixed up.

I went to bed early, with the cook's alarm clock at my side, but in spite of that I didn't sleep well. Its strident note terrified me right out of bed into the damp chill of a November morning.8 I bolted down some coffee and rushed off, clutching my overalls and aprons, and, arriving in good time, let myself in, feeling like an old hand. I took myself off to the kitchen. It was looking rather inhumanely neat, and was distinctly cold. There was no boiler as it was a flat, and a small refrigerator stood in one corner. I hung my coat behind the door, put on the overall, and, rolling up my sleeves, pre­pared to attack the drawing-room fire. I found the wood and coal, but I couldn't see what Mrs. Baker* had used to collect ash in. However, I found a wooden box which I thought would do, and took the coal along the passage in that. I hadn't laid a fire since my girl-guide days,9 but it seemed quite simple, and I took the ashes out to the dustbin, leaving a little trail of cinders behind me from a broken comer of the box. The trouble about housework is that whatever you do seems to lead to another job to do or a mess to clear up. I put my hand against the wall while I was bending down to sweep up the cinders and made a huge grubby mark on the beau­tiful cream-coloured paint. I rubbed at it gingerly with a soapy cloth and the dirt came off all right, but an even laiger stain remained, paler than the rest of the paint, and with a hard, grimy outline. I didn't dare wash it any more, and debated moving the grandfather clock over to hide it. However, it was now a quarter past nine, so I had to leave it to its fate10 and pray that Miss Faulkener wouldn't notice.

* Mrs. Baker is the name of the former cook-general

I had dusted the living-room, swept all the dirt down the pas­sage and into the kitchen, and gone through the usual tedious busi­ness of chasing it about, trying to get it into the dustpan before her bell and back-door bell rang at the same moment. The back door was the nearest, so I opened it on a man who said 'Grosher'.11

'Do you mean orders?'

'Yesh, mish'

He went on up the outside stairs whistling, and I rushed to the bedroom, wiping my hands on my overall before going in.

'Good morning, Monica, I hope you're getting on all right. I just want to talk about food.'

We fixed the courses,12 and I rushed back to the kitchen.

It didn't occur to me in those days to wash up as I went along, not that I would have had time,13 as cooking took me quite twice as long as it should. I kept doing things wrong and having to rush to cookery books for help, and everything I wanted at a moment's no­tice had always disappeared.

Every saucepan in the place was dirty; the sink was piled high with them. On the floor lay the plates and dishes that couldn't be squeezed on to the table or dresser, already cluttered up with peel­ings, pudding basins, and dirty little bits of butter.

I started listlessly on the washing-up. At eleven o'clock I was still at it and my back and head were aching in unison. The washing-up was finished, but the stove was in a hideous mess.

Miss Faulkener came in to get some glasses and was horrified to see me still there.

'Goodness, Monica, I thought you'd gone hours ago. Run off now, anyway; you can leave that till tomorrow.'

She wafted back to the drawing-room and I thought: 'If it was you, you'd be thinking of how depressing it will be tomorrow morning to arrive at crack of dawn and find things filthy. People may think that by telling you to leave a thing till the next day it will get done magically, all by itself overnight. But no, that is not so, in fact quite the reverse, in all probability it will become a mess of an even greater magnitude."4

At last I had finished. I arrived home in a sort of coma. My mother helped me to undress and brought me hot milk, and as I burrowed into the yielding familiarity of my own dear bed, my last thought was thankfulness that I was a "Daily" and not a "Liver-in".15

Proper Names

Monica Dickens ['mÁnIk@ 'dIk@nz] — Моника Дикенс

Cattermole ['k{t@m@Ul] — Кэтермоул

Robertson ['rÁb@tsn] — Робертсон

Mary ['me@rI] — Мэри

Faulkener ['fþkn@] — Фокнер

Chelsea ['¶elsI] — Челси

Baker [beIk@] — Бейкер

Vocabulary Notes

1. ... that I was the world's worst ironer.— ... что я хуже всех в мире глажу.

2. ... it doesn't matter if one doesn't hit it off with one or two of them. — неважно, если с кем-то из них не поладишь.

3. I pinned my faith in the woman in the agency ... — Я возложила свои надежды на женщину из агентства...

4. ... to do the work of a very small flat — убирать очень маленькую квартиру.

5. 'You come after the job?' — «Вы насчёт работы?» (Прим.: не­правильное грамматическое построение фразы, характерное для разговорного стиля).

6. ... groomed to the last eyebrow ... — ... ухоженная до кончиков ногтей ...

7. ... to have the run of a kitchen to mess in to my heart's content. — ... вволю похозяйничать на кухне и устроить там полный беспорядок.

8. Its strident note terrified me right out of bed into the damp chill of a November morning. — Его резкий звонок испугал меня и заставил сразу вскочить с кровати; ноябрьское утро было холодным и промозглым.

9. ... since my girl-guide days ... — ... с того времени, когда я бы­ла членом организации «Гёл-Гайдз». (Прим.: «Гёл-Гайдз» — организация для девочек, аналогичная организации бой-скау­тов).

10. ... to leave it to its fate ... — ... оставить всё как есть ...

11. 'Grosher' — бакалейщик. (Прим.: неправильное написание сло­ва grocer, передающее особенности речи персонажа. См. далее 'Yesh, mish.'- 'Yes, miss.').

12. We fixed the courses ... — Мы обсудили, что готовить ...

13. It didn't occur to me in those days to wash up as I went along, not that I would have had time ... — Тогда мне и в голову не при­ходило мыть посуду, пока я готовила, да у меня и времени-то не было ...

14. ... in all probability it will become a mess of an even greater magni­tude. — ... скорее всего, беспорядка станет еще больше.

15. ... that I was a "Daily" and not a "Liver-in". — ... что я бььла домработница приходящая, а не живущая в доме постоянно.

Comprehension Check

1. What did Monica look for? Did she want to find a job as a "Daily" or a "Liver-in"?

2. Why did she think that Miss Cattermole refrained from telling the agency what she thought of her?

3. Who offered the girl the job at a flat twice a week?

4. What was Monica to do at Mrs. Robertson's?

5. What did Mrs. Robertson leave for the girl at her place?

6. How long did it take her to do the washing?

7. Did she have to combine washing with some other job?

8. What did Monica do after she had hung out the clothes?

9. Did Mrs. Robertson find Monica reading a book in the drawing- room?

10. How did Monica and Mrs. Robertson part?

11. What sort of job was Monica offered by Miss Faulkener?

12. What did Miss Faulkener and her kitchen look like?

13. How did Monica sweep up the cinders?

14. What happened while she was sweeping up the cinders?

15. Did the dirt come off all right?

16. Why did the cooking take her twice as long as it should have?

17. What did the kitchen look like at the end of the day?

18. Did the girl like the idea of leaving everything undone till the next day?

19. How did Monica feel when she arrived home?

Phonetic Text Drills

Exercise 1

Transcribe and pronounce correctly the words from the text.

Agency, to assure, domesticated, ragged, corset, nauseating, to squeeze, to wander, to tweak, to scorch, mishap, to fuse, tacit, undaunted, employer, content, strident, to bolt, overall, apron, inhumanely, cinder, gingerly, tedious, to chase, to clutter, uni­son, to waft, filthy, reverse, magnitude, coma, to burrow, yielding.

Exercise 2

Pronounce the words or phrases where the following clusters occur.

1. plosive + m

offered me, let me, consisted mainly, told me, it made me, doesn't matter, took myself, good morning.

2. plosive/s + w

world's worst, had wandered, tweaking, between, sleep well, swept, quite, twice, cluttered up with.

3. plosive + plosive

odd jobs, ragged pairs, horrid condition, dropped, had just, it gave, terrific burst, might go, bolted down, good time, dustpan.

4. plosive + 1

had left, diligently, people, reluctantly, clock, distinctly, table, little, listlessly.

5. plosive + r

address, attractive, grubby, and rather, bridge, trifling, electric, agreement, practical, groomed, aprons, trail, bro­ken, trouble, grimy.

Exercise 3

Pronounce correctly and say what kind of false assimilation one should avoid in the phrases below.

Was thoroughly, was still, is something, wants someone, is that, was thankfullness.

Exercise 4

Transcribe the phrases and mark phonetic phenomena in them.

I was the world's worst ironer ...

Its strident note terrified me right out of bed ...

... but it seemed quite simple.

Exercise 5

Intone the sentences, addressed to someone. Practise their ponunciation. Make up your own examples.

Good \morning, | ,Monica, | I 'hope you are 'getting 'on all \right. ||

^Goodness, | ,Monica, | I 'thought you'd 'gone \ hours a,go. ||

EXERCISES

Exercise 1

Find in the passage and translate sentences containing synonyms or syno­nymous expressions for the following.

experienced worker servant

to do one's laundry washing the plates

to wring tidy

wastebin casual jobs

to do the cleaning worn

to smudge dirty

domestic work silent

Exercise 2

Pick out from the text 1) verbs denoting different kinds of housework activi­ties; 2) nouns denoting various tools used in housework; 3) adverbs de­scribing the manner of doing housework.

►Pattern: 1) to wash, ...

2) a bowl, ...

3) diligently, ...

Exercise 3

Complete the sentences taking the necessary information from the pas­sage.

1. As Miss Cattermole refrained from telling the agency what she thought of Monica they rang her up and ...

2. Monica assured the agency that she was ...

3. Mrs. Robertson wanted Monica twice a week ...

4. The pile of washing left on the bathroom floor didn't look attractive as it consisted of...

5. To do the washing Monica made a huge bowl of ...

6. When she hung out the clothes she flew back to the bath­ room and was discovered ...

7. Mrs. Robertson wanted Monica to come back the next day ...

8. Mrs. Robertson's best camisole ...

9. The electric iron gave off a terrific burst of blue sparks be­cause ...

10. Monica found her perspective employer quite amusing and she thought it would be marvellous ...

11. Before laying a fire Monica put on ...

12. The trouble about housework is that ...

13. While bending down to sweep up the cinders Monica ...

14. Trying to get the dirt into the dustpan Monica went through ...

15. It didn't occur to Monica to wash up as she cooked ...

16. On the floor lay the plates and dishes and the sink ...

17. When Monica finished doing all the jobs her back ... and she arrived home ...

Exercise 4

I. The author uses analogous words or expressions to denote the same things. Find them in the text and say how otherwise the author puts the following.

dirty — to collect ash in —

to do washing — to flow back —

grubby — cluttered up —

hideous — to be thoroughly domesticated

a mark — at a moment's notice —

II. Use your English-English dictionary and explain the difference in mean­ing between similar looking words or phrases from the text.

washing — washing up

to squeeze something — to squeeze something on to some­thing

to drop something — to drop something in something

to go — to go along to hang —

to hang out — to hang up by the heels

Exercise 5

Provide your own words or phrases similar and opposite in meaning to the following.

Gingerly, horrid, a mess, tacit, ragged, to clear up, to come off, tedious, thankfulness, to disappear.

Exercise 6

Choose the right word or phrase for each of the sentences below. Use each of them only once:

Become a mess of an even greater magnitude, a hideous mess, be piled high with plates and dishes, neat, thoroughly domesti­cated, "Daily", up by the heels, cookery-books, get some prac­tical experience, get it into the dustpan, a "Liver-in".

1. Monica was happy that she was a ... and not a ....

2. Doing the work of a flat any young girl can ... .

3. The trouble about housework is that if you leave things till tomorrow it will ....

4. My brother never makes his bed or tidies his own room so it's always in ... .

5. ... are very helpful if you cannot cook well enough.

6. My elder sister is .... She can iron and do the washing and she's an excellent cook.

7. Men can do very many things: lay a fire, repair electrical appliances but they hate washing up. When they stay alone a sink may ... .

8. Hanging out the clothes Mum hangs socks and sto­ckings ... .

9. Little Bob was told to sweep up the dirt but he couldn't.... 10. If you often do cleaning your flat looks ....

Exercise 7

Give the English equivalents for the following Russian words and phrases.

A.

Рассортировать; полоскать; отдельные мелкие поруче­ния; убирать очень маленькую квартиру; по локти в мыле; опытный работник; опереться рукой о стену; закатать ру­кава; замести в совок; делать что-либо неправильно; вы­тереть руки о рабочий халат; грязь хорошо отмылась; ещё больший беспорядок; отжимать; развешивать; выворачи­вать; прожечь; передник; разжигать огонь; подметать; грязный контур; тереть намыленной тряпкой; оставить грязную отметину; развести порошок в тазу; гладить; гора белья для стирки; уметь делать всё по дому; хозяйничать на кухне; прислуга, выполняющая обязанности кухарки и горничной.

В.

Удержаться от того, чтобы сказать; затраченное время; полный надежд; ни свет ни заря; оставить всё как есть; за­платить из расчёта шиллинг за час; у тебя дела идут хоро­шо; оставить записку; направиться на кухню; оставить до завтра; мелкая неприятность; высказать мнение; что душе угодно; вдруг чудесным образом само собой сделается; приняться за мытьё посуды.

Exercise 8

Replace the phrases in italics with one of the words or phrases below.

to fix the courses a pile of washing

a dustbin to give off a burst of sparks and fuse

to rinse to lay a fire to come off all right

to do odd jobs an old hand

1. Mary's husband is so handy that he could even repair the iron when it sparkled and melted.

2. If you need a container for household refuse you can buy it at any supermarket.

3. When Jack made a grimy mark on the wall playing football Mum robbed at it with a soapy cloth and she managed to re­move it.

4. While doing washing you put clothes through clean water to remove soap.

5. Mother left a lot of linen for me to wash.

6. To heat the house Dad first collects ash in a small box and then puts wood ready for lighting.

7. Before giving a party we bought lots of delicious things and decided what to cook.

8. My wife is quite an expert at cooking.

9. The employer wanted a Daily for doing casual jobs.

Exercise 9

Fill in the gaps with prepositions.

1. Monica could guess what Miss Cattermole thought ... her and was grateful that she did not call the agency.

2. The girl had to open the door and answer the telephone covered ... soap to the elbow.

3. The maid in the house did not feel like giving an opinion ... the state of things there.

4. Mrs. Robertson could not hide her annoyance ... the mis­hap with her best camisole.

5. The two ladies' relations ended ... Mrs. Robertson's paying out the money and saying nothing.

6. The prospective employer was groomed ... the last eyebrow and looked nice.

7. While sweeping up the cinders Monica put her hand ... the wall and made a grubby mark.

8. The stain would not come off and Monica had nothing to do but leave it ... its fate.

9. The Daily had rubbed ... the stain patiently ... a soapy cloth until it came off.

10. Every day the servant had to go ... the tedious business of cleaning, dusting and washing.

11. The most difficult thing about ash is getting it ... the dust­pan.

12. Wiping one's hands ... the overall or apron is considered to be a bad habit.

13. An inexperienced cook always rushes to cookery books ... help and wastes a lot of time.

14. At ten Monica started ... the washing-up and at eleven she was still... it though she was enormously tired.

Exercise 10

Fill in the gaps in the following sentences with suitable words or phrases from the text.

1. Nick's grandfather lives alone and has nobody to look after him and do ... of a flat.

2. After... cooking Mrs. Jackson washes up because the sink is piled high with plates and dishes.

3. I couldn't squeeze anything on to the table: it was just ... with peelings, basins, saucepans and spoons.

4. Before sending the linen to the laundry I ... the pile of washing and did the marking.

5. The flat was in a ... condition and it needed decorating.

6. Mary is such a lazy-bones that she always does washing or ironing ... and no wonder it takes her quite twice as long as it should.

7. Mike didn't feel in ... of helping his wife in the home as he was not handy enough.

8. 'There's the phone', — said Grandma. She ... her hands on her apron and rushed to the dining-room to answer the telephone.

9. To keep my room clean and tidy I ... the furniture twice a week using a soapy cloth and also sweep the floor.

10. The agency ... me a job of a Liver-in but I had to refuse.

Exercise 11

Speak about Monica's efforts to carry out her duties as a Daily:

1. in the third person;

2. in the person of Monica;

3. in the person of the woman in the agency;

4. in the person of Mrs. Robertson;

5. in the person of Miss Faulkener.

Exercise 12

Give a character sketch of Monica and describe her attitude towards her duties.

► Use:

to get some experience, one's first experience, one's bad expe­rience, absent-minded, fussy, neat, reliable, handy, an old hand, efficient, good, economical, hard-working, diligently, listlessly, to be domesticated in every way, to leave smth. till tomorrow, ...

Exercise 13

Discussion points.

1. What prevented Monica from becoming thoroughly do­mesticated: her laziness, her mother's bad example or something else?

2. What is Monica's attitude to her troubles while getting some practical experience?

3. Monica assured the agency that she was thoroughly domes­ticated in every way. Was she right, in your opinion, or should she have told them the troth?

4. Which of the two employers did Monica like better? Give your reasons.

5. Does anything suggest that Monica can become an experi­enced housewife?

Exercise 14

Imagine that Monica's employers (Mrs. Robertson and Miss Faulkener), were friends. They discover that they hired the same girl as a Daily. What would they tell each other?

Exercise 15

Imagine what Monica might have done when she worked at Miss Cattermo-le's as a Daily and why she didn't hit it off with her employer.

Exercise 16

Express your opinion on the following.

'...I told myself that there are so many people in the world that it doesn't matter if one doesn't hit it off with one or two of them.'

'The trouble about housework is that whatever you do seems to lead to another job to do or a mess to clear up.'

'...If it was you, you'd be thinking of how depressing it will be tomorrow morning to arrive at crack of dawn and find things filthy.'

Exercise 17

Give a description of:

a) an untidy kitchen

Use :

To squeeze something on to something, to be piled high with something, to be cluttered with peelings, basins etc., to be in an awful mess, to spill rice, flour etc., not to manage one's household chores properly, to leak, to drip something all over the floor, to scrub, a stiff brush, ragged;

b) a room in a mess

Use :

Unattractive, shabby, broken, to give the place a clean-out, to be littered with something, to stain, finger marks, to put things tidy, to do the repairs, to need decorating, to be crammed with something, to find chaos, not to have been decorated for years, to be in a hideous mess, to be in a horrid condition, to smell unaired, can hardly move about, to knock smth. over, to leave the bed unmade, to be not much of a housewife, to do a thor­ough turn out;

c) a neat room

Use:

An efficient housewife, to clean the room from top to bottom, a lovely colour scheme, to look neat, spacious, to have a mini­mum of furniture, newly decorated, vivid colours of upholstery and paintings, in good taste, to be comfortably furnished with something, potted flowers, spick and span, to vacuum the room, to owe much of its charm to something, to give a bright mood;

d) the most boring house chores

Use :

To get bored with something, to make somebody nervous, to hate doing something, to get through the usual tedious busi­ness of doing something, to turn a blind eye to the state of things.

Exercise 18

Translate into Russian.

1. When Mum came in she was horrified to see that I hadn't cleared up the mess in my room.

2. My brother and I do hate washing up. Dad persuaded us to form an agreement between us that we should do it in turn.

3. Every other day I sweep the carpets with the car­pet-sweeper, or vacuum them and dust the furniture. It re­ally helps me to keep my room clean and tidy.

4. John's son is rather untidy. He always leaves such a mess in his room. John doesn't like things left around in the room and he makes his son tuck things away and clean the room every day.

5. Once a season we turn out our flat. We usually vacuum the floor, the furniture, beat the carpets and rugs, mop the floor, and dust all the rooms. It's a messy and dull job, I should say.

6. Frank is very good at helping his wife. She is proud of him and says that he is always ready to share household chores with her. And apart from that he's an old hand at repairing all sorts of electrical appliances.

7. My wife left a note for me and asked me to vacuum the liv­ing-room as we were giving a party that day. That was a chance for me to try out the new vacuum-cleaner and I got on so well that I cleaned the living-room and the bedroom. It was a real joy cleaning with such a marvellous vacuum. 1 was amazed at the speed with which time went when I was working.

8. I was pressed for time and had a lot of work to do about the house. So I bolted down some coffee and started washing up. The kitchen was just in a hideous mess but I realised that I couldn't leave all that till tomorrow, otherwise it would become a mess of a greater magnitude.

9. 'Bill, go and empty the dustbin. It's full. And you didn't wipe your feet on the doormat again', said Bill's mother. She was more than frank in her annoyance over the mess she discovered on her coming back home. It really made her upset.

10. Fiona is so fastidious! When she comes home she starts cleaning the flat and she never finishes until she cleans it from top to bottom. It's so depressing, to my mind. Always the same. I would get bored with all these things. I don't like it when people make a fuss about housekee­ping.

Exercise 19

I. Arrange the words and word combinations given below in a logical order to show how you usually do the following household chores:

washing:

to wring (squeeze); to rinse; to sort out the lights, darks, and whites; to hang (out) the laun­dry on the washing-lines; to starch; to take a wash-basin; to dry the linen; to blue; to add de­tergent (washing powder); to use laundry soap; to pour out warm water; to bring a pile of wash­ing; to bleach; to do a big wash; to choose a wash(ing) day; to pin with clothes-pegs.

ironing:

to press diligently; to scorch; to iron; to get rid of the creases; to use a damp cloth; to set up an ironing board; to switch on an electric iron.

washing up:

to put cups, etc. in the plate rack; to do the dishes; to dry (up) plates and dishes; to pile eve­rything up tidily; to scrape all scraps of solid food from the dishes; to take washing liquid or laun­dry soap; to rinse the plates; to start with china and cutlery; to do greasy frying pans and large saucepans; to use a bottlebrush.

dusting the furniture:

to keep clean and tidy; to vacuum; to get through the tedious business of doing something; to throw things away; to mb over with a soapy cloth; to air the room; to use a duster; to look spick and span; to prepare for a messy job.

II. Tell your groupmates how you do the washing, the ironing, etc.

Exercise 20

I. Match the names of household objects with the verbals denoting house­hold chores:

Pattern: a) A toaster is used for making toasts.

b) It's nice to have a toaster as you can easily make a couple of pieces of toast for breakfast.

1. a vacuum (cleaner) A. washing up

2. a sewing machine B. ironing and pressing

3. a dish washer C. peeling potatoes

4. a washing machine D. heating a flat

5. an electric iron E. polishing the floor

6. an electric potato-peeler F. beating carpets

7. a floor polisher G. washing clothes

8. a refrigerator (a fridge) H. mixing all sorts of foodstuffs

9. a boiler I. making and mending clothes

10. a carpet beater J. refrigerating food

11. a mixer K. vacuuming (cleaning)

Say which of the household objects you need to perform activities men­tioned in the left column.

Pattern: a) Dusting the furniture is done best of all if you have a soapy cloth.

b) It's much better to use a soapy cloth for dusting the furniture.

1. Cleaning washbasins, sinks and baths A. a detergent

2. washing B. a dustbin

3. mopping the floor C. a stiff brush

4. drying cups and plates D. a washbasin

5. scrubbing the floor E. clothes-lines

6. keeping household refuse F. a broom

7. sweeping the floor G. a dustpan

8. hanging (out) one's washing H. a cleanser

9. washing up I. a plate rack

10. getting the dirt with a broom J. a mop

Exercise 21

Work in groups. Tell your partners about: a) a disappointing experience you had while doing household chores; b) an experience you had that was un­expectedly pleasant. Ask your partners for comment.

Exercise 22

Work in threes. Find out from your partners who they consider to be an effi­cient housewife. Make notes and summarize the main points.

Exercise 23

Work in pairs. Make up a dialogue: "I hate doing everyday domestic chores", "I enjoy doing everyday domestic chores". Use the vocabulary of the Lesson.

Exercise 24

Translate from Russian into English using words and expressions from the lesson.

1. Вести хозяйство, конечно, не просто, но моя мама лю­бит всем этим заниматься. И если она делает уборку, то не останавливается до тех пор, пока весь дом не будет безукоризненно чистым.

2. Мы откровенно поговорили и сошлись на том, что я буду помогать жене по дому: мыть посуду, иногда гладить, выносить ведро и, само собой разумеется, раз в три месяца буду делать генеральную уборку.

3. У тебя есть возможности приобрести практический опыт. Только не ленись, и ты всему научишься. До­машние дела утомительны, но если ты все будешь откладывать на завтра, твоя квартира скоро будет в ужасном состоянии.

4. Я хочу почистить ванну и раковину на кухне, но у меня нет ни чистящего средства, ни просто порошка. Мо­жет, хозяйственное мыло сгодится. Если как следует потереть жёсткой щёткой, то все пятна отойдут.

5. Пока Сюзанна стирала в ванной бельё, телефон все время звонил именно тогда, когда у неё руки были по локоть в мыле. Приходилось каждый раз вытирать их о передник и то и дело бегать к телефону.

6. Моя тётушка сожгла очередное платье.Она такая рас­сеянная, что каждый раз, когда гладит, что-нибудь подпалит.

7. Мои друзья полны надежд. Они купили посудомоеч­ную машину и теперь радуются, что посуду будут мыть один раз в день, да и то не своими руками. Конечно, это так экономит время и силы!

8. Мне нравится пылесосить. Это удобней, чем подме­тать пол шваброй. Нагибаться не надо и специальны­ми щетками можно убрать пыль под любой мебелью — диваном, креслом, плитой. Совсем не тратишь ни­каких усилий.

9. Я посадила пятно на блузку. Потёрла осторожно мыльной тряпкой, но пятно не сошло, а, наоборот, стало ещё больше.

10. Когда ведёшь хозяйство, приходится заниматься обычными утомительными делами: стиркой, уборкой, мытьём посуды, гладить, готовить.

11. Мой сын совсем неопытен в домашних делах. Поэто­му, когда он моет посуду, ему не приходит в голову, что сначала надо всё аккуратно разобрать, вымыть чашки и стаканы, затем — тарелки и приборы, а уж в самом конце — жирные кастрюли и сковородки.

12. В раковине высилась гора посуды и даже на полу стояли кастрюли. Стол был усыпан очистками и уставлен мисками. В общем, на кухне был ужасный беспорядок.

13. Мэри развесила бельё на верёвке и прикрепила при­щепками. Чулки повесила пятками вверх.

14. Я смертельно устала после генеральной уборки. Но ничего не поделаешь. Само собой ничего не делается. Приходится тратить время и силы, чтобы привести дом в порядок. Зато как чисто теперь в доме!

Exercise 25

Problem points.

Read the passages below and say what you think of men sharing house chores with women. Give your reasons. Ask your groupmates 1) if they find it necessary to distinguish between men's and women's domestic chores;

2) if men can manage domestic chores properly; 3) if they have ever met an ideal househusband; 4) what they think of feminists.

A.

Waiting for my wash in one of Virginia Tech's laundries, I watched a young man doing what was obviously his first load of laundry.

After finding a free sorting table, he carefully separated his clothes into three piles — lights, darks and whites. As he did so he smiled to himself, perhaps proud of remembering his mother's instructions. Then, after starting a machine and ad­ding detergent, he confidently loaded the wash tub — with all three piles.

(from «Readers Digest»)

B.

Claudia thinks of herself as a feminist. She is sure that women should have the same rights, power and opportunities as men. A housewife, to her mind, is an unwaged worker and she just cannot put up with it. So she is trying to change her husband's daily routine making him share the house chores with her. Un­fortunately, he is not much of a househusband, unlike my hus­band who is strikingly different and is really handy.

Claudia regards my husband as the perfect model and thinks I am lucky to have such a partner. And it is true. John helps a fair amount with the household work. He is quite help­ful when we do a thorough cleaning. Taking down and putting up the curtains, tidying up, vacuuming the rooms — all this is his part, to say nothing of the man's work which he has to do from time to time. If something goes wrong — the plumbing may get clogged or start leaking or the tap may start dripping — I never call a plumber. John can mend it himself. If an electri­cal appliance — be it a mixer or a washing machine — gets out of order we never call a maintenance worker as my husband can fix anything. If our flat needs decorating it is John who pa­pers the rooms, plasters the walls and the ceiling. Once Bobby broke the window and my husband glazed it in no time. We do not need a TV repairman — John can even fix televisions. All my friends say he has a wonderful pair of hands. Last year he finished building our country house and we have quite a large lot — so my husband's spare time is used in gardening and we can always enjoy fresh vegetables. Isn't it nice? Well, my dear, dear husband — he never keeps track of what he does. We re­ally share everything with him. My son and I, we usually break things while my poor husband sets them right.

And how about Claudia's husband — a victim of feminism? Just fancy! She made a list of the house chores he is supposed to do this week. She wants him to nail the picture. Frankly speaking, I doubt he could pound a nail in let alone hang a pic­ture. Mind you, he can tell a hammer from a spoon, but Claudia wants him to paint the floor in the kitchen, and I am sure if he did the paint would peel in a week. She hopes he will cover the bathroom wall with tiles but he can't stick a thing.

You may think he is not a man. But he is. I think him very, very intelligent and generous and well-mannered. The problem is he is no match for a feminist wife. She may do her best to change him but the most he can do is take their dog for a walk. Even then, watching them it's hard to tell who's ta­king who.

Exercise 26

Work in pairs. Ask your partner the questions given below and find out how his/her family keeps house.

1. Who runs the house in your family?

2. Do other members share household chores with your mother?

3. What work about the house do you do every day and what is done once a season?

4. What makes your home cosy?

5. What labour-saving devices do you have at home?

6. Do you vacuum the floor or sweep it with a broom? Do you ever use a mop to clean the floor?

7. Is your flat crammed with things or does it have just a mini­mum of furniture in it?

8. How often is a thorough turn-out done in your family? Are you usually tired after the thorough clean-up?

9. How often do you redecorate the rooms? Do you do your own redecoration and repairing or do you prefer to have it done?

Exercise 27

Give the Russian equivalents to the following English idioms including some words and word combinations used in the Lesson. Try to understand whether they have anything to do with the topic discussed.

wash to wash one's dirty linen in the public it will all come out in the wash

sweep a new broom sweeps clean iron to have (put) many (too many) irons in the fire

dust to shake dust from one's feet to dust somebody's coat for him to throw dust into somebody's eyes to give somebody a dusting

dustbin to throw into the dustbin (waste-basket)

soap soft soap

mess to clear up the mess to (be) in a mess

house to keep a good house (table)

to keep the house

to put one's house in order

Exercise 28

Highlight the meanings of the English proverbs and use them in situations of your own.

1. As is the workman so is the work.

2. No pain no gain.

3. Haste makes waste.

4. A stitch in time saves nine.

5. Well begun is half done.

Exercise 29

Translate the quotations and comment upon them.

'A woman's place is in the house ... and the Senate.'

Bumper sticker, Washington, D.C.

'Housekeeping ain't no joke.'

Louise May Alcott

'There was no need to do any housework at all. After the first four years the dirt doesn't get any worse.'

Quentin Crist

'The whole process of homemaking, housekeeping and cook­ing which ever has been woman's special province should be looked on as an art and a profession.'

Sarah Joseph Hale

Exercise 30

Role-play "The Meeting in the Women's Club"

Setting: Women's club "Housewives United".

Situation: Housewives of York community usually gather on Saturday evenings in their women's club. On this day they have a chat about their domestic chores.

Characters:

Card I-II Rosie and Lizzie Two sisters who often help each other.

Card III-IV Lola and Paula. Two divorced friends, fe­minists, who hate domestic work.

Card V-VI Gracie and Tracey. Two widows who live alone now but go to see their married daughters every week and help them about the house.

Card VII-VIII Molly and Dolly. Two friends, mothers of families with five children.

Card IX-X Anita and Augusta. Two career women with no children. Anita is lucky to have a househusband.

WRITING

Exercise 1

Learn the spelling of the italicized words from Introductory Reading and exercise 1 on page 93 and be ready to write a dictation.

Exercise 2

In the table below, list in note form the advantages and disadvantages of:

1. handwashing;

2. machine washing;

3. sending the washing to the laundry.

Use the following structures:

One advantage of doing washing by hand is that you can ...

The trouble with doing your own laundry is that you don't (can't) ...

The main drawback of washing things by hand is that the clothes and linen ...

Advantages Disadvantages

Exercise 3

Expand your notes into a paragraph of 100 words summarizing the main advantages and disadvantages of having a washing-machine as compared to hand washing and taking the washing to the laundry. Write which way of doing the washing is preferable for your family.

Note:

A paragraph is a piece of writing which consists of a number of closely related sentences developing one idea. A well written paragraph should display three features: unity, bal­anced length and balanced structure.

Unity means that the paragraph deals with one topic only, which may be expressed in the topic sentence opening the paragraph. In further sentences the topic is developed and is logically brought to the last sentence which sums up the ideas.

Balanced length means that neither the paragraph itself, nor the sentences constituting it should be too long (longer than three lines).

Balanced structure means that each sentence must lead to the following one and all must be linked up. All sentences should be arranged in a clear logical order. If the paragraph it­self is a part of a larger unit, it must show some reference to the preceding or following paragraphs. To provide this there may be linking sentences. They either take up the thread of previous paragraphs or state the theme for the following paragraphs.

Exercise 4

Write an essay on one of the following topics.

1. How I Did a Thorough Cleaning.

2. I'm the World's Worst Ironer/Washer.

3. Mum Is the Best Housewife I Have Ever Met.

4. Dad Hates Doing Everyday Domestic Chores.

Lesson 5 SHOPPING FOR FOOD

INTRODUCTORY READING AND TALK

Buying foodstuffs in a modern supermarket can be considered a sort of art. It is the art of combating a temptation.

Supermarkets play a dirty trick on the customers: practically every shopper is tempted to buy things he or she does not need or cannot afford.

The mechanism of this lamentable deceit is simple. Firstly, su­permarkets are laid out to make a person pass as many shelves and counters as possible. Only the hardest of souls can pass loaded racks indifferently and not collect all sorts of food from them.

Secondly, more and more supermarkets supply customers with trolleys instead of wire baskets: their bigger volume needs more purchases. One picks up a small item, say, a pack of spaghetti, puts it into a huge trolley and is immediately ashamed of its loneliness. He or she starts adding more.

Thirdly, all products are nicely displayed on the racks and all of them look fresh in their transparent wrappings with marked prices. A normal person cannot ignore attractively packed goods. And so one cannot but feel an impulse to buy. And, finally, supermarkets don't forget about those who look for bargains. The so-called "bar­gain bins" filled with special offers wait for their victims. No one can tell for sure if the prices are really reduced, but it is so nice to boast later that you have a very good eye for a bargain.

So when a simple-hearted customer approaches a check-out, his or her trolley is piled high. Looking at a cashier, running her pen over barcodes, he or she starts getting nervous while the cash register is adding up the prices. And, getting a receipt, he or she gives a sigh of relief if the indicated sum does not exceed the cash he or she has.

Of course, one can give a piece of advice to the simple-hearted: compile a shopping list and buy only pre-planned goods. But is it worth losing that great sensation of buying? One can really wonder.

A lot of people prefer to do their shopping in small shops. The daily shopping route of some housewives includes visits to the baker's, butcher's, grocer's, greengrocer's, fishmonger's and a dairy shop. In the end of the route their bags are full of loaves of bread, meat cuts, packs with cereals, fruit, vegetables, fish and dairy prod­ucts. Only very strong women can call in at the tobacconist's after all that.

The explanation for this housewives' craze is very simple. In ev­ery shop their buys are weighed, wrapped up, their money taken and the change given back. Meanwhile they can have a chat with salesgirls and shop-assistants about their weak hearts and broken hopes.

So, friends, go shopping as often as you can. Because the simple truth is: a visit to a good shop is worth two visits to a good doctor.

1. Fancy that you take a little child to a supermarket for the first time. Ex­plain to him what you see around and what one should do.

2. Describe a) the supermarket closest to your block of flats;

b) your favourite supermarket.

3. Say how you buy goods in an ordinary shop and in a supermarket.

4. Say what one can buy in the shops mentioned in the text (baker's, butcher's, etc.)

○ TEXT

Shopping for One

(A story by Anne Cassidy. Abridged)

Supermarkets are much the same the world over — especially the queues at check-out points. What extraordinary things other people are buying! There are odd snatches of overheard conversa­tion too. But what if one is living alone, 'Shopping for one'?

'So what did you say?' Jean heard the blonde woman in front of her talking to her friend.

'Well,' the darker woman began, 'I said I'm not having that woman there. I don't see why I should. I mean I'm not being old-fashioned but I don't see why I should have to put up with her at family occasions.1 After all...'

Jean noticed the other woman giving an accompaniment of nods and headshaking at the appropriate parts.2 They fell into si­lence and the queue moved forward a couple of steps.

Jean felt her patience beginning to itch.3 Looking into her wire basket she counted ten items. That meant she couldn't go through the quick till4 but simply had to wait behind elephantine shopping loads; giant bottles of coke crammed in beside twenty-pound bags of potatoes and 'special offer' drums of bleach. Somewhere at the bottom, Jean thought, there was always a plastic carton of eggs or a see-through tray of tomatoes which fell casualty to the rest.5 There was nothing else for it — she'd just have to wait.

'After all,' the dark woman resumed her conversation, 'how would it look if she was there when I turned up?'6 Her friend shook her head slowly from side to side and ended with a quick nod.

Should she have got such a small size salad cream? Jean wasn't sure. She was sick of throwing away half-used bottles of stuff.

'He came back to you after all,' the blonde woman suddenly said. Jean looked up quickly and immediately felt her cheeks flush. She bent over and began to rearrange the items in her shopping basket.

'On his hands and knees,' the dark woman spoke in a trium­phant voice. 'Begged me take him back.'

She gritted her teeth together. Should she go and change it for a larger size? Jean looked behind and saw that she was hemmed in by three large trollies. She'd lose her place in the queue. There was something so pitiful about buying small sizes of everything. It was as though everyone knew.

'You can always tell a person by their shopping,'7 was one of her mother's favourite maxims. She looked into her shopping basket: individual fruit pies, small salad cream, yoghurt, tomatoes, cat food and a chicken quarter.

The cashier suddenly said, 'Make it out to J. Sainsbury PLC.' She was addressing a man who had been poised and waiting to write out a cheque for a few moments. His wife was loading what looked like a gross offish fingers8 into a cardboard box marked "Whiskas". It was called a division of labour.

Jean looked again at her basket and began to feel the familiar feeling of regret that visited her from time to time. Hemmed in be­tween family-size cartons of cornflakes and giant packets of wash­ing-powder, her individual yoghurt seemed to say it all.9 She looked up towards a plastic bookstand which stood beside the till. A slim glossy hardback caught her eye. The words Cooking for One screamed out from the front cover. Think of all the oriental foods you can get into,10 her friend had said. He was so traditional after all. Nodding in agreement with her thoughts Jean found herself eye to eye with the blonde woman, who gave her a blank, hard look and handed her what looked like a black plastic ruler with the words "Next customer please" printed on it in bold letters. She turned back to her friend. Jean put the ruler down on the conveyor belt.11

She thought about their shopping trips, before, when they were together. All that rushing round, he pushing the trolley dejectedly, she firing questions at him. Salmon? Toilet rolls? Coffee? Peas? She remembered he only liked the processed kind.12 It was all such a performance. Standing there holding her wire basket, embarrassed by its very emptiness, was like something out of a soap opera.

'Of course, we've had our ups and downs,13 ' the dark woman continued, lazily passing a few items down to her friend.

Jean began to load her food on to the conveyor belt. She picked up the cookery book and felt the frustrations of indecision. It was only ninety pence but it seemed to define everything, to pinpoint her aloneness, to prescribe an empty future. She put it back in its place.

'So that's why I couldn't have her there you see,' the dark woman was summing up. The friends exchanged knowing expres­sions and the blonde woman got her purse out of a neat leather bag. She peeled off three ten pound notes and handed them to the cashier.

Jean opened her carrier bag ready for her shopping. She turned to watch the two women as they walked off, the blonde pushing the trolley and the other seemingly carrying on with her story.

The cashier was looking expectantly at her and Jean realized that she had totalled up. It was four pounds and eighty-seven pence. She had the right money, it just meant sorting her change out. She had an inclination that the people behind her were becoming impa­tient. She noticed their stack of items all lined and waiting, it seemed, for starters orders.14 Brown bread and peppers, olive oil and, in the centre, a packet of beefburgers.

She gave over her money and picked up her carrier bag. She felt a sense of relief to be away from the mass of people. She felt out of place.15

Walking out of the door she wondered what she might have for tea. Possibly chicken, she thought, with salad. Walking towards her car she thought that she should have bought the cookery book after all. She suddenly felt much better in the fresh air. She'd buy it next week. And in future she'd buy a large salad cream. After all, what if people came round unexpectedly?

Proper Names

Anne Cassidy ['{n 'k{sIdI] — Энн Кэссиди

Jean [³i:n] — Джин

J. Sainsbury PLC ['³eI 'seInsb@rI 'pi: 'el 'si:] — компания Джей Сэйнсбери (прим.: PLC — Privately Licensed Company — част­ная лицензированная компания)

Whiskas ['wIsk@s] — Вискас (Прим.: корм для кошек)

Vocabulary Notes

1. ... why I should have to put up with her at family occasions. — ... с какой стати я должна мириться с её присутствием на се­мейных праздниках.

2. ... giving an accompaniment of nods and headshaking at the ap­propriate parts. — ... в такт словам то кивала, то качала го­ловой.

3. Jean felt her patience beginning to itch. — Джин чувствовала, что её терпение заканчивается.

4. ... the quick till ... — ... касса-экспресс ...

5. ... a see-through tray of tomatoes which fell casualty to the rest. — ... прозрачный лоток с помидорами, придавленный другими покупками.

6. ... when I turned up? ... когда я бы вдруг пришла?

7. You can always tell a person by their shopping. — Всегда можно определить, что за человек перед тобой, по его покупкам.

8. ... a gross of fish fingers ... — ... оптовая закупка рыбных па­лочек ...

9. ... her individual yoghurt seemed to say it all. — ... казалось, что её единственная упаковка йогурта говорит сама за себя.

10. Think of all the oriental foods you can get into ... — Как по­думаешь, каких только ни бывает восточных продуктов ...

11. Jean put the ruler down on the conveyor belt. — Джин положила линейку на конвейер. (Прим.: В западных супермаркетах для экономии времени несколько покупателей выгружают продук­ты на конвейер одновременно. Для того, чтобы кассир видела, где граница, покупатели кладут пластиковую линейку яркого цвета между своими и чужими покупками.)

12. ... processed kind. — ... консервированный.

13. Of course, we've had our ups and downs ... — Конечно, у нас бывало то лучше, то хуже ...

14. ... for starters orders. — ... сигналов стартеров.

15. She felt out of place. — Ей было не по себе.

Phonetic Text Drills

○ Exercise 1

Transcribe and pronounce correctly the words from the text.

Queue, extraordinary, accompaniment, appropriate, cou­ple, to itch, wire, elephantine, giant, carton, casualty, stuff, re­arrange, triumphant, trolley, maxim, yoghurt, quarter, cashier, to poise, cheque, gross, oriental, conveyor, dejectedly, salmon, processed, purse, leather, to total.

○ Exercise 2

Pronounce the words and phrases where the following clusters occur.

1. Plosive + 1

Couple, simply, plastic, immediately, what looked, glossy, blank, hard look, dejectedly, expectantly, possibly.

2. Plosive + w

Blonde woman, that woman, put up with her, quick, twenty, dark woman, ended with a quick nod, between, agreement with her thoughts, questions, and waiting.

○ Exercise 3

Pronounce after the announcer. Say what kind of false assimilation one should avoid in the following cases.

1. Of her, of steps, of tomatoes, of throwing, of stuff, of course, we've had, of people, out of place.

2. Was there, size salad, was sick, was something, as though, was so, with salad.

3. Noticed the-other, at the bottom, put the ruler, about their shopping, liked the processed kind, felt the frustration, that the people, noticed their stack, bought the book.

○ Exercise 4

Consult the dictionary and put stresses in the following compound nouns.

Half-used, cardboard, twenty-pound, family-size, cornflakes, washing-powder, hardback, pinpoint, eighty-seven, beefbur­gers.

○ Exercise 5

I. Intone the following general questions.

'Should she have 'got such a ↑small 'size 'salad /cream? ||

'Should she 'go and 'change it for a 'larger /size? ||

II. Explain why the following special question is pronounced with a rising intonation.

So 'what did you /say?

Comprehension Check

1. Whom did Jean hear talking in the queue?

2. Why was Jean's patience beginning to itch?

3. Why couldn't Jean go through the quick till?

4. When did Jean begin to rearrange the items in her shopping basket?

5. Was Jean the last in the queue or not?

6. What did Jean see in her own shopping basket?

7. Whom did the cashier suddenly address?

8. What caught Jean's eye suddenly? Why?

9. What did Jean remember about the shopping trips with her friend?

10. Why did Jean put the book back in its place?

11. How much did the blonde woman pay?

12. Did Jean see the two women leave the shop or not?

13. How much did Jean pay?

14. Why did Jean think that people behind her were becoming impatient?

15. What did Jean feel after she had left the supermarket?

16.What did Jean think about while she was going towards her car?

17. What did she suddenly decide?

EXERCISES

Exercise 1

I. Find in the text words or phrases similar in meaning to the following.

A cash desk, a purchase, coca-cola, a plastic bag, big size car­tons, to calculate, goods, a heap, half-empty.

II. Give your own words or expressions similar in meaning to the ones from the text.

To pinpoint, to fire questions, to rearrange, to give a blank look, to catch one's eye, a snatch of conversation, to flush, to grit one's teeth together, to beg.

Exercise 2

Below see the list of the words from the text. Think of words opposite in meaning to them.

extraordinary oriental

appropriate traditional

triumphant empty

familiar to push

individual indecision

impatient to buy

Exercise 3

The author herself uses synonymous words and expressions in the text. Say how otherwise the author puts the following.

to count — to continue —

to give over money — small salad cream—

elephantine — write out a check —

wire basket —cram in —

Exercise 4

When postpositions are added to verbs, the meanings of the latter can ut­terly change. Choose the right one from the two given in brackets. Explain the difference in meanings.

1. (put; put up)

a) The dark woman ... all the stuff into her carrier bag.

b) Jean thought that she had to ... with a loss of time.

2. (turn; turn up)

a) Jean ... her head and saw a queue behind her.

b) Jean remembered the time when he suddenly ... and they went on their shopping trips.

3. (pick; pick up)

a) The customers ... goods from the racks while walking along the aisles.

b) Last summer there were a lot of blueberries in the for­est. We often went there to ... them.

4. (make; make out)

a) The gentleman at the till asked the cashier to ... a bill for him.

b) Jean thought that she would ... a salad in the evening, probably with chicken.

5. (write; write out)

a) When Jean and he were together they sometimes ... let­ters to each other.

b) He always paid in cash and never ... cheques.

6. (carry; carry on)

a) A lot of women never ... heavy bags, as they think it to be not ladylike.

b) The people in the queue were interested in the end of the story and she ... with it.

7. (pass; pass down)

a) The woman at the till... the cardboard box to her hus­band and they both left.

b) Jean ... the rack with family-size cartons of cornflakes indifferently.

8. (come; come round)

a) Parting with her friend Jean tried to seem careless and said casually, '... some time'.

b) '...to see me', the blonde woman said to her friend.

9. (cram; cram in)

a) Though the box was already full the woman managed to ... the last pack offish fingers among the rest.

b) The supermarket was ... with customers on that day.

10. (walk, walk off)

a) Jean never ... to the supermarket as the way was far too long; she went there by car.

b) Slowly Jean ... from the supermarket deep in her thoughts.

Exercise 5

Find the English equivalents to the following words or expressions.

A.

Снять с полки; лента конвейера; поменять на что-либо большего размера; заплатить; продвинуться на пару ша­гов; перекладывать покупки; большие упаковки; походы по магазинам; найти мелочь; беготня; потерять свою оче­редь; выкладывать продукты на конвейер; пройти через экспресс-кассу; насчитать десять покупок; определить, что за человек, судя по его покупкам; передавать ко­му-либо покупки; отсчитать три банкноты; подсчитать общую сумму; оптовая закупка; выписать чек (два вари­анта); отдать деньги кассиру; груда покупок.

В .

Мириться с чьим-либо присутствием; семейные праз­дники; замолчать; на дне (корзины); качать головой; в конце концов; сжать зубы; любимая поговорка; разделе­ние труда; время от времени; попасться на глаза; мыльная опера; бывало то лучше, то хуже; продолжить рассказ; смотреть выжидающе; почувствовать облегчение; ей было не по себе; почувствовать себя намного лучше на свежем воздухе; в будущем.

Exercise 6

I. Pick out from the text the terms used to denote:

a) objects we use to put our purchases in,

b) amounts or quantities of some stuff,

c) certain details of the interior in a supermarket,

d) names of foodstuffs and drinks.

II. Make up a list of products which Jean saw

a) in her own wire basket,

b) in other people's baskets or trollies.

III. Find and read aloud sentences saying

a) what Jean thought of herself and her purchases,

b) what Jean thought of other people and their purchases.

Exercise 7

Find in the text sentences containing the words given below. Consult the dictionary to pick out all their meanings. Illustrate these meanings with your own examples.

wire stuff cover belt beg

item quarter bold roll change

Exercise 8

Complete the statements by choosing the answer which you think fits best.

1. Mother never buys goods displayed on the racks with the notice "... offer".

A. specific B. special C. particular

2. The customers are asked to load their purchases on to the conveyor ....

A. strap B. line C. belt

3. It is a lot more convenient to push a ... than to carry a wire basket in a supermarket.

A. trolley B. roller C. van

4. While shopping my brother always tries to go through a ... till, as he hates queues.

A. swift B. fast C. quick

5. Housewives prefer to buy ... packets of stuff, as it is a little bit cheaper.

A. gross-size B. family-size C. block-size

6. Sometimes the queues at... points are so long that the idea of leaving the supermarket without buying anything may look attractive.

A. check-out B. check-in C. check-up

7. Customers are not allowed to put things in their own bags in supermarkets; they are suposed to use ....

A. iron baskets B. shop baskets C. wire baskets

8. A lot of people prefer to ... a cheque than to pay in cash.

A. write out B. write in C. write up

9. Salesgirls usually put all goods bought in a supermarket into ... for the customers' convenience.

A. trade bags B. carrier bags C. supermarket bags

10. 'Here's your ... from a ten-pound note', said the cashier giving me three pounds.

A. exchange B. change C. bill

Exercise 9

Work in pairs. Discuss with your partner some interesting shopping expe­rience. Use at least five expressions from the list below.

To fall into silence, to be sure, to be sick of throwing away something, to feel one's cheeks flush, on one's hands and knees, to grit one's teeth together, to look behind, a favourite maxim, from time to time, to scream out from the front cover, foods one can get into, after all, eye to eye, to give a blank look, to hand somebody something, bold letters, to fire ques­tions, a soap opera, ups and downs, to sum up, to carry on with the story, to have the right money, a sense of relief, to be away from, to feel out of place, to feel better in the fresh air, to come round unexpectedly, to torn up, to catch one's eye.

Exercise 10

Fill in the gaps with the prepositions from the list: into, through, of, together, for, by, beside, in, on to.

1. The girl thought that glass bottles of milk would be too heavy to carry and changed them ... plastic packets.

2. One can tell a good customer ... the way he or she chooses goods.

3. The lady screamed and all people in the hall immediately fell ... silence.

4. The guard from the security service helped the lady to go out of the shop and she felt better ... the fresh air.

5. Anyone can get sick... the long queues at check-out points.

6. The customers are asked to put the stuff...... the conveyor belt.

7. If one has got not more than three items, he or she can go ... a quick till.

8. When the queue is too long one can do nothing but grit his or her teeth ... and wait dutifully.

9. The most annoying thing about shopping is standing ... the till and watching how slowly people pay.

Exercise 11

Express the same idea using different wording and grammar.

1. Jean noticed the other woman giving an accompaniment of nods and headshaking at the appropriate parts.

2. Jean felt her patience beginning to itch.

3. There was nothing else for it — she'd just have to wait.

4. She was sick of throwing away half-used bottles.

5. Jean looked behind and saw that she was hemmed in by three large trollies.

6. She was addressing a man who had been poised and waiting to write out a cheque for a few moments.

7. Jean looked again at her basket and began to feel the famil­iar feeling of regret that visited her from time to time.

8. Nodding in agreement with her thoughts Jean found herself eye to eye with the blonde woman.

9. She picked up the cookery book and felt the frustration of indecision.

10. She peeled off three ten pound notes and handed them to the cashier.

11. She had the right money, it just meant sorting her change out.

12. She had an inclination that the people behind her were be­coming impatient.

13. She noticed their stack of items all lined and waiting, it seemed, for starters orders.

14. She felt a sense of relief to be away from the mass of people.

Exercise 12

Find the bit starting with the following words and explain why Jean was feeling that way

'Jean looked up quickly and ...'

'She gritted her teeth together ...'

'Jean looked again at her basket and began to feel ...'

'It was all such a performance.'

'She suddenly felt much better in the fresh air.'

Exercise 13

Speak about Jean's visit to the supermarket:

1. in the third person;

2. in the person of Jean herself;

3. in the person of the blonde woman;

4. in the person of the cashier.

Exercise 14

Discussion points.

1. What can you say about Jean as a person? Try to derive in­formation from the minor details of her behaviour.

2. Was parting with her friend a shocking experience for Jean or not?

3. What can you say about the two women?

4. Do you agree that one can always tell a person by their shopping?

5. Why does the story end with a question? What does it mean?

Exercise 15

I. Imagine that your mother gives you a shopping list, which you see be­low. Think in what shops you can buy these things and put the names of items in the graphs of the chart.

a loaf of brown bread 1 kg of pork

1 large cod a bottle of vinegar

1 kg of pork 2 medium-sized herrings

3 lemons a tin of sardines in oil

0.3 kg of ham 2 kg of potatoes

1 small cabbage a large chicken

a tin of condensed milk biscuits

a bunch of radishes a bag ofnour

a drum of margarine a 0.5 kg pack of sour cream

0.5 kg of cheese0.2 kg of butter

dairy shop butcher's baker's fishmonger's grocer's greengrocer's

II. Sum up what you have written and say what and where you can buy.

Pattern: I can buy ... at the baker's.

Exercise 16

I. Match the phrases in the left column with the words in the right column.

1. a bottle of A. jam

2. a packet of B. parsley

3. a dmm of C. toothpaste

4. a cake of D. cleanser

5. a carton of E. juice

6. a jar of F. chocolates

7. a tin ofG. eggs

8. a tube ofH. honey

9. a bunch ofI. sugar

10. a box ofJ. soap

11. a tub ofK. luncheon meat

II. Think and say what else can be sold in cartons, bunches, etc.

Exercise 17

I. Look through the list of products and say which of them are sold in Rus­sia:

1) by the kilo,

2) by quantity,

3) by tens.

Fish, carrots, kiwi, meat, eggs, pineapples, sausages, rye bread, oranges.

II. Look through the list of products and say which of them are soldin Great Britain:

1) by lbs*

2) by quantity

3) by dozens.

* lb — abbreviation from the Latin word "libra" — «фунт», in speech it is pronounced "pound". E.g. 3 lbs — three pounds.

Cheese, lemons, grapes, white bread, ham, mangoes, eggs, po­tatoes, chickens.

III. Say which products from the list below are priced:

1) per kilo,

2) per each.

Onions, tomatoes, wheat bread, tinned meat, cabbages, man­goes, buns, chops, apples, cucumbers.

Exercise 18

Exclude from the lists below products which cannot be sold as preprepared, frozen, dried, tinned.

pre-prepared frozen dried tinned

garlics

steaks

fish fillet potatoes tomatoes

cherries onions turkey

bread spaghetti

bananas fish

meat

ham

plums

flour

pork peaches lettuce

tuna

Exercise 19

Read the text and reconstruct the family situation. Tell the story to your classmates.

Exercise 20

I. Say what and how much you should buy if you are going to make:

1) Russian beet and cabbage soup — borsch;

2) Salad which they call in Russia "Olivier salad";

3) An apple pie.

Pattern : If I am going to make ... I will buy ....

II. Say what and how much you buy to cook your favourite dish.

III. Guess what a housewife was going to cook if her shopping list included:

1. 2 lbs beef; 1 lb pork; white bread; eggs; 1/2 lb onions, 1 bot­tle milk.

2. 2 lbs wheat flour; 1/2 doz eggs; 2 bottles milk; 1 pack yeast;

1/2 Ib sugar.

3. 1/2 lb rice; 1 lb smoked fish; 1 lb onions; 1/2 dbz eggs; 1 jar mayonnaise.

4. 4 lbs lamb; 2 lbs tomatoes; 2 lbs onions; 1 bottle dry white wine; 1 pack pepper.

5. 2 lbs pork; 1 bag potatoes; 1 lb carrots; 1 head cabbage; 1/2 lbs onions; 1 bunch celery; 1 bunch parsley; 1 pack laurel leaves.

Pattern: The housewife was going to cook ... if she bought....

Exercise 21

Standing in a queue at the check-out is a boring business. Some people invent games to make the time pass quicker. One of them comes to guess­ing what people's lifestyles are likely to be judging by the contents of their shopping baskets.

I. Read the following passages and try to say something about people's families, homes, lifestyles.

Body language can tell a stranger a lot about one's person­ality, so can the fruits of one's shopping expedition.

Yesterday I observed a beautiful young lady. While her little daughter begged unsuccessfully for a bun, she was carefully choosing a shampoo, hair conditioner and bath perfume. Then she picked up a couple of cinema magazines and went to the check-out.

I looked down into her trolley and shuddered: three gallons of milk, 3 loaves of bread, four chickens, a mountain of baby-food jars, cakes and pies.

I especially like to observe male shoppers. I don't mean househusbands dutifiilly checking items off a list. I prefer a gourmet who knows the real taste of things: imported cheeses, exotic spices, a whole leg of lamb, early asparagus.

I felt hostility flowing from the woman standing behind me in the supermarket check-out queue. Had I cut in front of her? She was glaring into my basket. I quickly surveyed my selec­tions to see what could be generating such hostility. Let's see: two bottles of champagne, a lovely avocado, a pound of shrimp, and a quart of purified water.

II. Fancy what one can see in a shopping basket of:

1) a good housewife;

2) a divorced man;

3) a woman on a diet;

4) a hearty eater;

5) someone expecting guests.

III. Think of other games you can play in your head to make the time pass when you are waiting in a queue.

Exercise 22

I. Read and translate the following dialogues. Reproduce them.

○ Dialogue 1

At the Grocery store

Grocer: Hello, Ann, how are you doing today?

Ann: Fine, thanks. How are you?

Grocer: I am okay, thank you. What can I get for you, Ann?

Ann: I 'd like half a pound of butter, a pound jar of straw­berry jam, a large bottle of vinegar and a tin of sar­dines.

Grocer: Will that be all?

Ann: No, I'd also like a small-sized packet of mushroom soup and a piece of smoked bacon. Grocer Will this do? It's all we have at the moment, I'mafraid.

Ann: No, it's much too fat. I wanted it leaner. I think I'd better take some ham instead. How much is it?

Grocer: Eighty pence a pound.

Ann: Good. Half a pound, please. That'll be all. How much does it come to?

Grocer: Five pounds thirty seven pence, please.

Ann: Right. Here is six pounds.

Grocer: And here is your change.

Ann: Thanks.

Grocer: Good-bye, Ann. Thank you. Come tomorrow, we'll have a new stock.

○ Dialogue 2

At the Butcher's

Shop assistant: Can I help you, madam?

Mrs. Gi1bert: I'd like a leg of lamb. Do you sell it?

Shop assistant: Yes, we do, but I'm afraid we've sold out at the moment. If you'd care to call in tomorrow.

Mrs. Gi1bert: Thank you, I won't bother! I'll buy some pork instead.

Shop assistant: Oh, yes. We've got excellent choice to­day. What part would you like to get — shoulder, leg or some other?

Mrs. Gilbert: This bit of shoulder is fine with me.

Shop assistant: Okay. It weighs four pounds.

Mrs.Gilbert: I'll also have a chicken.

Shop assistant: Boiling or frying?

Mrs. Gilbert: Boiling, please.

Shop assistant: Will this do?

Mrs. Gilbert: Nice. That will be all. How much is it?

Shop assistant: Three pounds twenty pence.

Mrs.Gilbert:Here you are.

Shop assistant: Your change, madam. Thank you. Have a nice day.

○ Dialogue 3

At the Greengrocer's

Greengrocer: Good morning, Mrs. Daisy. How are you this morning?

Mrs. Daisy: Fine, thanks. And how are you?

Greengrocer: I'm having a little trouble. Some of my supplies aren't here yet. So I don't have tomatoes and peppers.

Mrs. Daisy: Oh, that's a shame. Will you have some later?

Greengrocer:Oh, yes, they will be delivered in the after­noon. I'll save them for you.

Mrs. Daisy: Thanks. It's very kind of you. And now I'll take a bag of potatoes, a couple of beets and some carrots.

Greengrocer: All right. Notice the fruit we've got today. The peaches are very good.

Mrs. Daisy: The peaches do look good. What do they cost? Greengrocer: Peaches are quite cheap this time of the year. Thirty pence a pound.

Mrs.Daisy: That's a real bargain. I'll take three pounds.

Greengrocer: Okay. Now, what else?

Mrs. Daisy: Well, that's all for today. How much do I owe you?

Greengrocer: That's four pounds seventy five pence. Here's your change from your five pound note — twenty five pence.

Mrs. Daisy: Thank you. Good-bye.

Greengrocer: Good-bye, Mrs. Daisy. Thanks a lot.

II. Pick out from the three dialogues sentences, which denote the shop as­sistants'

a) greeting their customers,

b) offering goods,

c) telling the price of goods.

III. Pick out from the three dialogues sentences, which denote the cus­tomer's

a) greeting shop assistants,

b) telling what they need,

c) asking about the price.

IV. Make up your own dialogues and enact them in class.

Exercise 23

Translate into English.

1. Покупать продукты в супермаркете очень удобно: все покупки можно сделать одновременно.

2. Супермаркеты оборудуют таким образом, чтобы поку­патели проходили мимо большого количества полок и видели широкий ассортимент продуктов.

3. В супермаркетах Великобритании цены на товары проставлены очень отчётливо и, как правило, в конце стоит число 99.

4. Рядом с нашим домом есть все магазины: мясной, молочный, овощной, рыбный, а также бакалея и бу­лочная.

5. Я никогда не составляю список продуктов, когда со­бираюсь идти в магазин, но всегда планирую, в какие магазины я зайду.

6. Когда мы с подругой приходим в супермаркет, я беру корзину, а она — тележку. У нас разный стиль: я покупаю только то, что мне нужно; а она — всё, что красиво упаковано.

7. Натуральные продукты питания предпочтительнее консервированных и замороженных, хотя могут сто­ить дороже.

8. У кассира не было сдачи с крупной купюры, и при­шлось ждать, пока расплатится следующий покупа­тель.

9. Лучше не покупать продукты по сниженной цене: они могут быть просрочены.

10. Мой сосед — старый холостяк. Он всегда покупает одно и то же: буханку хлеба, десяток яиц, пару ки­лограммов картофеля и пару банок мясных консервов.

11. Когда есть деньги, я покупаю что-нибудь повкуснее — хороший кусок мяса, салями, банку шпрот, кусочек ветчины, коробку шоколадных конфет, банку бол­гарских огурчиков. Потом устраиваю пир.

12. Больше всего я не люблю стоять в очереди, поэтому стараюсь пройти через экспресс-кассу.

13. Уже стоя у кассы, она вдруг вспомнила, что забыла купить молока, и пошла назад к прилавку с молоч­ными продуктами.

14. Кассир сидела за кассовым аппаратом и наблюдала за тем, как покупатель выкладывал продукты на ленту конвейера.

15. Очередь двигалась очень медленно, потому что у всех были груды покупок.

Exercise 24

In five minutes write what you buy often and seldom. Compare what you have written with the lists of other students. Discuss the results and try to classify your classmates by putting them in certain categories of shoppers. You can give the names to these categories yourselves.

Patterns: 1) I often buy bread, ... I seldom buy caviar, ... 2) In my opinion, Kate is a careless shopper, because ...

Exercise 25

Work in groups. Each group should make up a list of products which peo­ple usually buy at the age of ten. fifteen, thirty, fifty, seventy. Compare your lists and discuss them agreeing, adding details or criticizing.

Use :

I completely agree that.. I'm not sure that...

There is no doubt that... I really doubt that...

I also have the idea that I utterly disagree that

Who would argue that... I don't think that...

Exercise 26

Discuss the following points in class.

1. What is preferable for you — to buy food in a big supermar­ket or in small shops? Why?

2. Where are the best shops for food in your city or town?

3. Speak about foodstuffs sold in your shops. Say whether they are shipped in or grown locally; say which are expensive and inexpensive; say what foodstuffs which you might have seen in the shops abroad are not sold in this country.

4. Do they sell foodstuffs under the counter nowadays? What kind of goods can those be?

5. Do you pay attention to the brand name when you buy food? If not, how do you make your choice?

6. What is your personal style of shopping for food? Do you buy at once or do you take your time to look around for lower prices?

7. How often do you buy very expensive foodstuffs? What kind of products are those? When does it happen?

Exercise 27

Match the English idioms in the left columnn with their Russian equivalents in the right column.

1. to put a hole in one's pocketbookА. любой ценой

2. to go to potВ. сбыть с рук

3. to go for a songС. ни за какие деньги

4. at all costsD. обойтись в копеечку

5. to jack up the priceЕ. вылететь в трубу

6. to flood the marketF. пойти за бесценок

7. to feather one's nestG. быть не по карману

8. not for love or moneyН. платить втридорога

9. to cost a pretty pennyI. нагреть руки

10. to pay through the noseJ. наводнить рынок

11. to get something off one's handsК. набить цену

Exercise 28

Highlight the meanings of the English proverbs and make up situations to illustrate them.

1. Forbidden fruit is sweet.

2. Tastes differ.

3. Honey is sweet but the bee stings.

4. Take it or leave it.

Exercise 29

Translate the following quotations into Russian and comment upon them.

'The public buys its opinions as it buys its meat, or takes in its milk, on the principle that it is cheaper to do this than keep a cow. So it is, but the milk is more likely to be watered.'

Samuel Butler

'Creditors have better memories than debtors.'

Benjamin Franklin

'Necessity never made a good bargain.'

Benjamin Franklin

'England is a nation of shopkeepers.'

Napoleon I

'If a continental greengrocer asks 14 schillings (or crowns, or franks..., or whatever you like) for a bunch of radishes, and his customer offers 2, and finally they strike a bargain agreeing on 6 schillings, francs, roubles, etc., this is just the low continental habit of bargaining.'

George Mikes

Exercise 30

Role Play "Organising a Party".

Setting: 1) A university refectory, where the students dis­tribute duties to make purchases.

2) A supermarket.

Situation: You decide to celebrate some holiday or just organ­ise a party at someone's home. Everyone will have to bring something for the table and later you'll cook together. Enact buying things in a shop. Elaborate the situation yourselves. Fancy that you've left money at home or there are no goods you need on sale or you forget something at the last instant.

Characters:

Card I — Molly, the girl, who is going to organise it all. She decides who should buy things and says what you will need them for.

Card II — Sally, the assistant who serves you in the shop you choose.

Card III—IV — Bob and Rob, boys who will buy heavy things in the shop.

CardV-X - Nelly, Kelly, Dolly, Polly, Lilly, Tilly, tree pairs of students who walk around the super­market and discuss what they have to buy.

Card XI — Penny, the cashier at the till.

WRITING

Exercise 1

Learn the spelling of the italicized words from Introductory Reading and the words from exercise 1 on page 120. Prepare to write a dictation.

Exercise 2

Translate into English in writing.

A.

Мы быстро привыкли к нашей новой жизни. Всё так просто в этом микромире! Не надо ходить в магазин и стоять в очередях — здоровенная женщина в белом фар­туке, которая могла бы сойти за английскую бонну, если бы не вес под сто килограммов, каждый день разгружа­ет на кухне огромную корзину со свежайшими продук­тами.

(...) Поскольку мне очень неловко жить за счет совет­ской власти (...), я решаю ходить за покупками сама.

В первый же день я обалдеваю от выбора продуктов в ближайшем магазине. Сначала я даже подумала, что это случайный завоз или что директор устроил спектакль для ревизора. Но и через неделю выбор оставался таким же богатым. Каждый день я нахожу в магазине свежие яйца, колбасу, вполне приличное мясо на котлеты, копченую рыбу, даже крабов.

В .

У меня возникает мысль заглянуть в продуктовый ма­газин. Во-первых, мне надо пройтись, а во-вторых, я хочу купить кое-какие продукты — хлеб, сыр, масло, а может, мне повезёт, и по счастливой случайности здесь окажутся апельсины, какие-нибудь перемороженные куры или да­же батон колбасы с чесноком, которую ты так любишь и которую вдруг выбрасывает на прилавки Главное управ­ление торговли, когда у хозяек не остается ничего, ну бук­вально ничего, что бы можно было подать к столу.

(...) Этот магазин самообслуживания совсем новый, но полки уже в безобразном состоянии, а у корзин осталось по одной ручке. Редко лежащие продукты завернуты в противную толстую серую бумагу, на которой фиолетовы­ми чернилами помечена цена. Это — мой первый поход в магазин в новом районе.

Я покупаю кое-что из продуктов и становлюсь в оче­редь в кассу. У меня пять пакетов разных размеров. Я пла­чу и собираюсь уже уходить, но тут контролёрша на выхо­де заставляет меня открыть сумку, вынимает оттуда все мои покупки и потрясает каким-то свёртком. Какой ужас — у меня оказался лишний кусок сыра на двадцать восемь копеек, который кассирша не пробила! (...) Я робко гово­рю, что кассирша забыла пробить, что ничего страшного не произошло, я сейчас доплачу... (...) Женщин это при­водит в бешенство.

(М. Влади. «Владимир, или прерванный полет»)

Exercise 3

Write a short essay on one of the following topics.

1. Buying Delicacies Gives the Greatest Pleasure When One Hasn't Got Enough Money.

2. Shopping for Food — a Boring Routine or a Revealing Ex­perience?

3. Why I Always Buy Food in the Same Place.

4. The Main Principles I Observe When I Shop for Food.

5. Why Men and Women Have Different Styles of Shopping for Food.

Note :

Punctuation (continued from page 82).

A colon is put:

1) before an enumeration (e.g. The reasons are as follows: we haven't prepared well enough, the circumstances are unfa­vourable and there is no help);

2) between clauses when the second clause is an explanation or an extension of the first one (e.g. Some things we can, and others we cannot do: we can walk, but we cannot fly);

3) before a short quotation (e.g. Always remember the ancient maxim: Know thyself).

A semicolon is put:

1) between asyndetic coordinate clauses in complex sentences (e.g. He was the only guest present who had never met her; he decided that matters would be easier if he walked up and introduced himself);

2) between extended homogeneous parts of the sentence, par­ticularly if there are other punctuation marks within them (e.g. I thought that we had to act quickly; that we had to do something, to get the information). (to be continued on page 198).

Lesson 6 SHOPPING FOR CONSUMER GOODS

INTRODUCTORY READING AND TALK

Shopping is a very important part of life, but shoppers arc faced with a confusing and rapidly changing situation. The confusion arises from the claims made by advertising, a wider choice of goods than ever before, and new places to shop. The prices of clothes, shoes, and make-up have gone sky-high, so it's vital that you do not waste your money and that you shop carefully for value.

Be sure of what you want — never shop vaguely, because when you get home your purchase may not match anything else you've got.

Shop around for the best price and quality. Start with a depart­ment store, where they stock a wide range of goods and souvenirs. There you can find many departments: haberdashery, hosiery, drap­ery, millinery, ladieswear, menswear, and footwear. If you are look­ing for a skirt and a top to go with it, you'll need "Separates". You'll find shorts or T-shirts in "Leisurewear", jumpers in "Knitwear", and a nightdress in "Nightwear". In "Accessories" they sell belts, gloves, and purses. Try on all the trousers or dresses they have in the line although it may be quite boring to wait if the changing room is occupied. Check out the racks with the sign "sale". Although it usu­ally seems to be the small sizes that are offered in sales, you can sometimes find some super buys.

Feeling cheered up by your new purchase, don't foiget to keep the receipt, in case an item turns out to be faulty. You'll need the re­ceipt if you want to exchange the item or have your money refunded. If you are a bargain-hunter, try clothes markets. They often don't have the high overheads of town shops and can therefore keep prices lower, though they can stock substandard goods. Flea markets are not the best place to buy anything. The prices are low, but the qual­ity is, too.

Don't put off the purchase of festive gifts until there are only two days left before a holiday. Department stores are swarming with last-minute shoppers, so you may haveto queue for half an hour at the checkout till. From everywhere you can hear people swapping rumours, 'They have sold out all the scarves', 'They have run out of that cream'. You inevitably get involved in exchanging remarks with other people in the queue or with salesgirls. Sometimes the talk gets so interesting that the cashier's question whether you want to pay in cash or by credit card takes you by surprise. Anyway, you pay and feel happy that you have made a bargain, which puts you in a good mood.

Dear friends, make shopping entertaining. Shop together with your friends. Enjoy attractively designed displays and well-dressed shoppers browsing through trendy items. Then you will definitely like it.

1. Look at the picture below and name all departments. Say what one can buy there.

2. Where can you buy the following items?

jewellery a pair of shoes

stockings buttons, zips

fabrics a suit

a swimsuit pyjamas

a hat a cardigan

3. What can you buy in the following shops?

an antique shopan art shop

a bookshopa boutique

a florist's/flower shopa furniture shop

a gift shopa hi-fi store

an ironmonger'sa jeweller's

an optician'sa pet shop

a photographic shopa radio shop

a record shopa sports shop

a stationer'sa toy shop

4. Describe the best-known department store in your city. What does it sell? Do you like it? How do you get there? What attracts you and what annoys you in a big department store? Take the following points into account:

convenience choice service quality price

5. What would you personally never buy in a department store — and why?

○ TEXT

A Devoted Shopper

(Extrac t from the book by Sue Townsend "The Queen and I". Abridged)

Sayako came out of the changing room in Sloane Street1 wear­ing this season's suit, as featured on the cover of English Vogue.2 Last season's suit lay on the changing room floor in an untidy heap. She surveyed herself in the full-length mirror. The manageress, svelte in black, stood behind her.

'That colour's very good on you,' she said, smiling professio­nally.

Sayako said, 'I take it and also I take it in strawberry and navy and primrose.'3

The manageress inwardly rejoiced. She would now reach this week's target.4 Her job would be safe for at least another month. God bless the Japanese!

Sayako walked over on stockinged feet5 to a display of suede loafers.

'And these shoes to match all suits in size four,' she said. Her role model was the fibreglass mannequin6 which lolled convincingly against the shop counter, wearing the same cream suit that Sayako was wearing, the loafers that Sayako had just ordered and a bag that Sayako was about to order in navy, strawberry, cream and primrose. The mannequin's blonde nylon wig shone under the spotlights. Her blue eyes were half closed as though she were encaptured by her own beauty.

She is so beautiful, thought Sayako. She took the wig from the mannequin's head and placed it on her own. It fitted perfectly.

'And I take this,' she said.

She then handed over a platinum card which bore the name of her father, the Emperor of Japan.

As the manageress tapped in the magic numbers from the card,7 Sayako tried on a soft green-coloured suede coat which was also be­ing worn by a red-haired mannequin. The suede coat cost one penny less than a thousand pounds.

'What other colours do you have this in?' asked Sayako of the assistants, who were packing her suits, loafers, bags and wig.

'Just one other colour,' said an assistant (who thought, Jesus, we'll have a drink after work tonight).

She hurried to the back of the shop and quickly returned with a toffee-brown version of the sumptuous coat.8

'Yes,' said Sayako. 'I take both and, of course, boots to match, size four.' She pointed to the boots worn by the red-haired manne­quin.

The pile on the counter grew. Her bodyguard standing inside the shop door shifted impatiently.

When the Princess and her purchases had been driven away, the manageress and her assistants screamed and yelled and hugged each other for joy.

Sayako sat in the back of the limousine and looked at London and its people. How funny English people are, she thought, with their wobbly faces and big noses and their skin! She laughed behind her hand. So white and pink and red. What bodies they had! So tall. It wasn't necessary to have so much height, was it. Her father was a small man and he was an Emperor.

As the car set off on its journey towards Windsor, where she was staying at the newly opened Royal Castle Hotel, Sayako's eyes closed. Shopping was so tiring. She had started at 10.30 in Harrod's lingerie department9 and now it was 6.15 and she had only taken an hour off for lunch. And when she got home she had that puzzling book to read, Three Men in a Boat. She had promised her father she would read at least five pages a day. It would improve her English, he said, and help her to understand the English psyche.

She had already ploughed through The Wind in the Willows,10 Alice in Wonderland and most of Jemima Puddleduck11 but she had found these books very difficult, full of talking animals dressed in the clothes of human beings.

At Hyde Park Comer the car stopped suddenly, the driver swo­re and Sayako opened her eyes. The bodyguard turned around to face her.

'A demonstration,' he said. 'Nothing to fear.'

She looked out of the window and saw a long line of mid­dle-aged people crossing the road in front of the car. Many of them were wearing beige anoraks that Sayako, a devoted shopper, identified as coming from Marks and Spencer.12 A few were car­rying signs on sticks.

Nobody appeared to take any notice of them, apart from a few impatient motorists.

Proper Names

Sue Townsend ['sju: 'taUns@nd] — Сью Таунсенд

Sayako [s@'j{k@U] — Саяко

Sloane Street ['sl@Un 'stri:t] — Слоун Стрит

Windsor ['wInz@] — Виндзор

Harrod's ['h{r@dz] — Хэрродз

Jemima Puddleduck [³I'maIm@ 'pödld@k] — Джемайма Падлдак

Hyde Park ['haId 'p¸k] — Гайд Парк

Marks and Spencer ['m¸ks @nd 'spens@] — Маркс и Спенсер

Vocabulary Notes

1. Sayako came out of the changing room in Sloane Street ... — Саяко вышла из примерочной магазина на Слоун Стрит ... (Прим.: Слоун стрит — улица Лондона, получившая извест­ность благодаря расположенным на ней в изобилии изысканным магазинам).

2. ... as featured on the cover of English Vogue — ... точно таком же, как был на обложке английского издания «Воуг» (прим.:

Vogue — журнал мод)

3. ... I take it in strawberry and navy and primrose — ... я беру такой же цвета клубники, темно-синий и бледно-жёлтый.

4. She would now reach this week's target:— Теперь она не­пременно выполнит недельный план.

5. ... stockinged feet... ['stÁkIÎd] — ... в одних чулках ...

6. Her role model was the fibreglass mannequin ... — Образцом для нее служил синтетический манекен ...

7. As the manageress tapped in the magic numbers from the card ... — Пока заведующая секцией пробивала в кассе магиче­ские цифры, перенося их с пластиковой карты ...

8. ... with a toffee-brown version of the sumptuous coat —... с таким же роскошным пальто цвета кофе с молоком (Прим.: бук­вально — коричневый, как сливочная тянучка)

9. She had started at 10.30 in Harrod's lingerie department ... — Она начала в половине одиннадцатого с отдела женского белья в Хэрродз ... (Прим.: Хэрродз — крупнейший универмаг Лондона).

10. She had already ploughed through The Wind in the Willows ... — Она уже осилила «Ветер в Ивах» (Прим.: книга детского писателя К. Грэма).

11. Jemima Puddleduck — Джемайма Падлдак (Прим.: имя утенка из сказки Б. Поттер)

12. ... identified as coming from Marts and Spencer. — ... определи­ла, что они куплены в Маркс и Спенсер (Прим.: Маркс и Спенсер — известная сеть магазинов в Великобритании)

Comprehension Check

1. What was Sayako trying on in the changing room?

2. Why did the manageress inwardly rejoice?

3. What attracted Sayako's attention in the shop?

4. What was a role model for Sayako?

5. How was the mannequin dressed?

6. What else did Sayako buy in the shop? In what colours?

7. How did the manageress and her assistants react when Sayako had left?

8. What did Sayako think about English people?

9. Was Sayako tired of shopping? Why?

10. What was Sayako reading?

11. Was she reading for pleasure or not?

12. Whom did Sayako see in the street?

Phonetic Text Drills

○ Exercise 1

Transcribe and pronounce correctly the words from the text.

Suit, to survey, manageress, inwardly, to rejoice, target, suede, loafer, fibreglass, mannequin, to loll, nylon, to encapture, platinum, toffee, version, sumptuous, bodyguard, to yell, lim­ousine, wobbly, lingerie, psyche, to plough, anorak, to identify.

○ Exercise 2

Pronounce the words and phases where the following clusters occur.

1. consonant + D

On the cover, and these shoes, in the full-length mirror, in­side the shop, when the princess, in the back, and their skin, had that, found these books, in the clothes.

2. plosive + 1

Black, at least, bless, fibreglass, blonde, blue, closed, plati­num, impatiently, and looked, at London, people, ploughed.

3. plosive + r

Cream, primrose, tried, drink, princess, driven, screamed, and red, promised, would read, improve, crossing.

4. plosive + plosive

And placed, fitted perfectly, take both, and big, laughed behind, what bodies, bodyguard turned.

5. consonant + w

Job would be safe, card which, this week's, suede, coat which, cost one, just one, quickly, returned with, it was, it would.

○ Exercise 3

Pronounce after the announcer avoiding false assimilation. Comment on the phonetic phenomena.

This season's suit, as featured, as though, is so beautiful, as the car, was staying, was so tiring.

○ Exercise 4

Transcribe the following compound words.

Green-coloured, red-haired, toffee-brown, bodyguard, mid­dle-aged.

○ Exercise 5

Transcribe and intone the following exclamatory sentences.

How \ funny "English "people "are, | she 'thought, | with their 'wobbly \faces | and 'big \noses | and their \skin! || What \ bodies they "had! ||

EXERCISES

Exercise 1

Reproduce the sentences in which the following words and phrases are used in the text.

To survey oneself in a full-length mirror, to be very good on somebody, to rejoice, to match, to be encaptured by some­thing, to fit perfectly, to try on, to shift impatiently, to set off, tiring, to plough through, to be a devoted shopper, not to take any notice of something.

Exercise 2

I. Find words opposite in meaning to the following ones from the text.

1. Untidy, safe, same, beautiful, sumptuous, funny, necessary, tiring, difficult, impatient;

2. Rejoice, place, fit, improve.

II. Give synonyms.

1. Heap, purchase, journey;

2. To survey, to place, to improve, to swear;

3. Sumptuous, tiring, puzzling

Exercise 3

Match the words on the left with their definitions on the right.

1. to loll A. correspond in quality, colour, design, etc.;

2. to rejoice B. change or move from one position to another;

3. to survey C. associate inseparably or very closely with smth.;

4. to hug D. show signs of great happiness;

5. to identify E. be of right measure, shape and size;

6. to match F. take a general view of smth.;

7. to order G. stand, sit or recline in a lazy attitude;

8. to fit H. squeeze tightly in one's arms, usually with affection;

9. to shift I. make a loud sharp cry (as of pain, excitement, etc.)

10. to yell J. command or direct.

Exercise 4

Say whether the following verbs have corresponding nouns. Comment on the difference in meaning and pronunciation.

feature match hand shift

survey order cost purchase

fit pack point promise

Exercise 5

Find in the text the words from the groups below and define to what part of speech they belong.

Convincingly — perfectly — wobbly;

shopping — tiring — puzzling;

feature — loafer — driver;

middle-aged — devoted — identified.

Exercise 6

Agree or disagree with the following statements. Give your reasons.

Use ;

For disagreement: For agreement:

That's not quite right.That's right.

Oh no, quite on the contrary.Exactly.

It says in the text...I agree entirely.

1. Sayako was trying on the last season's suit.

2. The manageress felt irritated by the obtrusive customer.

3. Sayako admired the beauty of the mannequin.

4. Sayako was a devoted shopper, ready to buy clothes in bulk.

5. She didn't care how much money she spent on clothes.

6. The princess found English people funny.

7. Shopping didn't take her much time.

8. Sayako found English books entertaining.

Exercise 7

Find synonyms in the text for the italicized words and expressions.

1. Before buying an antique statue, Maggie looked at it care­ fully to find if it matched the design of her flat.

2. I can't wear my blue shoes with a black skirt, they don't look good together.

3. I've bought a blouse for Alison. It's a very pretty colour and just the right size too.

4. Why don't you put on these shoes to see if they are comfor­table.

5. They were shown into a luxurious dining hall.

6. Standing still for any length of time can be exhausting.

7. Do you think this colour makes me look attractive ?

8. The children were delighted to see peace and comfort return into their home at last.

9. At last the band appeared on the stage and the crowd was thrilled with its music.

10. After reading so many heavy and difficult textbooks, it was a relief to pick up a novel again.

11. He's always rude to people. Don't pay attention to his words.

Exercise 8

Find the English equivalents for the following words and expressions.

A.

Примерочная; костюм шестого размера; костюм про­шлого сезона; помещённый на обложке журнала; зерка­ло в человеческий рост; цвет Вам идёт; я это беру; полка, где выставлены уличные туфли; туфли в тон; манекен; прилавок магазина; недельный план продажи; заведую­щая; прожектор; собираться заказать; отлично подходить; быть в упоении; протянуть кредитную карточку; стоить; показать на что-либо; покупки; утомительный; отдел дамского белья; из магазина Маркс и Спенсер; любитель­ница покупок; стоить без одного пенса тысячу фунтов; упаковывать.

B .

Быть в упоении; прожектор; показать на что- либо; не обращать внимание; валяться на полу; внутренне возли­ковать; переминаться нетерпелтво с ноги на ногу; обни­маться от счастья; отдохнуть часок за ланчем; психология англичан.

Exercise 9

Express the same idea using different wording and grammar.

1. Sayako came out of the changing room in Sloane Street wearing this season's suit, as featured on the cover of Eng­lish Vogue.

2. The manageress, svelte in black, stood behind her.

3. She would now reach this week's taiget.

4. And these shoes to match all suits in size 4.

5. Sayako walked over on stockinged feet to a display of suede loafers.

6. Her role model was the fibreglass mannequin which lolled convincingly against the shop counter.

7. Her blue eyes were half closed as though she were encap-tured by her own beauty.

8. She hurried to the back of the shop and quickly returned with a toffee-brown version of the sumptuous coat.

9. She had already ploughed through The Wind in the Willows. 10. Many of them were wearing beige anoraks that Sayako, a devoted shopper, identified as coming from Marks and Spencer.

Exercise 10

Fill in the gaps with one of the following expressions, changing the forms of the words if necessary.

The colour is good on somebody, to bear the name of some­body, to take an hour off for lunch, to laugh behind the hand, to be coming from Harrod's, to loll against, to fit perfectly, shoes to match, to take something in navy, to be wearing, a full-length mirror, to try on something.

1. The suit was well-cut and fashioned, but the colour seemed to be too pale. So Amanda thought that she would ... .

2. The cashier looked at the platinum card and saw that... the name of the President. She couldn't believe her eyes.

3. Though ... , Dorothy thought that the coat was too wide and long, and decided not to buy it.

4. Her leather bag was so expensive that I immediately under­stood that it ... , as I knew that only there they sold such luxurious things.

5. On that day the headmistress ... an excellent stylish dress.

6. The dress ... , there was not a single crease anywhere and the length was right.

7. As our shopping tour was tiring, we decided ... and go to McDonalds.

8. There were no customers in the shop, there was absolutely nothing to do and the salesclerk ... the counter.

9. The customer looked so comic in a striped suit and a big hat that when he turned away to look at himself in the mirror, the shopgirls ....

10. Deborah had already ... five dresses, but none of them suited her.

11. On my way home with a newly purchased raincoat I passed by a shopwindow with a nice display of shoes. The idea struck me at once: I had to buy ....

12. It's a pity we do not have ... at home. It's impossible to see yourself from head to foot.

Exercise 11

Speak about Sayako's shopping tour:

1. in the third person;

2. in the person of the manageress;

3. in the person of Sayako;

4. in the person of her bodyguard.

Exercise 12

Discussion points.

1. What kind of life do you think Sayako has?

2. What do Sayako's shopping items tell you about her?

3. Do you agree with Sayako's thoughts about English people?

4. How can purchases reveal a personality?

5. Do you believe that shop assistants remain indifferent when customers make purchases or not? Prove your point.

Exercise 13

Replace the gaps with one of the following verbs: to fit, to suit , to match, to become, to go with/together.

1. I'm sure you'll be able to find a suitable dress that... . You are a standard size.

2. 'I don't think this dress... me. I'd prefer something lighter.' 'Oh, no. I love you in that dress.'

3. The jacket ... her like a glove. It looked as if it had been made for her.

4. In the lounge everything ... the curtains: the sofa, the carpet and the cushions.

5. Do you think this sweater and this skirt ... ? No, not really, the colours don't quite ....

6. This dress doesn't ... her. It's tight in the waist.

7. For every outfit, Diana has a handbag and shoes ... .

8. Helen was trying on her pearls to see if they ... her yellow dress.

9. She looked curiously young in her scarlet jeans and white sweater, although the clothes didn't... the occasion.

10. It's funny but the yellow walls and the black floor actually ... quite well.

11. She has exquisite taste for clothing. Everything she wears ... without fail.

Exercise 14

Below find a Christmas shopping list. Imagine that you give it to your teenage daughter and ask her to buy presents. Give her instructions where to buy things. You may even draw a shopping route for your daughter.

Things to Bye:

Exercise 15

I. Name at least three items which you can buy in different kinds of shops or departments when you look for birthday presents.

wo­

men's

wear

men's

wear

chil­

dren's

wear

shoe

depart­

ment

ha­

berda­

shery

stati­

oner's

an­

tique

shop

art

shop

book­

shop

hi-fi

store

II. Have a look at the list of shops in task 3 to the Introductory Reading and Talk and exclude names of shops where

1) you usually do not buy birthday presents,

2) you do not buy second-hand goods.

Exercise 16

Discuss your shopping habits:

What do you look for when you shop? Why? What factors are important for you when you go shopping? List the factors below in order of importance.

friendly service low prices

the quality of goods the design of the shop interior

the size of the shop brand name goods on sale

shops that aren't crowded nearby entertainment/cafe

Exercise 17

Pair work. Pick out 5 items your groupmate has or is wearing that you ad­mire. Make up dialogues in which you should compliment your groupmate. You can use the following phases to start with:

That's a beautiful/pretty/nice/fantastic/great/sumptuous/... dress/coat, etc.

Those are really nice/pretty/good-looking/ ...

I really like your ...

You can continue with the following:

Where did you get it/them?

I like the colour/style/material/ ...

You look good in ... (colour).

... is good on you.

... suits you.

... matches/goes well with ...

Exercise 18

In the sentences below only 3 variants are correct and the rest are wrong. Choose the correct words.

1. The ... was crowded with shoppers on the Saturday before Christmas.

A. shopping centre. B. shopping precinct. C. mall. D. ki­osk. E. stall.

2. In department stores, customers are usually welcome to ex­amine and try on ... .

A. goods. B. objects. C. articles D. merchandise. E. mate­rials.

3. The meal was really ..., we got at least six courses — all for under £10.

A. a bargain. B. valuable. C. worthy. D. a good value. E. a value for money.

4. How much is your T-shirt? I got four for only £30. They were ... .

A. on sale. B. on offer. C. on display. D. going cheap. E. dear.

5. I can't imagine how she affords to send her kids to that school — it must....

A. cost the earth. B. be priceless. C. be costly. D. be expen­sive. E. be a money spinner.

6. Unless Jaguar can ... , they will soon be unable to compete on the American market.

A. cut the prices. B. give a discount. C. reduce prices. D. increase prices. E. raise prices.

7. We don't get many ... on Mondays — Saturday is our busi­est day.

A. clients. B. merchants. C. vendors. D. shoppers. E. cus­tomers.

8. We ... a large selection of European wines.

A. stock. B. sell. C. retail. D. have on sale. E. wholesale.

9. It was difficult to choose from such ... of dishes on the menu.

A. a range. B. a selection. C. a choice. D. a mixture. E. a category.

10. Sales staff are trained to be ...

A. helpful. B. courteous. C. humble. D. knowledgeable. E. obtrusive.

Exercise 19

Complete the following dialogues using the sentences given below.

I. At the millinery department.

Customer: I'd like to buy the hat in the window.

Assistant: There are several hats in the window. ...

Customer: Can you show me the one over there? The leather one.

Assistant: Ah! The leather one. Now, this is another leather hat, madam. It's better than the one in

the window. ...

Customer: I'd rather have the one in the window. ...

Assistant: Certainly, madam. ...

Customer: I'm not sure.

Assistant: ... It is sixteen and a half.

Customer: Thank you very much. Assistant: ...

1. What size do you take?

2. Would you like me to measure your head?

3. It's smoother leather.

4. It goes with my clothes.

5. Thank you for the purchase.

6. What sort of hat do you require? Felt, leather, the one with feathers or with a brim?

II. At the shoe department.

Customer: Excuse me. ...

Assistant: Certainly, madam. What can I show you?

Customer: I'd like to buy a pair of fancy dress shoes.

Assistant: ... Leather, suede, glace or I can offer you glit­ter stiletto shoes.

Customer: I like them. Can I try them on?

Assistant: Certainly. ...

Customer: They're a bit tight. I have rather a broad foot and a high instep. ...

Assistant: I'm afraid not in that style. ...

Customer: Then, probably, leather shoes are better ...

Assistant: Yes, they'll stretch.

Customer: Very well then. Thank you for your help.

Assistant: You're welcome.

1. They will give a little after wearing.

2. Have you got them in a wider fitting?

3. Can you wait on me?

4. How do they fit, madam?

5. Would you like to see another similar style?

6. What kind of shoes do you want, madam?

III. At the women's clothes department.

Assistant: Can I help you?

Customer: No thank you. ...

Assistant: We have suits on sale. ...

Customer: Which suit do you think is better?

Assistant: ... It's warm and comfortable.

Customer: I'm afraid it's loose on me. ... Have you got a smaller size?

Assistant: I'm awfully sorry. ... The suits proved to be so popular that we sold out of them last week but we might have some more next week.

Customer: Well, thank you.

Assistant: ...

Customer: Maybe I'll come back later.

Assistant: You're welcome. Come again!

1. It's two sizes too large.

2. I'm just looking around.

3. May I hope that we can be of service to you again in the future, sir?

4. We've run out of the size.

5. You won't find a better bargain in town.

6. I think a wool single-breasted suit is a good bet for the season.

Exercise 20

Dramatize the situation "At a Shop".

A .

You want to buy some clothes but you can't decide what to buy. Ask the assistant for help, try on the clothes. Explain why you don't want them.

B .

You are the shop assistant. You serve the customer and suggest what to buy. Discuss prices, sizes and colours. Try to persuade the customer to buy something and make a sale.

Use:

For student A: For student B:

Can you wait on me?Can I help you?

Can I get... here?Are you being served?

I'm looking for...What size ... do you take?

What colours have you got it in?This one is on sale.

Have you got it in red?It's only ...

Would you measure me, please?You won't find a better

Have you got this in size ...?bargain in town.

It doesn't fit.I'm afraid we are out

It's too tight/loose.of them at the moment.

Could I have the nextWe are expecting more in,

size up/down?maybe next week.

Can I try it on?Any particular colour?

I don't like it.Would you like to try it on?

Can I see something else?Does it fit?

No, thanks. I'll leave it.Would you like to try

I'll take/have it. a bigger/smaller size?

Thank you for your help.This one comes in grey,

brown and blue.

Exercise 21

Give a talk on the subject "How to Shop Sensibly". Include the following points:

which shop to check out;

what to wear;

what bag to take.

Make use of the following words and phrases:

to be a devoted shopper to afford

to be a spendthrift/a big spender to be extravagant

to spend/waste money on to cost the earth

Give your advice. Use the following structures:

I advise youto ...

(I think) you'd better/should ...

Why don't you ...

It might be a good idea to ...

Have you thought of ...ing

I wouldn't advise you to ...

You'd better not...

Exercise 22

I. Have you ever had problems like these? What did you do?

Your blouse has shrunk. The heel's come off.

The zip doesn't work.The strap has broken from

the side.

The sole's come unstuck. The stitching's come undone.

The colours ran.Your dress has come apart at

the seams.

Your pullover has stretched. Your boots pinch.

Your socks are different

colours.

II. In pairs take turns to imagine yourself in the following situations. Make use of the phrases below.

For complaining:

I'm sorry but ...

I'm afraid ...

I'm sorry to have to complain but...

For apologizing and offering to put things right:

I'm very/awfully sorry ... I do apologize. I'll... All right, I'll see what I can do. Sony about that, I'll...

For accepting or refusing offers:

Thank you very much. That's very kind of you. I suppose that'll be all right. Thank you. That's just not good enough ... No, that's quite unacceptable. I'll never ...

Exercise 23

Translate into English.

A.

По дороге в супермаркет Бренда заметила яркую вывеску в витрине бутика: «Сезонные скидки». Бренда решила по­смотреть, нет ли чего-нибудь подходящего. Она не была завсегдатаем распродаж, хотя и знала, что на вешалках с табличкой «Скидка 50%» можно найти только маленькие размеры. Разглядывая вещи, она случайно натолкнулась на блузку 14 размера. Она примерила её и та оказалась ей как раз впору. Бренда подумала, что эта блузка подойдёт к её любимой чёрной юбке. К тому же блузка была почти даром. Бренда заглянула в свой кошелёк и решила, что может позволить себе купить её. Больше не раздумывая, Бренда подала деньги продавцу.

В.

Не успела Бренда выйти из магазина с новой отличной покупкой, как у неё отлетел каблук. А она купила туфли в этом месяце. Бренда направилась в обувной магазин, твердо решив обменять их. Продавец был готов обменять туфли, но в продаже не было обуви этой модели. Бренда провела полчаса в магазине, примеряя каждую пару свое­го размера. Но никакие туфли ей не подходили: одни были слишком широки, другие жали, у третьих был слиш­ком высокий каблук. Единственные туфли, которые ей понравились, были слишком дорогие. Продавец посове­товал ей зайти на следующей неделе, когда они получат новый товар.

Exercise 24

Write down the names of three major items you have bought recently. For each one, say whether you paid a lot, a little, or an average price, how long it took you to find the item. Then say what kind of shop you bought it in, and give reasons why.

Exercise 25

Discussion points.

1. Shopping is an important human activity.

2. It is worth spending a lot of time to get something cheap.

3. You should never buy things that harm the environment, however cheap or useful they may be.

4. Advertising provides useful information.

5. People often buy things they don't want because they are bargains.

6. Young people do not always buy wisely.

Exercise 26

I. Match the meanings on the left with the idiomatic expressions con­taining the word "shop" on the right.

1. to talk about work A. to be all over the shop

2. stealing from shops B. (on) the shop floor

3. workers; the place where C. to talk shop

ordinary workers do their

job

4. in disorder, scattered D. to go window-shopping

around different parts

of a place

5. looking at the goods in 5. shop-lifting

the windows of shops, but

not buying them

II. Explain the meaning of the italicized expressions with the word "money". Give their Russian equivalents.

1. She's always going out to parties and fancy restaurants. She must have money to bu rn.

2. Alison was careful with her money but her sister threw her money about. She went to restaurants and took taxis though she couldn't really afford it.

3. He spends money like there's no tomorrow. His parents left him an immense fortune.

4. You seem to be in the money these days. You're treating your friends to the most expensive dishes and drinks.

5. When he was a child, his pocket money was one pound.

Exercise 27

Translate the following quotations and comment upon them.

'To found a great empire for the sole purpose of raising up a people of customers, may at first sight appear a project fit only for a nation of shopkeepers. It is, however, a project altogether unfit for a nation of shopkeepers; but extremely fit for a nation that is governed by shopkeepers.'

Adam Smith.

'Do not buy what you want, but what you need; what you do not need is dear at a farthing.'

Cato the Elder.

'The customer is always right.'

H. Gordon Self ridge

'Advertising may be described as the science of arresting the human intelligence long enough to get money from it.'

Stephen Butler Leacock

Exercise 28

Role play: "Survey of People's Shopping Habits"

Setting: Lecture room in the University of Trade Manage­ment.

Situation: A group of psychologists are invited to a students' class with a talk. They ask questions about shopping habits to demonstrate the fact that people fall under different customer categories. Then they analyse answers and decide which description fits every stu­dent best. Finally they report their results to the class.

I. You are a Fun Shopper.

You enjoy it. You go shopping with your friends.

II. You are a Practical Shopper.

You get the best and the cheapest.

III. You are a Reluctant Shopper.

You hate doing it!

Find out:

whether they enjoy shopping and why/why not;

what things they like/hate to shop for the best/worst;

what kind of stores they like the most, why;

whether they like window-shopping, shopping around;

whether they enjoy lookingfor baigains;

what they think first about: the price, the quality, the name;

whether they take advice from shop assistants, friends, family, nobody;

whether they go shopping alone or with friends;

whether they spend their money on "things" or on enter­tainment;

if they had an unlimited supply of money, how they would spend it;

if they had less money and had to buy fewer things what they would stop buying.

Characters:

Card I — The head of the group of psychologists, who opens and closes the discussion.

Cards II—V — Psychologists who ask questions and make conclusions.

Cards VI—XI — Students who give answers to the questions.

WRITING

Exercise 1

Prepare to write a dictation, including the words in bold type from Introduc­tory Reading and exercise 1 on page 150.

Exercise 2

Prepare to write a reproduction of the following text.

Shopping in London

Most of London's big department stores are in Oxford Street and Regent Street. They are always crowded, but at sale times, in January and July, there are so many people that it is difficult to move and it is usually safer to go in the direction of the majority!

These days, it is often difficult to distinguish the goods in one large store from those in another. If you are looking for something "different" (but cannot afford the prices of Bond Street) it is certainly worth going to New Covent Garden. This used to be England's biggest fruit and vegetable market, but a few years ago, the market was moved to a new site on the other side of the River Thames. The old market, now called "New Covent Garden", was restored and converted into a shoppimg centre. There are now more than forty shops of many different kinds, and there are several places to eat and drink. The open­ing hours are different from most other shops: they open at 10 a.m. and close at 8 p.m. As well as shopping, there is entertain­ment with lunch-time theatre groups and classical, jazz, folk and pop music.

Kensington and Knightsbridge is an exclusive area of Lon­don. There you can find the department store that is the sym­bol of expensive and high-class living — Harrods. People say you can buy anything in Harrods, including wild animals — they even have a zoo which will sell you lion cubs as well as more common pets such as dogs, cats or parrots.

(from "Spotlights on Britain " by S. Sheerin, G. Seath, G. White)

Note:

A reproduction is a way of rendering a text as close to the original as possible. Preparing the students for a reproduction, the teacher gives them new words and phrases from the text and explains their meanings. They may be written on the blackboard or distributed on cards. The text may be read by the teacher or by the announcer if it is recorded. The students should listen to the text once or twice, and then write the gist of it trying to use the wording of the original. The main goal of writing reproductions is memory training.

Exercise 3

Write a short essay on one of the following topics.

1. Why I Like/Do Not Like Shopping.

2. My Memorable Purchase/Gift.

3. My Method of Shopping.

4. Men's and Women's Shopping Styles.

5. Shopping Styles of the Young and the Elderly.

6. The Presents We Give and Are Given.

7. Why I Never Buy Things in the Market/Boutiques.

Note:

Punctuation (continued from page 140).

A dash has the force of a strong comma, it marks sharper breaks in the continuity and achieves more definite effects of suspense than the comma.

A dash is put:

1) to mark a sharp or sudden turn in the thought or struc­ture of a sentence, or an afterthought (e.g. But Anne — well, Anne was Anne — seemed not to notice);

2) to separate a parenthetical expression from the main clause (e.g. Here she is perfiaps at her best — and in the best sense — as a woman sympathizing with the sorrows peculiar to women);

Commas or brackets may also set off a parenthetical expres­sion. The choice depends on several factors. If the parentheti­cal expression is relatively distant from the centre of the com­munication, one should prefer the brackets; if relatively near, the comma; if intermediate, the dash;

3) to set off a word or words summarizing a preceding se­ries (e.g. Ups and downs, joys and sorrows — this is human life);

4) to set off a word or words intended to effect suspense, climax, or anticlimax (e.g. No pains — no gains);

5) to mark an unfinished sentence (e.g. 'He did not lie, he -' 'Yes, what?').

Lesson 7 MEALS AND COOKING

INTRODUCTORY READING AND TALK

Living in Russia one cannot but stick to a Russian diet. Keeping this diet for an Englishman is fatal. The Russians have meals four times a day and their cuisine is quite intricate.

Every person starts his or her day with breakfast. Poor English­men are sentenced to either a continental or an English breakfast. From the Russian point of view, when one has it continental it ac­tually means that one has no breakfast at all, because it means drinking a cup of coffee and eating a bun. A month of continental breakfasts for some Russians would mean starving. The English breakfast is a bit better, as it consists of one or two fried eggs, grilled sausages, bacon, tomatoes and mushrooms. The English have tea with milk and toast with butter and marmalade. As a choice one may have corn flakes with milk and sugar or porridge.

In Russia people may have anything f or breakfast. Some good-humoured individuals even prefer soup, but, of course, sandwiches and coffee are very popular. One can easily understand that in Great Britain by one o'clock people are very much ready for lunch. Lunch is the biggest meal of the day. That would be music for a Russian's ears until he or she learns what lunch really consists of. It may be a meat or fish course with soft drinks followed by a sweet course.

The heart of a Russian person fills with joy when the hands of the clock approach three o'clock. His or her dinner includes three courses. A Russian will have a starter (salad, herring, cheese, etc.), soup, steaks, chops, or fish fillets with garnish, a lot of bread, of course, and something to drink. The more the better. At four or five the Russians may have a bite: waffles, cakes with juice, tea, cocoa, or something of the kind.

In Great Britain they have dinner at five or six. Soup may be served then, but one should not be misled by the word "soup". British soup is just thin paste and a portion is three times smaller than in Russia. A lot of British prefer to eat out. "Fish and Chips" shops are very popular with their take-away food. The more sophisticated public goes to Chinese, Italian, seafood or other restaurants and ex­periments with shrimp, inedible vegetables and hot drinks.

Supper in Russia means one more big meal at seven. The table groans with food again. In England it is just a small snack — a glass of milk with biscuits at ten.

Most Russians have never counted calories and they are deeply convinced that their food is healthy. Some housewives may admit that it takes some time to prepare all the stuff, including pickles, home-made preserves and traditional Russian pies and pancakes. But they don't seem to mind too much and boil, fry, roast, grill, broil, bake and make. Paraphrasing a famous proverb one can say:

'What is a Russian man's meat is a British man's poison'*.

* What is one man's meat is another man's poison — Что русскому хорошо, то немцу — смерть (поcл.).

1. Say when you have meals and what you like to eat and drink for breakfast, dinner and supper.

2. Say what you dislike for breakfast, dinner and supper.

3. Say what they serve in the refectory at your university and what you usually choose.

4. Say what you can cook in five minutes.

5. Look of the pictures and say what food is typically English and typically Russian.

○ TEXT

The Three Fat Women of Antibes

(Extract from the story by S. Maugham. Abridged)

One was called Mrs. Richman and she was a widow. The second was called Mrs. Sutcliffe; she was American and she had. divorced two husbands. The third was called Miss Hickson and she was a spinster.

They were great friends, Miss Hickson, Mrs. Richman and Ar­row Sutcliffe. It was their fat that had brought them together' and bridge that had cemented their alliance. They would have been in­dependent of anyone else if they had not needed a fourth at bridge.2 It was for this reason that Frank* invited Lena Finch to come and stay with them at Antibes. They were spending some weeks there on Frank's suggestion. She proposed then that they should take a house at Antibes, where they could get plenty of exercise — everyone knew that nothing slimmed you like swimming. With a cook of their own they could at least avoid things that were obviously fattening. The plan worked very well.

* Frank — Frances Hickson

But the fourth at bridge continued to be the difficulty. One morning when they were sitting in pyjamas on the terrace, drin­king their tea (without milk or sugar), Frank looked up from the let­ters.

'Lena Finch is coming down to the Riviera,' she said. 'What about asking her to come here for a fortnight?'

'Does she play bridge?' asked Beatrice*.

* Beatrice — Mis. Richman

'You bet your life she does,'3 boomed Frank in her deep voice. 'And a damned good game too. We should be absolutely independ­ent of outsiders.'4

It was settled. And three days later Lena Finch arrived. Frank met her at the station. She was in deep mourning for the recent death of her husband. Lena was not, however, unduly depressed. Frank introduced the stranger to her two friends and they sat down in what was known as the Monkey House. It was crowded with chattering people, who were seated at the tables having drinks. The conversation was gay and easy, and presently they strolled back to the villa for luncheon.

In each napkin were two little antifat rusks. Lena gave a bright smile as she put them by the side of her plate.

'May I have some bread?' she asked.

The grossest indecency would not have fallen on the ears of those three women.5 Not one of them had eaten bread for ten years.

Frank, the good hostess, recovered herself first.

'Of course, darling,' she said and turning to the butler asked him to bring some.

'And some butter,' said Lena in that pleasant easy way of hers.

There was a moment's embarrassed silence.

'I don't know if there's any in the house,' said Frank, 'but I'll inquire'.

The butler brought a long crisp roll of French bread. Lena slit it in two and plastered it with the butter, which was miraculously pro­duced.6

A grilled sole was served. The rest of the luncheon consisted of lamb cutlets, with the fat carefully removed, and spinach boiled in water, with stewed pears to end up with, Lena tasted her pears and gave the butler a look of inquiry. That resourceful man understood her at once and though powdered sugar had never been served at that table before handed her without a moment's hesitation a bowl of it. She helped herself liberally.7 The other three pretended not to notice. Coffee was served and Lena took three lumps of sugar in hers.

'You have a very sweet tooth,' said Arrow in a tone which she struggled to keep friendly.8

But human nature is weak. You must not ask too much of it. They ate grilled fish while Lena ate macaroni sizzling with cheese and butter; they ate grilled cutlets and boiled spinach while Lena ate pate de foie gras;9 twice a week they ate hard-boiled eggs and raw tomatoes, while Lena ate peas swimming in cream and potatoes cooked in all sorts of delicious ways. The chef was a good chef and he leapt at the opportunity afforded him10 to send up one dish more rich, tasty and succulent than the other.

The butler disclosed the fact11 that he could make half a dozen kinds of cocktail and Lena informed them that the doctor recom­mended her to drink burgundy at luncheon and champagne at din­ner. The three fat women persevered.

Lena was going to stay with friends on the Italian Riviera and Frank saw her off by the same train as that by which she had arrived. When she turned away from the departing train she heaved such a vast sigh of relief12 that the platform shook beneath her.

She passed through the Monkey House, looking about her to say Good morning to anyone she knew, and then stopped dead still.13 Beatrice was sitting at one of the tables, by herself.

'Beatrice, what are you doing?' she cried in her deep voice. Beatrice looked at her coolly.

'Eating,' she answered.

In front of Beatrice was a plate of croissants14 and a plate of butter, a pot of strawberry jam, coffee and a jug of cream. Beatrice was spreading butter thick on the delicious hot bread, covering this with jam, and then pouring the thick cream overall.

The tears welled up to Frank's eyes. Suddenly she felt very weak and womanly. Speechless she sank down on a chair by Beatrice's side. A waiter came up. With a pathetic gesture she waved towards the coffee and croissants.

'I'll have the same,' she sighed. In a moment the waiter brought her croissants, butter, jam and coffee.

'Where's the cream, you fool?' she roared like a lioness.

She began to eat. She ate gluttonously. The place was beginning to fill up with bathers. Presently Arrow strolled along. On her way she caught sight of Frank and Beatrice. She stopped. She could hardly believe her eyes.

'My God!' she cried. 'You beasts. You hogs.'

She seized a chair. 'Waiter.' In the twinkling of an eye the waiter was at her side.

'Bring me what these ladies are having,' she ordered.

Frank lifted her great heavy head from her plate.

'Bring me some pate de foie gras,' she boomed.

The coffee was brought and the hot rolls and cream and the pate de foie gras. They spread the cream on the pate and they ate it. They devoured great spoonfuls of jam. They crunched the delicious crisp bread voluptuously. They ate with solemn, ecstatic fervour.

'I haven't eaten potatoes for twenty-five years,' said Frank in a far-off brooding tone.

'Waiter,' cried Beatrice, 'bring fried potatoes for three.' The po­tatoes were brought. They ate them with their fingers.

'Bring me a dry Martini,' said Arrow.

'Bring me a double dry Martini,' said Frank.

'Bring three double dry Martinis,' said Beatrice.

They were brought and drunk at a gulp.

'I wonder if they've got any chocolate eclaires,' said Beatrice.

'Of course they have.'

And of course they had. Frank thrust one whole into her huge mouth, swallowed it and seized another, but before she ate it she looked at the other two and plunged a vindictive dagger into the heart of the monstrous Lena.15

'You can say what you like, but the troth is she played a damned rotten game of bridge, really.'

'Lousy,' agreed Arrow.

But Beatrice suddenly thought she would like a meringue.

Proper Names

Antibes [¸Î'ti:b] (French) — Антиб

Somerset Maugham ['söm@s@t 'mþm] — Сомерсет Моэм

Beatrice Richman ['bI@trIs 'rI¶m@n] — Беатрис Ричмен

Arrow Sutcliffe ['{r@U 'sötklIf] —Эрроу Сатклифф

Frances Hickson ['fr¸nsIs 'hIks@n] — Фрэнсис Хиксон

Lena Finch ['li:n@ fIn¶] — Лина Финч

Riviera [,rIvI'е@r@] — Ривьера

Martini [m¸'ti:nI] — мартини (Прим.: коктейль из джина, вермута и горькой настойки)

Vocabulary Notes

1. It was their fat that had brought them together... — Именно потому, что они были полные, они завязали знакомство ...

2. ... if they had not needed a fourth at bridge. — ... если бы им не нужен был четвёртый для игры в бридж.

3. 'You bet your life she does.' — «Бьюсь об заклад, что да.»

4. We should be absolutely independent of outsiders. — Мы бы совершенно не зависели от посторонних.

5. The grossest indecency would not have fallen on the ears of those three women. — Ничего более неприличного уши этих трёх женщин не слышали.

6. ... which was miraculously produced. — ... которое появилось чудесным образом.

7. She helped herself liberally. — Она положила себе щедрую порцию.

8. 'You have a very sweet tooth,' said Arrow in a tone which she straggled to keep friendly. — «Вы большая сладкоежка», — ска­зала Эрроу, изо всех сил пытаясь говорить дружелюбным тоном.

9. pâte de foie gras — [p¸'teIdз: 'fU@ 'gr¸] — (фр.) паштет из гу­синой печёнки

10. ... he leapt at the opportunity afforded him ... —...он ухватился за представившуюся ему возможность ...

11. The butler disclosed the fact that ... — Дворецкий признался, что ...

12. ... she heaved such a vast sigh of relief... — ... она так глубоко и с таким облегчением вздохнула ...

13. ... stopped dead still. — ... остановилась как вкопанная.

14. croissant — [krw¸'sÁÎ] — (фр.) круассан (Прим.: булочка в виде полумесяца из воздушного сдобного теста)

15. ... plunged а vindictive dagger into the heart of the monstrous Lena. — ... в отместку вонзила кинжал в сердце вероломной Лины.

Comprehension Check

1. What were Mrs. Richman, Mrs. Sutcliffe and Miss Hickson?

2. Why did they need the fourth person in their company?

3. Where were they staying and why?

4. What did, Frank suggest one morning?

5. How did Lena Finch and the ladies meet?

6. Where did the ladies go from the Monkey House?

7. What terrified the ladies at luncheon?

8. What did the ladies have for luncheon?

9. How did Lena's dishes and the ladies' food differ during her stay?

10. What kind of talents did the chef and the butler disclose?

11. How did Lena and Frank part?

12. When did Frank stop dead still?

13. What was Beatrice eating?

14. What did Frank suddenly do?

15. How did Arrow react when she saw the two ladies eating?

16. What else did the ladies order?

17. Did the ladies eat calmly or not?

18. What was Frank's revenge upon Lena like?

Phonetic Text Drills

○ Exercise 1

Transcribe and pronounce correctly the words from the text.

To cement, outsider, mourning, unduly, to stroll, luncheon, rusk, hostess, embarrassed, to inquire, roll, to plaster, miracu­lously, lamb, cutlet, spinach, stewed, pear, resourceful, pow­dered, macaroni, to sizzle, delicious, chef, succulent, bur­gundy, champagne, to persevere, to pour, pathetic, glutton­ously, to devour, voluptuously, solemn, ecstatic, fervour, lousy, meringue.

○ Exercise 2

I. Pronounce the words and phases where the following clusters occur.

1. plosive + w

the second was, the third was, it was, that were, what was, twice, twinkling.

2. plosive + r

great, bridge, introduced, drinks, bright, bring, train, cried, cream, crisp, truth.

3. plosive + 1

settled, presently, butler, plastered, platform, plate, glut­tonously.

II. Say why the following clusters can be put under one heading and in what way they differ.

1. some weeks there, does she, as she, those three, was served, was sitting, was spreading.

2. that they, avoid things, but there, and three, informed them.

Exercise 3

Transcribe the phrases and comment on the phonetic difficulties.

It was their fat that had brought them together ...

... if they had not needed a fourth at bridge.

... powdered sugar had never been served at that table before ...

... and then stopped dead still.

○ Exercise 4

Transcribe and intone the following questions.

'What a'bout \asking her | to 'come here for a \ fortnight? ||

'Does she 'play / bridge? ||

'May I 'have some / bread? ||

^Beatrice, | 'what are you \ doing? ||

'Where’s the \ cream, | "you "fool? ||

EXERCISES

Exercise 1

I. Pick out from the text words and expressions denoting:

a) food,

b) drinks,

c) adjectives used to describe dishes. Try to explain their meaning in English or translate them into Russian.

II. Pick out from the text: a) all phrases used to denote quantities of foodstuffs, i.e. "a lump of sugar", etc.; b) all words used to denote the ways food may be cooked, i.e. "boil — boiled", etc.

Exercise 2

Find in the text words or phrases similar in meaning to the following. Read aloud the sentences containing them.

To make someone thinner; juicy and delicious; food making people fat easily; to drink; to cut into two parts; to put some­thing on one's plate; to put butter on top; to like sweet things; to use hands when eating; to eat noisily; to eat fast, swallowing large quantities.

Exercise 3

Form other parts of speech from the following words. Give as many variants as possible. Comment on the shift of meaning in certain cases.

Verbs: to cement, to slim, to crowd, to stroll, to recover, to slit, to plaster, to produce, to remove, to cook, to wave, to fill, to seize.

Nouns: fat, exercise, difficulty, conversation, drink, hostess, silence, water, inquiry, finger, gulp.

Exercise 4

Say what other meanings the following words from the text may have.

Rich, roll, to boom, cream, to propose, deep, bright, to re­cover, to help (oneself), heart, lousy.

Exercise 5

Find the English equivalents to the following Russian phrases.

A.

Сухарик; пить напитки; положить рядом с тарелкой; длинный батон с хрустящей корочкой; разрезать попо­лам; попробовать (о пище); удалить жир; положить побо­льше; подать кофе; быть сладкоежкой; вкусно приготов­ленный; повар; намазывать масло толстым слоем; жадно есть; обжора; принести то же, что у кого-либо; погло­щать; ложка варенья; грызть с хрустом; принести три по­рции жареной картошки; есть руками; выпить одним глотком; засунуть целиком в рот.

В .

Скрепить союз; по этой причине; по предложению; всё шло по плану; широко улыбнуться; прийти в себя; не­ловкое молчание; появиться чудесным образом; человек слаб; ухватиться за предоставленную возможность; вздох­нуть с облегчением; сидеть в одиночестве; выразительный жест; не верить глазам; в мгновение ока.

Exercise 6

Put in the missing prepositions looking for help in the text.

1. It was strange that a quiet restaurant round the comer was crowded ... people at this late hour.

2. Young people just starting their life always want to be independent... their parents.

3. The teacher said the phrase ... a tone which could not be misinterpreted.

4. The boys were so hungry that they did not notice the forks lying ... the sides of their plates and started eating the fish... their fingers.

5. The hostess wanted to introduce a new chef... all the other cooks in the restaurant.

6. Something was wrong with the lady's health and so spicy dishes were never served ... her table.

7. The girl gave up dieting and ordered two cakes ... a moment's hesitation.

8. The news fell... my ears like a bolt from the blue.

9. The English certainly know how to eat buns: they slit them ... two, plaster ... butter, and put jam and cream on top.

10. At the sound all the readers in the reading-room im­mediately lifted their heads ... their books.

11. You should spread pate ... butter, then your sandwich will taste better.

12. In the restaurant we ordered salad, steaks, fried potatoes and ice-cream ... three.

13. In Great Britain they never drink whiskey or vodka ... a gulp; they sip it.

14. When we were seated ... the tables, I suddenly caught sight ... my old friends passing by.

Exercise 7

Complete the sentences and expand on them.

1. It was their fat that had brought...

2. They were spending two weeks there on Frank's ...

3. Nothing slimmed you like ...

4. She was in deep mourning for ...

5. In each napkin were ...

6. There was a moment's embarrassed ...

7. A grilled sole was served. The rest of the luncheon consisted of...

8. You have a very sweet...

9. The chef was a good chef and he ...

10. 'Beatrice, what are you doing?' she cried ...

11. The tears welled up to Frank's eyes. Suddenly she felt...

12. 'I'll have the same,' she sighed. In a moment the waiter...

13. Presently Arrow strolled along. On her way she caught...

14. The coffee was brought, and the hot rolls and ...

15. The potatoes were brought. They ate them with ...

16. Frank thrust one whole into her huge ...

Exercise 8

Express the same idea using different wording and grammar.

1. It was their fat that had brought them together and bridge that had cemented their alliance.

2. They would have been independent of anyone else if they had not needed a fourth at bridge.

3. The plan worked very well.

4. But the fourth at bridge continued to be the difficulty.

5. We should be absolutely independent of outsiders.

6. The conversation was gay and easy, and presently they strolled back to the villa for luncheon.

7. Lena gave a bright smile as she put them by the side of her plate.

8. The grossest indecency would not have fallen on the ears of those three women.

9. Frank, the good hostess, recovered herself first.

10. Lena slit it in two and plastered it with butter, which was miraculously produced.

11. She helped herself liberally.

12. 'You have a very sweet tooth', said Arrow in a tone which she struggled to keep friendly.

13. The chef was a good chef and he leapt at the opportunity afforded him to send up one dish more rich, tasty and suc­culent than the other.

14. The tears welled up to Frank's eyes.

15. The place was beginning to fill up with bathers.

16. On her way she caught sight of Frank and Beatrice.

Exercise 9

Speak about the three ladies'stay at Antibes:

1. in the third person;

2. in the person of any of the fat women;

3. in the person of Lena;

4. in the person of the butter.

Exercise 10

Discussion points.

1. Why could none of the three fat women slim on her own? Why did all of them need company?

2. Did the three fat ladies have good table manners? Prove your point.

3. Did Lena ruin the fat women's plan on purpose or by chance?

4. Do you think that human nature is weak?

5. Why did the three fat women give way to their feelings?

6. What do you think of the last remarks of the ladies about Lena's bridge playing?

Exercise 11

Study the list of English verbs and group the ones close in meaning matching them with the Russian verbs. Comment upon the difference in their meanings.

English: to swallow, to crunch, to champ, to hog, to munch, to gobble (up), to nibble at something, to gnaw, to gulp, to chew, to devour, to bolt, to bite.

Exercise 12

Study the table of calories in food and write a menu for a day for:

a) a person who wants to lose weight;

b) a person who wants to gain weight.

Exercise 13

Complete the list with names of food or drink. Skip the letters X and Z.

Exercise 14

I. What do we call places where people go to eat? Match the words in the left column with the definitions in the right column.

1. snack bar A. originally a British public house licen­sed to serve beer and other alcoholic beverages.

Customers get their drinks from the counter and either stand there or sit at the tables. Some light snacks like pies and sandwiches are served.

2. café/cafeteria B. a counter where food and drink may be bought and eaten (e.g. in a railway sta­tion or

on a train)

3. pizzeria C. small restaurant mainly concentrating on cakes, sandwiches, coffee and tea.

Choice of food is often very limited.

4. refectory D. a place where guests normally come fairly late and stay until the small hours.

Always with dancing and often also with floor shows. Food is some­ times

available.

5. buffet E. a place where students or workers have their lunch, usually connected with a school,

office or factory.

6. night club F. a nice place where meals are served to customers.

7. canteen G. a modest restaurant where customers collect their food on trays at counters and carry

it to tables. Choice of dishes is based on convenience and speed, with food like hambuigers, sausages and sandwiches.

8. pub H. a restaurant specializing in pizzas, and other Italian-type food.

9. restaurant I. a university cafe

II. What types of restaurant would you recommend to the following people?

1. A young couple who want food and some entertainment late at night.

2. A man who wants a meal in a place where he can meet some local people.

3. Someone wanting a quick, cheap meal.

4. Someone at a railway station.

5. Someone who wants non-English food.

6. A student staying at the university all day.

7. A factory worker at lunch-time.

8. A family who wants to celebrate some special occasion.

Exercise 15

1. Study the following words, paying attention to the difference in meaning in English and in Russian, though they may sound similar in the two lan­guages. Explain the difference.

a) specialty, b) marmalade, c) biscuits, d) cutlet.

2. Give all English equivalents to the words а) тесто, b) кусок.

3. What is of interest in the meaning of the word "tea" in English?

Exercise 16

Sum up the following text in 5 sentences.

To travel through the whole of England is to realise what a rich and varied country it is. From one county to the next you could be on a different island, this being particularly true of the East and West coasts, the North of England and the South. The food from place to place varies, too. The thick clotted cream of Cornwall and Devonshire does not travel far from where it'was made, any more than the succulent Cumberland sausage leaves Cumbria. The wildfowl of the Fens do not mingle with the fat Aylesbury ducklings and Lincolnshire stuffed chine also stays at home. The English are rightly proud of their heritage and today, amongst the welter of take-aways and fast food places, they are even more determined to keep it alive. Traditions sometimes connected with food are not lost either.

The Reverend Sydney Smith (1771—1845), the witty, food-loving canon of St. Paul's wrote: 'I am convinced that charac­ter, talents, virtues and qualities are powerfiilly affected by beef, mutton, pie crust and rich soup.'

○ Exercise 17

I. Read the dialogue in pairs.

Visit to Dietician

D r. J о n e s: Good morning, Mrs. Fat. Sit down, please.

Mrs. Fat: Good morning. Dr. Jones. Do you mind if I sit on the sofa?

D r. J о n e s: No, not at аll. You can take any seat you like. So you would tike to lose weight, wouldn't you?

Mrs. Fat: Exactly. I've been overweight all my life and now I think it's time I started dieting.

D r. J o n e s: Oh, yes. I see. You know... before I can recom­mend you a particular diet I must team all about your eating habits. How many meals a day do you normally have?

Mrs. Fat: I usually have only three meals a day. I mean breakfast, lunch and dinner, but unfortunately I very often eat between meals.

D r. J о n e s: What do you have for breakfast?

Mrs. Fat: A traditional English breakfast. I have a glass of orange juice, a bowl of cereal and bacon and eggs. And then I drink tea.

D r. J о n e s: Do you take milk in your tea?

Mrs. Fat: I normally drink tea with cream, though I rea­lise that I should have it with skimmed milk.

D r. J о n e s: And what about lunch?

Mrs. Fat: Well, that depends. On some days I just have a couple of sandwiches for lunch, but sometimes I also have a bowl of soup and cakes or pies to follow.

Dr. Jones: What do you have for dinner and when do you have it?

Mrs. Fat: I normally have dinner at 8 p.m. I know it's a bit too late, it just happens so. What do I have? You know, I like to have a very substantial din­ner — a starter, like a salad or assorted meat, followed by a main course such as beefsteak or fish and chips and then dessert and tea or coffee.

D r. J о n e s: What do you have for dessert as a rule?

Mrs. Fat: Ice-cream or cakes, or both.

D r. J о n e s: And what do you eat between meals?

Mrs. Fat: Peanuts, chocolate, popcorn, crisps and stuff. Sometimes I just like to nibble candies.

D r. J о n e s: In fact, many people do the same and yet they have no problems with excess weight. Let me see... Do you fry one or two eggs with your ba­con in the morning?

Mrs. Fat: I actually take eight eggs, but I share my break­fast with my toy-poodle dog.

D r. J о n e s: I see. Here is my prescription: Don't change your diet. Change your dog. Replace it with a

Labrador. Or keep both dogs and share all your meals with them. And here is the telephone number of a vet, who is a very good dog dietician, just in case your dogs might need a cor­rection of their diet.

II. Explain the meaning of the following words:

food, meal, dish, course, overweight, diet, breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper, snack.

III. Dramatize the dialogue between Mrs. Fat and Dr. Jones.

IV. Translate into English:

1. Я завтракаю в восемь часов утра.

2. За завтраком я обычно съедаю бутерброд и выпиваю чашку чая.

3. Мои брат всегда ест яичницу с ветчиной на завтрак.

4. Что ты ешь в обед на второе?

5. Какой десерт нравится твоей маме?

6. Я никогда не перекусываю между завтраком, обедом и ужином.

7. Вы хотели бы похудеть?

8. У тебя нет лишнего веса и тебе не надо садиться на диету.

9. Я терпеть не могу рыбу с картошкой.

10. Мой друг постоянно ест жареный арахис или соленую воздушную кукурузу. Меня это раздражает.

11. — Что такое традиционный английский завтрак? — По-моему, это стакан сока, кукурузные хлопья с молоком, яичница с ветчиной и чай.

12. Я люблю плотно поесть в обед — закуску, суп, второе, десерт и выпить чашечку крепкого кофе.

Exercise 18

Say which drinks are good for health and which are not. Give your reasons.

Orange juice, milk, skimmed milk, tea, coffee, beer, brandy, cognac, Scotch whisky, Coca-Cola, Pepsi-Cola, apple juice, tomato juice, pineapple juice, gin, rum, vodka, champagne, port, dry sherry, sweet sherry, vermouth, ale, lager.

Exercise 19

Play a game. Write a healthy menu for breakfast, lunch or dinner, and start the name of each dish with the same letter.

Pattern: A MENU FOR DINNER

Asparagus soup

Aubergines in sauce

Apple tart

Apricot juice

Exercise 20

Translate into English.

1. Я люблю всё мучное. Я знаю, что от пирожков, бу­лочек, пирожных и печенья ужасно полнеют, но ни­чего не могу с собой поделать.

2. Сейчас очень многие увлекаются вегетарианской пи­щей. Они едят любые овощи — картошку, морковь, свёклу, цветную капусту, горох, салат, но совсем не едят мяса.

3. Постарайтесь сократить употребление говядины, сви­нины, баранины. Лучше ешьте куру, только без кожи. Это пойдет Вам на пользу.

4. — Какое масло лучше использовать для приготовле­ния пищи — сливочное или растительное?

— Смотря для чего. Если хочешь, чтобы было сыт­нее, то сливочное, а если хочешь быть здоровее, то растительное. Говорят, самое полезное масло — рас­тительное.

5. Какие блюда самые популярные в русской кухне? Блины, борщ, котлеты, пироги, грибы, пельмени. А из напитков, пожалуй, чай, квас, кисель, клюквенный морс.

6. — Я заказал столик на двоих на девять часов, но мы минут на пятнадцать опоздаем.

— Ничего страшного.

7. Я буду есть то, что ест вон та дама. Посмотри, с каким чувством она поглощает то, что лежит у неё на та­релке.

8. Ну ты и сладкоежка! Неужели ты не понимаешь, что нельзя есть столько шоколада и конфет. Кстати, ты давно не была у зубного, не так ли?

9. Когда поедем на пикник, надо не забыть взять ведро и поварёшку. Без ножей и вилок мы, может быть, и обойдёмся, а вот ложки надо взять обязательно.

10. — Посмотри, какой обжора там за столиком у окна. Он ест ужасно быстро и жадно.

— Может, он просто очень голоден.

11. Этот пудинг очень сытный, я буду есть его без сливок и без сметаны.

12. Какой сочный арбуз! Я, пожалуй, съем еще кусочек.

13. Дай мне дольку апельсина, кусок сахара, щепотку соли, кусочек хлеба и плитку шоколада. Я буду гото­вить свое фирменное блюдо.

14. — Я знаю людей, которые не едят ничего жареного или варёного. Они едят только сырую пищу.

— Неужели? И они ещё живы?

— Да, живы и здоровы.

15. Некоторые девушки так усердствуют с похуданием, что заболевают. Всё хорошо в меру.

Exercise 21

1. Look at the picture and tell the class how one should lay the table for two. Say where one puts:

a soup plate, a dinner plate, a bottom plate, a bread plate, a knife, a fork, a table spoon, a napkin, salt, pepper, mustard, a wine glass.

Exercise 22

I. Read the list of Table Don'ts.

1. Elbows are never put on the table while one is eating.

2. Don't lift your plate up to your mouth.

3. Don't push back your plate when finished. It remains exac­tly where it is until whoever is waiting on you removes it.

4. Don't lean back and announce, 'I'm through'. The fact that you have put your fork and knife together on the plate shows that you have finished.

5. Don't wait until all plates are served; after a few guests have been served, it is perfectly all right to start eating.

6. Don't let others see what you have in your mouth.

7. Don't make a noise when eating.

8. Put the food in your mouth with your fork, never with your knife.

II. Look at the pictures and say which Table Don'ts are not observed.

II. Read the list of Table Dos.

1. Put your napkin on your lap. Do not wear it around your neck.

2. Gravy should be put on the meat, and the condiment, pickles and jelly at the side of whatever they accompany.

3. All juicy or soft fruit or cake is best eaten with a fork and when necessary a spoon or a knife also.

4. When passing your plate for a second helping always leave a knife and a fork on the plate and be sure the handles are far enough on not to topple off.

5. You may use your knife or a piece of dry crust as a pusher to guide and hold each mouthful for the fork to lift.

6. Fish bones are taken between finger and thumb and re­moved between compressed lips.

7. Bread should always be broken into moderate-sized pieces with the fingers before being eaten.

IV. Complete the list of Table Dos and say how one should eat: soup, meat, poultry, lobster, bananas, oranges, apples, melons and watermel­ons.

Exercise 23

Give the Russian equivalents to the following verbs and phrases and use them in sentences: heat, simmer, boil, stir, cut, mince, chop, rub something into something, soak, bake, beat, mix, strain off the liquid, pour, roll out, melt, whisk, peel, squeeze out, bring to the boil.

Exercise 24

1. Look at the pictures below and name the objects, choosing words from the list:

saucepan, frying pan, bowl, scoop, whistling kettle, colander, mincer, coffee pot.

II. Say which of these objects you use when you perform actions denoted by the words from exercise 23.

Pattern: When I boil water I use a saucepan.

Exercise 25

Translate the following recipes into Russian.

1. Hot chocolate.

Heat 600 ml (1 pint) milk, add 100g (4 oz) chopped plain or bitter chocolate and stir, when melted, bring to a simmer and whisk for 3 minutes. Sweeten to taste. Pour hot into cups and top with whipped cream.

2. Oat cakes.

Sift flour into a bowl and add salt. Rub in fat until texture resembles breadcrumbs. Add currant, lemon juice and rind, then mix to a fairly firm dough with about 4 tablespoons water or milk and water. Divide the dough into 4 pieces and put on to a floured surface. Roll into circles and fry in the oil until brown all over. Drain well and eat hot, sprinkled with sugar.

3. Ham baked with chestnuts.

Mash the chestnuts well, add the sugar and either butter or cream and some pepper. Lay the ham on a board and stuff it with as much of this as will hold, then press together and secure. Put into an ovenproof dish. Make a criss-cross pat­tern with a sharp knife on the top of the ham. Mix the breadcrumbs into the rest of the chestnut mixture and press this over the top. Put the ham into a pre-heated oven at 200° С (400° F) for about 1/2 hour or until the top is crisp.

Exercise 26

I. Match the names of the dishes and their descriptions (1-3) with the reci­pes (A-C).

II. Choose the dish you would like to make. Explain why you have chosen this particular recipe.

III. Think of some Russian dishes with peculiar names, i.e. "селёдка под шубой", etc. Explain their names and make up recipes.

1. RICHMOND MAIDS

OF HONOUR

These little almond cakes are said to have been first made at Richmond Palace when Henry VIII was king. The young girl who first made them gave her recipe to a Mr. Billet, who, after her death, opened a "Maids of Honour" shop in Richmond. The se­cret was kept in the family for many generations. However, a certain Mr. Newen went to work in Mr. Billet's shop and bought the recipe from the owner for a thousand guineas. The present Mr. Newen still makes them by hand at 288 Kew Road, Kew Gar­dens.

2. TOAD-IN-THE-HOLE

The dish was often served at country hotels, or pubs, in the last century. Toad-in-the-Hole has deteriorated very much over the years. Up until the 1920s it was often made with good steak, chopped into pieces, some­times with some kidneys added, but nowadays it is more often served made with sausages. It can be ex­tremely good eaten piping hot from the oven.

3. TWEED KETTLE

Salmon from the Tweed river is well known for its flavour and the tradi­tional methods of cooking preserve that delicacy. The pan in which the salmon is cooked is always called a fish kettle.

A. 900g (2 lb.) fresh salmon, middle cut or tail end, salt and pepper, pinch of nut­meg, water, 1 small onion, chopped, 3 tablespoons whi­te wine vinegar, 2 tablespo­ons parsley, chopped. Serves about 6

В. 450g(1 lb.) prepared puff pastry, 225g (8 oz) cheese, 175g (6 oz) wanned butter, 2 egg yolks, 100g (4 oz) sugar, 2 tablespoons brandy, 2 tablespoons breadcrumbs, level, 50g (2 oz) ground almonds, 1 lemon. This amount makes about 24 cakes.

C. 675g (1 1/2 lb.) pork sausages, 225g (8 oz) flour, pinch of salt, 3 eggs, 600 ml (1 pint) milk. Serves 4.

Exercise 27

I. What is your specialty? Can you share the recipe with the class?

II. Make a list of foodstuffs you hate and say why.

III. Which cuisine is the best in the world? Rank the following cuisines in order of preference and explain your choice. Russian, Mexican, Georgian, English, French, German, American, Chinese, Italian, Indian.

Exercise 28

I. Make up an advertisement for the food you enjoy. Use the adverts below as a guide.

II. Read your adverts in turn. Each student should find fault with the food advertised before when his or her turn comes.

Pattern : a) The ice-cream you advertise may be tasty, but I'm sure it's too cold for me. I hate having a sore throat.

b) Peanut butter is certainly very nourishing, but I don't like the way it smells.

c) It sounds like a great thing to eat, but I'm afraid it will stick to my teeth. Besides, it's too fattening.

Exercise 29

Work in pairs. Imagine that you are going on a picnic. Make up dialogues discussing the food and utensils that you are going to take. You can use the following expressions:

Why don't we take ...

We can't do without ...

... is a must.

We'll certainly need ...

We are sure to need ...

... will be of use, no doubt.

It could be a good idea to take ...

Exercise 30

Explain the meaning of the following proverbs.

1. The glutton digs his grave with his teeth.

2. The proof of the pudding is in the eating.

3. You can't eat a cake and have it.

4. The appetite comes with eating.

5. Man does not live by bread alone.

6. Too many cooks spoil the broth.

7. First catch your hare then cook him.

8. You cannot make an omelette without breaking eggs.

9. Enough is as good as a feast.

10. Hunger is the best sauce.

11. Dog does not eat dog.

Exercise 31

Comment on the quotations:

'Tell me what you eat and I will tell you who you are.'

Anthel me Brillat-Savar in

'Man is the only animal that can remain on friendly terms with the victims he intends to eat until he eats them.'

Samuel Butler

'A gourmet is just a glutton with brains.'

Philip W. Haberman Jr.

'Where the guests at a gathering are well-acquainted, they eat 20 percent more than they otherwise would.'

Edgar Watson Hawe

'The whole of nature, as has been said, is a conjugation of the verb to eat in the active and passive.'

William Ralph Inge

Exercise 32

Find out what the following English idioms

1. to bite off more than one can chewA. to have a lot of tasks

2. to take something with a pinch of saltB. extremely rich in producing food

3. to have a lot on one's plateC. to be sold out very quickly

4. to know which side one's bread is buttered onD. to make an unpleasant thing seem less so

5. flowing with milk and honeyE. not to believe entirely

6. to sell like hot cakesF. to be an unwanted member of a trio

7. a storm in a tea-cupG. where one is in a position of advantage

8. to sugar the pillH. for certain

9. to play gooseberryI. to attempt to do more than one can

10. as sure as eggs is eggsJ. disturbance over a trifling matter

mean matching the two parts.

Exercise 33

Role play "A Students' Party"

Setting: At a university hostel.

Situation: Two groups of Russian and British students decide to celebrate some holiday (Christmas, New Year, Easter, etc.) together and cook national dishes to treat each other. They cook, discuss the recipes, make others guess, what they have put into the dishes, and choose the best cooks.

Cards I—VII — Russian students. They cook ravioli, borsch, Russian salad.

Cards VIII—XIV — English students. They cook a pudding, turkey, vegetables.

WRITING

Exercise 1

Prepare to write a dictation. Learn the spelling of the words in bold type from Introductory Reading and the words from exercise 1 on page 176.

Exercise 2

Translate the text in writing.

В этом году всё сложилось удачно. Праздник 8 марта совпал с масленицей, вместе с ней и закончился. Нам, грешным, одним искушением меньше. Прямо с понеде­льника начался Великий пост.

Во время первой русской революции и последнего царя пищей называлось «всякое вещество ... годное для поддержания, обновления и увеличения тела». И увеличе­ние никого не смущало. В то время в салат «Оливье» вме­сто картошки полагалось класть черную икру. Так, по крайней мере, советовали в тогдашней поваренной книге.

Оглянуться не успели, еда из удовольствия преврати­лась в проблему. Каких-нибудь полвека спустя знамени­тая сталинская «Книга о вкусной и здоровой пище» от­крылась словами: «Проблема питания — одна из основ­ных проблем».

Дальше — больше. Выяснилось, что от еды жди беды. Сахар — это белая смерть, кофе — черная, масло — жел­тая ...

Откусывая очередной кусок, надо помнить: жирное вредно для сердца, нежирное — для желудка. Отсутствие мяса замедляет процесс старения и делает организм более выносливым. Каждое движение челюстей — это выбор между бодрой старостью и затянувшейся, безрадостной молодостью. Здоровый образ жизни — тот самый, где об­раз есть, а жизни нет.

В общем, как говаривал великий шотландец Роберт Бёрнс, благодарите Бога, если ваши желания совпадают с вашими возможностями: «У которых есть, что есть, те подчас не могут есть. А другие могут есть, да сидят без хлеба.»

Социологические обследования показывают: стоит на­шим гражданам разбогатеть, они сразу накидываются на постненькое. «Новые русские» едят почти в три раза боль­ше фруктов и рыбы, чем «старые».

По данным Всероссийского центра уровня жизни, мяса и масла на российских столах вполовину меньше, чем на американских. Зато молока, сыра и яиц — легко усвояемых белков - на 20% больше. Мы на верном пути — к здоровому образу жизни. Жаль только, что со здоровьем по-прежнему как-то неважно. Видно, голодание не всегда лечебное.

(Из еженедельника «Аргументы и факты»)

Exercise 3

Write a dream menu for a day.

Exercise 4

Write an essay on one of the following topics:

A.

1. From All Diets I Choose ...

2. Non-Traditional Food — Pros and Cons.

3. Better Cooks — Men or Women?

4. Each Family Has its Own Style of Cooking.

5. What I Like and What I Hate to Eat.

B .

1. It's No Use Crying Over Spilt Milk.

2. There is Many a Slip Between a Cup and a Lip.

3. Half a Loaf is Better than No Bread.

Note:

Punctuation (continued from page 167.)

Punctuation marks with direct speech are used differently in British English. There are two approaches. The prevailing one is to use double quotation marks for most purposes, and single ones for quotations within quotations (e.g. "Well, so he said to me 'What do you mean by it?' and I said 'I didn't mean any­thing' ". Single quotation marks are also used for isolated words, short phrases, and anything that can hardly be called a formal quotation.

The other method is that adopted by the Oxford University Press, of reserving the double marks exclusively for quotations within quotations.

But for this difference the use of other punctuation marks in both approaches is similar:

1) quotation marks are placed at the top of the line;

2) the words introducing direct speech are followed by a comma (or occasionally by a colon, particularly when the di­rect speech starts a new paragraph);

3) when the words of the author interrupt direct speech in the middle of a clause they are set off by commas and the first word of the second half of the clause is spelt with a small letter (e.g. 'Oh,' he said, 'so that is the long and the short of it?');

4) when the words of the author are inserted between two independent clauses these words are preceded by a comma or the punctuation mark required after the first clause. The words of the author are followed by a roll stop (e.g. 'Quite correct, said the host. 'Quite correct.' / 'What is this? ' he asked. 'I do not understand.').

Lesson 8 COLLEGE LIFE

INTRODUCTORY READING AND TALK

The meny-go-round of college life is something that one never forgets. It's a fascinating, fantastic, fabulous experience, ir­respective of the fact whether one is a f ull-time or a part-time stu­dent.

Who can forget the first day at the university when one turns from an applicant who has passed entrance exams into a first-year student? I did it! I entered, I got in to the university! A solemn cere­mony in front of the university building and serious people making speeches. Hey, lad, do you happen to know who they are? Who? The rector, vice-rectors, deans, su bdeans... and what about those la­dies? Heads of departments and senior lecturers? Okay. Some of them must be professors, some — associate or assistant professors, but, of course, all of them have high academic degrees. And where are our lecturers and tutors? Oh, how nice...

The monitors hand out student membership cards, student record books and library cards — one feels like a real person. First celebra­tions and then days of hard work. So many classes, so many new subjects to put on the timetable! The curriculum seems to be devel­oped especially for geniuses. Lectures, seminars and tutorials. Home preparations; a real avalanche of homeworks.

If one can not cope with the work load of college he or she im­mediately starts lagging behind. It is easier to keep pace with the programme than to catch up with it later. Everyone tries hard to be, or at least to look, diligent. First tests and examination sessions. The first successes and first failures: "I have passed!" or "He has not given me a pass!" Tears and smiles. And a long-awaited vacation.

The merry-go-round runs faster. Assignments, written reproduc­tions, compositions, synopses, papers. Translations checked up and marked. "Professor, I have never played truant, I had a good excuse for missing classes ". Works handed in and handed out . Reading up for exams . "No, professor, I have never cheated — no cribs . I just crammed ".

Junior students become senior. Still all of them are one family — undergraduates. Students' parties in the students' clab. Meeting people and parting with people. You know, Nora is going to be ex­pelled and Dora is going to graduate with honours. Yearly essays, graduation dissertations, finals...

What? A teacher's certificate ? You mean, I've got a degree in English? I am happy! It is over! It is over... Is it over? Oh, no...

A postgraduate course, a thesis, an oral, and a degree in Phi­lology. The first of September. Where are the students of the fa­culty of foreign languages? Is it the English department? Oh, how nice...

1. Say a few words about your university: say what it is called, speak about its faculties and their specializations.

2. Would you compare college life with a merry-go-round or with some­thing else?

3. What do you think of the first months at the university?

4. They say that it is a poor soldier who does not want to become a gen­eral. Name the steps of the social ladder which a student must pass to climb up to the position of the rector. Use the words from the list below, placing one word on one step.

Dean, assistant lecturer, head of department, vice-rector, asso­ciate professor, assistant professor, subdean, professor.

○ TEXT

Ruth at College

(Extract from the book by A. Brookner "A Start in Life". Abridged)

The main advantage of being at college was that she could work in the library until nine o'clock. She was now able to feed and clothe herself. She had, for the moment, no worries about money. In her own eyes she was rich, and it was known, how, she did not understand, that she was not on a grant,' did not share a flat with five others, did not live in a hall of residence, and took abundant baths, hot water being the one element of life at home.

There was also the extreme pleasure of working in a real library, with access to the stacks. The greed for books was still with her, al­though sharing them with others was not as pleasant as taking them to the table and reading through her meals. But in the library she came as close to a sense of belonging as she was ever likely to en­counter.2

She was never happier than when taking notes, rather elaborate notes in different coloured ball-point pens, for the need to be doing something while reading, or with reading, was beginning to assert it­self. Her essays, which she approached as many women approach a meeting with a potential lover, were well received. She was heart­broken when one came back with the words "I cannot read your writing" on the bottom.

She bought herself a couple ofpleated skirts, like those worn by Miss Parker;* she bought cardigans and saddle shoes3 and thus found a style to which she would adhere for the rest other life.

* Miss Parker — Ruth's teacher at school.

The days were not long enough. Ruth rose early, went out for a newspaper and some rolls, made coffee, and washed up, all before anybody was stirring. She was the neatest person in the house. As she opened the front door to leave, she could hear the others gree­ting the day from their beds with a variety of complaining noises, and escaped quickly before their blurred faces and slippered feet could spoil her morning. She was at one with the commuters at the bus stop.4 There would be lectures until lunch time, tutorials in the afternoon. In the Common Room there was an electric kettle and she took to supplying the milk and sugar.5 It was more of a home than home had been for a very long time. There was always some­one to talk to after the seminar, and she would take a walk in the evening streets before sitting down for her meal in a sandwich bar at about six thirty. Then there was work in the library until nine, and she would reach home at about ten.

'But don't you ever go out?' asked her friend Anthea. For she was surprised to find that she made friends easily. Needing a foil or acolyte for her flirtatious popularity, she had found her way to Ruth unerringly;6 Ruth, needing the social protection of a glamorous friend, was grateful. Both were satisfied with the friendship although each was secretly bored by the other. Anthea's conversation con­sisted either of triumphant reminiscences — how she had spumed this one, accepted that one, how she had got the last pair of boots in Harrod's sale, how she had shed five pounds in a fortnight — or rec­ommendations beginning 'Why don't you?' Why don't you get rid of those ghastly skirts and buy yourself some trousers? You're thin enough to wear them. Why don't you have your hair properly cut? Why don't you find a flat of your own? You can't stay at home all your life.

These questions would be followed rapidly by variants beginning 'Why haven't you?' Found a flat, had your haircut, bought some trousers. It was as if her exigent temperament required immediate results. Her insistent yet curiously uneasy physical presence inspired conflicting feelings in Ruth,7 who was not used to the idea that friends do not always please.

By the end of the second year a restlessness came over Ruth, impelling her to spend most of the day walking. The work seemed to her too easy and she had already chosen the subject for her disserta­tion: "Vice and Virtue in Balzac's Novels". Balzac teaches the su­preme effectiveness of bad behaviour, a matter which Ruth was be­ginning to perceive. The evenings in the library now oppressed her; she longed to break the silence. She seemed to have been eating the same food, tracing the'same steps for far too long.8 And she was lonely. Anthea, formally engaged to Brian, no longer needed her company.

Why don't you do your postgraduate work in America? I can't see any future for you here, apart from the one you can see yourself.

Ruth took some of Anthea's advice, had her hair cut, won a scholarship from the British Council which entitled her to a year in France working on her thesis, and fell in love. Only the last fact mattered to her, although she would anxiously examine her hair to see if it made her look any better. Had she but known it, her looks were beside the point;9 she was attractive enough for a clever woman, but it was principally as a clever woman that she was at­tractive. She remained in ignorance of this; for she believed herself to be dim and unworldly and had frequently been warned by Anthea to be on her guard. 'Sometimes I wonder if you're all there,'10 said Anthea, striking her own brow in disbelief.

She did this when Ruth confessed that she was in love with Richard Hirst, who had stopped her in the corridor to congratulate her on winning the scholarship and had insisted on taking her down to the refectory for lunch. Anthea's gesture was prompted by the fact that Richard was a prize beyond the expectations of most women and certainly beyond those of Ruth.11 He was one of those exceptionally beautiful men whose violent presence makes other men, however superior, look makeshift. Richard was famous on at least three counts.12 He had the unblemished blond good looks of his Scandinavian mother; he was a resolute Christian; and he had an ulcer. Women who had had no success with him assumed that the ulcer was a result of the Christianity, for Richard, a psychologist by training, was a student counsellor,13 and would devote three days a week to answering the telephone and persuading anxious under­graduates.

Then Richard would wing home to his parish and stay up for two whole nights answering the telephone to teenage dropouts,14 battered wives, and alcoholics. There seemed to be no end to the amount of bad news he could absorb.

Richard had been known to race off on his bicycle to the scene of a domestic drama and there wrestle with the conscience of an abusive husband, wife, mother, father, brother, sister.

He was rarely at home. He rarely slept. He never seemed to eat. His ulcer was the concern of every woman he had ever met in his adult life. His dark golden hair streamed and his dark blue eyes were clear and obdurate as he pedalled off to the next crisis.

Into Ruth's dazed and grateful ear he spoke deprecatingly of his unmarried mothers and his battered wives. She thought him exem­plary and regretted having no good works to report back.15 The race for virtue, which she had always read about, was on.

So Ruth took more of Anthea's advice and found a flat for her­self.

Proper Names

Ruth [rüT] — Рут

Anita Brookner [@'ni:t@ 'brUkn@] — Анита Брукнер

Miss Parker [mIs 'p¸k@] —мисс Паркер

Anthea [{n'TI@] — Антия

Harrod's ['h{r@dz] — Хэрродз

Balzac [b{l'z{k] — Бальзак

Brian [braI@n] Брайан

British Council ['brItIS 'kaUnsIl] — Британский Совет

Richard Hirst ['rI¶@d 'hÆ:st] — Ричард Херст

Scandinavian ["sk{ndI'neIvj@n] — скандинавка

Christian ['krIstj@n] — христианин

Vocabulary Notes

1. ... and it was known, how, she did not understand, that she was not on a grant... — и она не понимала, откуда было известно, что стипендию она не получала ...

2. But in the library she came as close to a sense of belonging as she was ever likely to encounter. — Но именно в библиотеке она, как нигде больше, ощущала себя на своём месте.

3. saddle shoes — двухцветные кожаные туфли

4. She was at one with the commuters at the bus stop. — Она вместе со всеми пассажирами стояла на автобусной остановке.

5. In the Common Room there was an electric kettle and she took to supplying the milk and sugar. — В общем зале был электриче­ский чайник, и у неё появилась привычка приносить молоко и сахар.

6. Needing a foil or acolyte for her flirtatious popularity, she had found her way to Ruth unerringly ... — Ей нужна была тень, фон, на котором она, кокетливая и популярная девушка, была бы заметна, и её выбор безошибочно остановился на Руг...

7. Her insistent yet curiously uneasy physical presence inspired con­flicting feelings in Ruth ... — Её постоянное, но до странности беспокойное физическое присутствие вызывало противоре­чивые чувства и было в тягость ...

8. She seemed to have been eating the same food, tracing the same steps for far too long. — Казалось, что она слишком долго занималась одним и тем же, слишком долго шла по нака­танной дорожке.

9. Had she but known it, her looks were beside the point... — Знала бы она, что то, как она выглядела, не имело никакого значения ...

10. Sometimes I wonder if you're all there ... — Иногда я думаю, в своём ли ты уме ...

11. ... that Richard was a prize beyond the expectations of most women and certainly beyond those of Ruth. — ... что Ричард был слишком хорош для большинства женщин, и ух, конечно, слишком хорош для Рут.

12. ... on at least three counts — ... по крайней мере, по трём при­чинам ...

13. ... was a student counsellor — ... был куратором студентов ... (Прим.: куратор — советник, воспитатель)

14. ... to teenage dropouts ... — ... подросткам, бросившим шко­лу ...

15. ... and regretted having no good works to report back. — ... и жа­лела, что в ответ она не может рассказать о чём-то хорошем, что она сделала.

Phonetic Text Drills

○ Exercise 1

Transcribe and pronounce correctly the words from the text.

Grant, to share, residence, access, to encounter, elaborate, ball-point pen, to assert, cardigan, blurred, commuter, foil, acolyte, flirtatious, unerringly, triumphant, reminiscence, ghastly, exigent, temperament, conflicting, dissertation, post­graduate, scholarship, thesis, ignorance, gesture, makeshift, unblemished, resolute, ulcer, psychologist, counsellor, abusive, battered, exemplary.

○ Exercise 2

Pronounce the words and phrases where the following clusters occur.

1. plosive + w

Could work, it was known, hot water, at one, satisfied with, that one, would wing, battered wives, good works.

2. plosive +1

Able, pleasure, table, likely, couple, pleated, saddle, kettle, supplying, entitled, at least, good looks, blue.

3. plosive + r

Extreme, approach, greeting, electric, streets, would reach, surprised, protection, grateful, trousers, streamed, presence, oppressed, break, tracing, principally, attractive, striking, brow, congratulate, prize,undergraduates, drama, brother, crisis.

4. plosive + plosive

Bought cardigans, made coffee, front door, escaped quickly, would be, would take, had got, fact, refectory, would devote.

○ Exercise 3

Comment on the phonetic phenomena in the following clusters.

1. Chosen the subject, did this, confessed that, all there, be­yond those, assumed that the ulcer.

2. That she, greed for books, bought herself, could hear, blurred faces, slippered feet, asked her friend, found her way, had shed, had your hair, second year, don't you.

3. Through, three.

○ Exercise 4

Say what kind of false assimilation one should avoid in the following clus­ters.

1. Of being, of working, of belonging, of complaining, of tri­umphant, of boots, of his.

2. Was still, as taking, as close, as she, which she, like those, was stirring, was the neatest.

○ Exercise 5

Transcribe the following words with negative prefixes.

Uneasy, unerringly, disbelief, unblemished, unmarried.

○ Exercise 6

Transcribe and intone the questions. Compare the intonation pattern of a general and a special question.

'But 'donPt you 'ever 'go / out?' | "asked her "friend An,thea. ||

'Why donPt you 'find a 'flat of your \own? ||

Comprehension Check

1. What was the main advantage of being at college?

2. Why did Ruth consider herself rich?

3. What did Ruth like about working in the library?

4. What did Ruth do while reading?

5. How did Ruth change her image?

6. When did Ruth leave for the university?

7. How did Ruth spend her day in the college?

8. Why did Ruth and Anthea become friends?

9. What sort of questions would Anthea ask?

10. What change took place at the end of the second year in Ruth?

11. What did Ruth do to find a new style of life?

12. When did Anthea say that she was not sure whether Ruth was all there?

13. What kind of gesture accompanied Anthea's words and what did it imply?

14. What did Richard Hirst look like?

15. What kind of responsibilities did Richard have?

16. What kind of lifestyle did Richard have?

17. What did Richard speak of into Ruth's ear?

18. What did Ruth think and do?

EXERCISES

Exercise 1

Find in the text words denoting:

— a short piece of writing on one particular subject that is written by a student;

— a class, usually at college or university, where the teacher and the students discuss a particular topic or subject;

— a long essay that a student does as part of a degree;

— financial aid that the government gives to an individual or to an organisation for a particular purpose such as educa­tion, welfare, home, improvements;

— a student at a university or college who has not yet taken his or her first degree;

— a person who has a first degree from a university and who is doing research at a more advanced level;

— someone who has left school or college before they have finished their studies;

— a long piece of written research done for a higher university degree, especially a PhD*;

— money given to a student to help pay for the cost of his or her education;

— a regular meeting in which a tutor and a small group of stu­dents discuss a subject as part of the students' course of study;

— a block of flats where students live;

— a person who travels to work in town every day, especially by train;

— a large dining hall in a university.

* PhD — doctor of Philosophy (an academic degree, approximately equal to "кандидат наук" in Russia).

Exercise 2

Make up all possible derivatives from the stems of the verbs below.

Share, assert, adhere, complain, bore, accept, require, inspire, oppress, prompt, absorb, wrestle, report.

Exercise 3

Pronounce the words correctly and comment on the shift of meaning in the pairs of 1) one-stem nouns and adjectives; 2) one-stem verbs and nouns.

1) advantage — advantageous anxious — anxiety
extreme — extremity attractive — attraction
greed — greedy presence — present
conflicting — conflict violent — violence
2) to note — note to examine — examine
to receive — reception to devote — devotion
to supply — supply to concern — concern
to subject — subject to absorb — absorption

Exercise 4

Pick out from the text 1) nouns, denoting different types of classes at the university; 2) nouns, denoting money support for students; 3) nouns, deno­ting types of written works done by students.

Exercise 5

Give the English equivalents for the following and use them in sentences of your own.

A.

Получать стипендию; студенческое общежитие; страсть к чтению; читать за едой; делать пометки; придер­живаться чего-либо; семинар; немедленные результаты; тема дипломной работы; учиться в аспирантуре; последо­вать совету кого-либо; выиграть стипендию; работать над диссертацией; иметь значение для кого-либо; признавать; по образованию; не ложиться спать целую ночь; погло­щать (знания, информацию); достойный подражания.

В .

Не волноваться о деньгах; вместе жить в квартире с кем-либо; огромное удовольствие; встречать день; помя­тое лицо; ноги в шлёпанцах; испортить утро; войти в при­вычку; пойти куда-нибудь; подружиться; безошибочно; скучать; состоять из чего-либо; требовать; вызывать чув­ства; принуждать к чему-либо; влюбиться; иметь успех у кого-либо.

Exercise 6

Explain the meaning of the following English words or phrases and say how the corresponding notions in Russian differ from the English ones.

A dissertation, a thesis, postgraduate work, a tutorial, a grant, a scholarship, an essay, an undergraduate, a student counsellor, a commuter, a hall of residence.

Exercise 7

Complete the sentences.

1. The main advantage of being at college was that...

2. It was known that Ruth ...

3. There was also the extreme pleasure of ...

4. She was never happier than when ...

5. She found a style to which ...

6. As she opened the front door to leave ...

7. There would be lectures until lunch time ...

8. In the Common Room there was an electric kettle and she ...

9. It was more of a home than ...

10. Needing a foil or acolyte for her flirtatious popularity, Anthea ...

11. By the end of the second year ...

12. The work seemed to her too easy and she ...

13. She seemed to have been eating the same food ...

14. Ruth took some ofAnthea's advice ...

15. Ruth confessed that...

16. Richard was a prize beyond ...

17. Richard, a psychologist by training, was ...

18. There seemed to be no end to ...

19. She thought him exemplary and ...

20. So Ruth took more ofAnthea's advice and ...

Exercise 8

Complete the sentences choosing the appropriate word or phrase from the list. Change their form if necessary.

To have no worries about something; in one's own eyes; a hall of residence; read through one's meals; to adhere to some­thing; to be at one with somebody; to go out; to make friends; to find one's way to somebody.; to get rid of something; to need somebody's company; beside the point; to be on one's guard; on three counts; no end to something; the concern of somebody.

1. A communicative person ... with other people very quickly and feels at ease in any company.

2. It is important ... a definite style when choosing clothes; otherwise one risks looking strange.

3. Police ask people ... when strangers approach them, try to make contact with them or ask favours of them.

4. Sharing a room with other people, one has ... all bad habits: smoking, scattering things here and there, coming late.

5. Having passed the exam, she grew .... The exam was very difficult and being through with it meant success.

6. The teacher tried... a little boy in primary school; she spoke with him, made him speak and play too, but he remained aloof and constrained.

7. The child seemed not ... ; he liked to stay all by himself, with no companions to play with.

8. Most British students live either in ... or share flats with other students.

9. In the evening most British students .... They go to pubs, discos or just walk around with their friends.

10. Doctors do not recommend.... It may lead to indigestion.

11. The athlete's physical power was almost.... It was his men­tal discipline that really made him a champion.

12. There was ... her friend's advice: she always had new ideas and poured them out incessantly.

13. Her success rested ...: she was President of Students' Soci­ety, she had only excellent marks and she won a scholar­ship from the British Council.

14. Hurrying up to the university in the morning, she ... all the rest of the students: she was an integral part of this moving mass.

15. His constant failures soon became ... every lecturer. No­body knew what to do in a situation like this.

16. She ... domestic chores: her mother and grandmother did everything in the house.

Exercise 9

Put in the missing prepositions.

1. The teacher demanded that the students should take notes ... coloured ball-point pens.

2. Being a psychologist... training, Richard devoted his life to solving other people's problems.

3. Not everyone likes to share a flat ... somebody: it disturbs one's privacy.

4. Working... her thesis, Ruth learned many interesting facts.

5. The mother always grumbled when her daughter was rea­ding ... her meals.

6. The commuters were at one ... the bus stop, and every per­son felt as if he or she were an integral part of the crowd.

7. Ruth could not understand why a certain restlessness came ... her.

8. Ruth did not have any worries ... money, because she lived at home with her parents.

9. It was very easy to choose subjects ... dissertations; the pro­fessor offered a long list of topics.

10. She would never sit down ... her meal without a book, which, of course, was a bad habit.

11. One day the lecturer returned Ruth's essay with an inscrip­tion ... the bottom.

12. Ruth's greed ... books kept her working in the library until nine o'clock.

13. As there was a kettle in the Common Room, some students took ... bringing tea and coffee.

14. The girls were bored ... each other, because they were too different.

15. A lot of students at the university were ... grants, which meant that their studies were subsidized by the govern­ment.

16. The girl decided that she would adhere ... a classical style of dressing; she thought it suited her better.

17. Those who win scholarships from the British Council are usually entitled ... half a year abroad.

18. Ruth remembered the day when she met Richard Hirst ... the rest of her life.

19. The girl's talks always consisted ... stories, reminiscences and gossip.

20. Richard congratulated all students ... all possible occasions, as he was a student counsellor.

Exercise 10

Find in the text sentences with the words or expressions given below, translate them into Russian and ask your classmates to translate them back into English.

To be on a grant; a hall of residence; greed for books; elaborate notes; to be well received; a tutorial; a seminar; the second year; the subject for one's dissertation; postgraduate work; to work on one's thesis; to examine; winning the scholarship; by training; an undergraduate; to stay up for two whole nights; to absorb; to report back.

Exercise 11

Explain in what connection the following sentences and phrases occur in the text.

1. She was now able to feed and clothe herself.

2. She was not on a grant.

3. The greed for books was still with her.

4. She was never happier than when taking notes.

5. Her essays were well received.

6. She found a style to which she would adhere for the rest of her life.

7. It was more of a home than home had been for a very long time.

8. She had found her way to Ruth unerringly.

9. Each was secretly bored.

10. Her exigent temperament required immediate results.

11. A restlessness came over Ruth.

12. She was lonely.

13. Ruth took some ofAnthea's advice.

14. Her looks were beside the point.

15. She was in love with Richard Hirst.

16. Richard was famous on at least three counts.

17. There seemed to be no end to the amount of bad news he could absorb.

18. She thought him exemplary.

19. The race for virtue was on.

Exercise 12

Read and translate. Use the italicized structures in sentences of your own.

1. There would be lectures until lunch time. She would reach home at about ten. She would take a walk in the evening streets. She would anxiously examine her hair. Richard would devote three days a week to answering the telephone.

2. Ruth was not used to the idea that friends do not always please.

3. Needing a foil or acolyte for her flirtatious popularity, she had found her way to Ruth unerringly; Ruth, needing the social protection of a glamorous friend, was grateful.

4. She seemed to have been eating the same food, tracing the same steps for far too long. He never seemed to eat.

Exercise 13

Work in pairs. Fill in the gap in the dialogue frame with phrases from the list below. Express surprise, annoyance, disagreement. Give your reasons.

— Why don't you ... ?

work in the library, read through your meals, live in the hall of residence, share a flat with five others, go out, choose the subject for your dissertation, do your postgraduate work in America, work on your thesis, take notes in different-coloured ball-point pens, feed and clothe yourself, fall in love, devote three days a week to studying English, take some of some­body's advice, win the scholarship, find a flat for yourself, stay up for whole nights reading up for exams, congratulate some­body on winning the scholarship, find a style to which you would adhere for the rest of your life.

Possible responses:

So what?

Why should I?

What's the use of ...ing?

Don't you think it's silly?

You don't say so!

You must be joking!

You can't be serious!

Exercise 14

Make up dialogues that could take place and dramatize them in class.

1. between Ruth and Richard at the refectory, where he took her for lunch after having congratulated her on winning the scholarship;

2. between Ruth and her friend Anthea, beginning with 'But don't you ever go out, Ruth?';

3. between Ruth and Anthea, when Anthea is persuading Ruth to find a flat for herself;

4. between Ruth and one of her neighbours in the house where she lived;

5. between Ruth and some student or students after the semi­nar in the Common Room.

Exercise 15

Speak of Ruth's college life:

1. in the third person;

2. in the person of Ruth;

3. in the person of her friend Anthea.

Exercise 16

Discussion points.

1. What can you say about Ruth's personality? Prove it.

2. What do you think of her friend Anthea?

3. Why did Ruth take some ofAnthea's advice?

4. What kind of person was Richard, in your opinion?

5. What does the last but one phrase "The race for virtue was on" mean? Comment upon it.

6. Which character do you like most? Why?

Exercise 17

Comment on the following words of the author.

'Balzac teaches the supreme effectiveness of bad behaviour ...'

'... friends do not always please.'

'... she was attractive enough for a clever woman ...'

Exercise 18

Act out the following mini-dialogues substituting phrases from the lists for the ones in italics.

1. — Where do you' study?

— I study at the Не rzeп State Pedagogical University of Russia, St.Petersburg.2

' does he, does she

2 the Institute of Foreign Languages, the philological faculty, the faculty of oriental languages

2. — What's your favourite subject?

— I like English1 most of all.

' Linguistics, Latin, Psychology, Literature, Philosophy, British Studies, American Studies, Methods of Teaching English, History of the Language, Grammatical Theory

3. — What subjects do you take for the first yea r1 ?

If we speak about English, it is mainly Phonetics and Grammar.2

1 the second year, the third year, the fourth year, the fifth year

2 Conversation, Written Composition, Translation, Home Read­ing, Analytical Reading, Close Reading, Business English

4. — What is David good1 at?

— He is good at writing essays.2

1 clever,poor

2 memorizing foreign words, doing grammar exercises, reciting po­ems, writing accurate translations, giving talks

5. — Can you help me with grammar 1 ?

— Certainty.2

1 pronunciation, the text, the exercise, spelling

2 Of course. I can. No doubt I can. You are welcome.

6. — Why didn't you attend the previous lesson in English1 ?

The thing is that I was not well.2

1 lecture on Literature, lecture on Linguistics, seminar on political economy, seminar on psychology

2 was late for it, didn't know about it.

7. — What mark did you get for your composition1 ?

I was given an excellent mark.2

1 translation, test, examination

2 a good mark, a satisfactory mark, a bad mark

8. — Where can I find the Dean1 ?

He is probably in the Dean's ofice.2

1 the English teacher, the tutor, the lecturer

2 the staff room, the lecture room, the faculty office

9. — What are you going to do tomorrow morning 1 ?

I think I'll be reading up/or the exam.2

1 in the afternoon, tonight

2 writing an essay, reading up for the seminar, revising for the test, preparing for my class

Exercise 19

The curriculum at the faculty of foreign languages consists of several sub­jects which all students must study. Make a list of these subjects. In class speak about your favourites and the ones you dislike(d). Explain to your partners why you enjoy(ed) or don't (didn't) enjoy them.

Exercise 20

When do we say the following about people? Give answers, using the pat­tern.

Pattern: She never misses classes.

We say, 'She never misses classes' if she attends classes regularly.

1. Nick has a good command of English.

2. Richard has done well in his exams.

3. Donna lags behind the group.

4. Brenda keeps up with the rest of the group.

5. Susan has failed in her exam.

6. Ray is burning the midnight oil.

7. Sara can't learn English just by picking it up.

8. David and Steve never disrupt classes.

9. Max never cribs at exams.

10. Brandon lacks fluency.

11. Helen is fond of playing truant.

Exercise 21

Name at least two or three situations that cause you feel the emotions listed below.

Pattern: I find talking about things that don't interest me boring.

Ifind writing long tests annoying.

boring — attending lectures (seminars, classes)

embarrassing — taking notes

depressing — reading up (for)

confusing — making reports

exciting — writing essays

annoying — doing one's homework

worrying — correcting mistakes

amusing — translating from Russian into English (from English into Russian)

— rendering texts

— doing exercises

— listening to the tapes

— transcribing and intoning

— working on one's thesis

— participating in class

— missing classes

— disrupting classes

— coming late to one's classes (lectures, exams)

— cheating (in exams and tests)

— taking examinations

— failing examinations

— retaking examinations

Continue the list. Compare your answers with those of other students in the class. Discuss these situations and the feelings they cause. Also discuss what activities you think difficult and what — easy.

Exercise 22

Complain about some things or activities at college (at the university) that annoy you. Talk about something that you do not enjoy. Explain why.Work in pairs.

Use :

For complaining:

I'm beginning to get rather tired of...

I've had (I have) a lot of trouble with ...

The trouble with ... is that...

I'm sick and tired of...

They should/ought to ...

I'm not at all satisfied with ...

For agreement: For disagreement:

Yes, it is a problem, isn't it?Really? I can't say I've

Yes, it can be a problem,particularly noticed that...

can't it?I can see what you mean but..

I think I can understandOh, come on, it isn't that bad.

how you feel.

Yes, I know what you mean.

Exercise 23

Speak in class what you feel when:

you get a bad mark; you fall (lag) behind the group; you fail (in) an examination; you read up for an examination late at night; you miss classes; you come late to classes; you keep up with the rest of the group; you catch up with the rest; you have to retake an examination; you work in the library at the week­end; you work on your dissertation on holiday; you spend sleepless nights over a load of books; you look up every word in your dictionary when reading an English book; you are not prepared for the class; you are given virtually no time to digest and remember several chapters; the telephone rings while you are doing your homework; your essay is well-received; another student cheats at an examination or test.

Patterns: I feel like a failure when I fall behind the group.

I feel pleased/confused/bored, etc. when I catch up with the rest.

Exercise 24

Guess what the people in the picture feel and why. Use the topical vocabu­lary.

Patterns: He looks satisfied. He must have got a good mark.

She looks bored. She must be listening to a boring lecture.

Exercise 25

Translate into English.

1. Она поступила в университет прошлым летом и закон­чит его только через четыре года.

2. Лучше не пропускать занятия, а то можно быстро отстать от группы. Хорошо известно, что нагонять всегда сложнее.

3. Все студенты в группе получили зачёт по языкозна­нию. Это было серьёзное испытание.

4. Мой любимый предмет, конечно же, английский. А ещё мне нравятся страноведение Великобритании и США.

5. Я не очень люблю писать диктанты и изложения, но понимаю, что это необходимо для приобретения на­выков письменной речи.

6. Расписание составляется таким образом, чтобы лек­ции чередовались с практическими занятиями.

7. Староста нашей группы получила стипендию от Бри­танского Совета. Она будет учиться в Лондонском университете и одновременно писать дипломную ра­боту.

8. Не думаю, что, готовясь к экзаменам, имеет смысл всю ночь не ложиться спать. Эффект от такой подготовки может быть обратный.

9. Больше всего я боюсь провалить экзамен по психо­логии, поэтому стараюсь всё выучить почти наизусть.

10. В штате преподавателей у нас три профессора, четыре доцента, пять старших преподавателей и семь ассис­тентов.

11. Проверяя контрольные работы, преподаватель отме­чает ошибки на полях.

12. В эту сессию будет один письменный и два устных зачёта, а также четыре экзамена.

13. В начале года в деканате всем первокурсникам выдали студенческие билеты и зачётные книжки.

14. Когда я начинаю делать домашнее задание, то долго не могу сконцентрироваться на работе — меня постоян­но что-то отвлекает.

15. В обучении ему не нужно прикладывать никаких уси­лий — он всё хватает на лету.

Exercise 26

An old Chinese saying states that "a picture is worth a thousand words". With a partner discuss each of these pictures. Answer the questions below.

1. What has happened? Why do you think so?

2. What is happening now? Why do you think so?

3. What is going to happen? Why do you think so?

Exercise 27

I. Read and translate the story.

Distractions are a problem Barbara has to deal with when she is supposed to be studying. She spends too much time on the phone. She intends to concentrate on her homework, but finds herself talking to friends or writing lettere instead of read­ing up for seminars, taking notes or writing essays. It is hard for her to say, 'No, I can't do this or go there. I have to study.' Her homework often suffers because she procrastinates. When she studies in her room, it is full of distractions. Her phone, radio, tape player and her cat are there. She finds herself daydreaming, answering the phone, listening to tapes or petting the cat. She is often disturbed by family members. It is easy to see where all her time goes — not to studying. Now she is letting the answering machine do its job. She puts the cat out before she starts to study. Her homework is now done before everyone gets home from work.

II. Find the English equivalents for the following.

Решать проблему; тратить время на что-либо; сконцент­рироваться на чём-либо; готовиться к семинару; делать пометки; писать эссе; откладывать со дня на день; меч­тать; её часто отвлекают; время уходит; приходить домой с работы.

III. Speak about your distractions. Use the patterns from the text:

1) Barbara is supposed to be studying.

2) Barbara has to deal with a problem.

3) Barbara finds herself talking to friends instead of reading up for seminars.

4) Barbara is often disturbed by family members.

Exercise 28

1. Read and translate the story. Answer and discuss in class the questions below. Continue the story.

It took a couple of weeks for classes to get settled, and then we got down to the nitty-gritty. As homework began pouring in, and tests loomed on the horizon, I realised that my study skills were very poor and that it was going to be a challenge in itself to teach myself to study. I experimented with several tac­tics, trying to find out what would work for me. I started out in the bedroom with the door closed, but it seemed the phone was always ringing. I managed to get my work done, but I was not pleased with this frustrating situation. Later I tried going out­side and preparing somewhere in the yard. I ended up chatting with a neighbour, petting her dog. Cleariy, something had to be changed. As my workload increased, so did my frustration. Quite by accident, however, I found the solution to my prob­lem ...

II. Find the English equivalents to the Russian words and phases.

На это ушла пара недель, прийти в норму, засесть за что-либо, повседневная работа, наваливаться, маячить, сла­бые навыки, вызов, экспериментировать с чем-либо, обнаружить, начинать (разг.), удаваться, оканчиваться, удручающая ситуация, выходить из дома, болтать, работа накапливалась, разочарование, совершенно случайно, ре­шение проблемы.

III. Answer the questions and express your opinion on the following.

1. What advice would you give to a friend of yours if he or she had to deal with the problem of distraction?

2. What tactics do you personally choose to get yourself or­ganised and sit down to work?

3. Discuss in class the problem of getting oneself organised and concentrated when doing one's homework.

Exercise 29

The passages below are the beginnings of different stories. Finish the sto­ries, using the vocabulary from the text and the topical vocabulary.

'Finally, the summer ended and college began. Carol dressed in jeans and a sweatshirt, slung her book bag over her shoulder and set out for her first class ...'

'Thomas is sitting in the dining-room looking at the mess strewn around. He calls this his office. The table is covered with an assortment of books, pens, and papers. Hanging on the back of a chair is his black leather book bag. He is finally a col­lege student ...'

'The term is coming to a close. I look upon it with sadness. I will miss my teachers and the friendships I have made ...'

'I am looking forward to the next term, but I also get nervous thinking about my new classes. Each term the classes will get a little harder and more challenging. I hope I am up to all those new challenges. I love to learn, but I still have a little fear of failing...'

Exercise 30

Read and translate the passage. Answer the questions below.

Most people who have trouble with schoolwork don't lack intelligence — instead. Rather, they are trapped by their own attitudes towards the work. One attitude that gets in many stu­dents' way is the "I can't do it" syndrome. Instead of making an honest effort to do the work, the "I can't do it" type give up before they begin. Then there's the "I'm too tired" excuse. Students with this problem give in to the temptation to nap whenever there is work to be done. Another common excuse for low achievement is "the instructor is boring". These stu­dents expect every course to be highly entertaining and claim they can't be expected to learn anything otherwise.

1. What do you think of the "I can't do it" type?

2. What do you think of the "I'm too tired" type?

3. What do you think of the "I'm too bored" type?

4. Are there people of any of these types among your friends or classmates?

5. What type are you? Why?

6. What would you say about your attitude towards studies?

7. Can you think of some more types?

8. What are common excuses for low achievements in this country?

9. Can you imagine an exemplary student? Speak about exem­plary students and ordinary ones.

Exercise 31

People like to learn differently. Some people learn better by listening, white others need to see the information. Your answers to the questions below may give you some idea of how you prefer to learn. When you have fin­ished, compare your answers with those of other people in your class.

1. Do you prefer to learn by listening to the teacher's lecture? (Yes or No)

2. Do you prefer to learn by reading and studying your text­books? (Yes or No)

3. Do you prefer to learn by studying or working with other people? (Yes or No)

4. Do you prefer to study by yourself? (Yes or No)

5. Do you like to ask the teacher questions? (Yes or No)

6. When you study for a test, you read your notes, don't you?

7. When you study for a test, you read your notes aloud, don't you?

8. When you study for a test, you rewrite your notes, don't you?

9. Do you like to memorize facts? (Yes or No)

10. Do you like to think about ideas? (Yes or No)

Exercise 32

Respond to the statements. Work in pairs.

1. Teachers prefer dull students to bright ones. They are easier to manage.

2. You know what students are like nowadays! They are get­ting less and less intelligent every day.

3. To my mind, colleges shouldn't provide students with gen­eral knowledge. Emphasis should be placed on professional skills.

4. I don't think it is important for students to learn how to work with dictionaries.

You may need the following phrases to express your surprise:

You don't say so!

You must be joking!

You can't be serious!

Go on (with you)!

Exercise 33

Challenge the following statements. Give your reasons.

1. When you don't understand your teacher's explanation you don't ask to explain again because this is very embarrassing.

2. When you are really too sick to go to class you go anyway. It would be rude not to go.

3. When you feel that you are not doing well in a course, you stop going to class because you don't have time to do the work.

4. If you have the feeling that the teacher doesn't like you, you do the best you can do under the circumstances.

5. If you don't like to answer or ask questions in class you ask to speak to the teacher and explain your shyness.

Exercise 34

Discuss college life in this country. Use these questions as a guide for your discussion.

1. What do students wear to college?

2. How do students get to college?

3. How do students know which class to go to?

4. How do students greet the teacher?

5. How does the teacher greet the students?

6. How do students address the teacher?

7. When does the term begin?

8. How long does it last?

9. How long is the college day?

10. Who decides what a student will study?

11. Who decides which students will attend college?

Exercise 35

Find out how colleges and universities in this country have changed since your teachers were students. Ask your teacher to tell you about what it was like when he or she was at college. Present an oral report on changes in Russian colleges and universities.

Exercise 36

Match the English idioms in the left column with their Russian equivalents in the right column. Illustrate the meanings of the English idioms by your own examples.

1. to go into details А. начать с азов

2. to drum something into В. как дважды два — четыре

somebody's head

3. a brain twister С. куриные мозги

4. two and two make four D. синий чулок

5. a stumbling block Е. вдаваться в подробности

6. the key word F. головоломка

7. the brain of a pigeon G. легко даваться

8. to come easyH. ключевое слово

9. to start from scratchI. камень преткновения

10. a blue stockingJ. вдолбить что-либо в голову

Exercise 37

Translate the proverbs into Russian and comment upon them.

1. A man is never too old to learn.

2. Education covers a lot of ground but it doesn't cultivate it.

3. Live and learn.

4. By doing nothing we learn to do ill.

5. Better untaught than ill taught.

6. Brevity is the soul of wit.

7. Dot your i's and cross your t's.

Exercise 38

Translate the following quotations and comment upon them.

'A university should be a place of light, of liberty and of learning.

Benjamin Disraeli

'Knowledge is a city, to the building of which every human be­ing brought a stone.'

Ralph W. Emerson

'Knowledge is power.'

Francis Bacon

'Knowledge comes, but wisdom lingers.'

Alfred Tennyson

Exercise 39

Role Play. "A Talk in the Living-Room".

Setting: The Richardsons' house.

Situation: A group of students gather at Richardsons' on their vacations. They used to be classmates once. Now they are all students of different colleges and uni­versities. In the evening they are sitting in the living-room near the fireplace and speak about their college life, sharing experiences.

Characters:

Card I—II — Sarah and Terry Richardson. They have in­ vited everyone to their house. They are a sister and brother and go to a technical college. Sarah hates it and Terry loves it.

Card III—IV — Dora and Laura. Two medical school students. They have just had their professional experience in a hospital and compare stud­ies and real life.

Card V — Harry, a student of the chemical faculty at the university. He failed to pass his exams in spring and is going to take them in autumn.

Card VI — Barbara, a student of the French depart­ment of the faculty of foreign languages at a university. She has won a personal grant for success in studies.

Card VII—VIII — Barry and Jerry, two friends who do eco­nomics at the university. Both are enthusi­astic learners and like to speak about their future speciality.

Card IX — Flora, a student of an art school. She likes her drawing classes but does not like any of her other subjects.

Card X—XI — Clarry and Nora, students of a music school. In school years they used to be friends because they played in a school or­chestra. They are thinking of creating a pop-group of their own.

Card XII — Lany. He was expelled from the faculty of Maths for missing classes and is dreaming of getting back.

WRITING

Exercise 1

Prepare to write a dictation. Learn the spelling of the words and phrases in bold type from Introductory Reading and the words from exercise 1 on page 208.

Exercise 2

Write an essay on one of the following topics.

1. Our College Life Needs Changes.

2. Some Advice for College Students.

3. Why (Psychology/Sociology/...) Is So Popular with Stu­dents.

4. I Would Put Myself in the Group of (Diligent/Lazy/...) Students.

5. Education Reform. To Be or Not to Be?

Exercise 3

The world is changing, and many people feel that college will have to change to keep up. Make a list of the ways college may be different in re­sponse to these changes in the year 2025. Use these ideas to write a letter from a student in the year 2025, telling a grandparent about his or her first day at college. Begin it like this:

Note:

Letters may be personal or business. We will consider the lay­out of a personal letter. It consists of the date, the greeting, the opening paragraph, the middle paragraphs, the closing para­graph, the closing proper and signature, and sometimes a post­script. Below is a sample outline of a letter to a friend.

1 September, 1999

Lesson 9 CHARACTER AND APPEARANCE

INTRODUCTORY READING AND TALK

Appearances are deceptive. It is a common truth; practically everyone has met at least someone whose character and appearance differ radically.

When one sees a tall, broad-shouldered youth, one expects him to be strong-willed and brave. One thinks: 'A model to follow!' How often a good-looking individual turns out to be petty, weak-willed or even cowardly. Then one thinks: 'A mediocrity!'

At the same time everyone knows that a lot of great people were of a poor build: short and fragile. It did not stop them from display­ing intelligence and courage. Ingenuity does not depend on one's complexion or constitution.

Plump or fat people create an impression of generous and kind personalities. Strangely enough, not rarely they may be thrifty or even greedy. One usually thinks: 'A scrooge!'

On the other hand, thin or slim nervous ladies often tend to be lavish . They like to buy and never think twice when they pay. One thinks: 'I would call her open-handed and Mother would call her a spendthrift'. Yes, mothers are always stricter in judgements.

Has it ever happened to you that you come to an important of­fice and see an important boss? You immediately evaluate his looks: 'Round-faced, small narrow eyes, dimples on the cheeks and an up­turned nose. What a kind-hearted person! A simpleton!' You tell the boss of your troubles and expect immediate help. But the boss ap­pears to be rude, harsh and wilful. You never get your help and think: 'A stone heart and an iron fist'.

When someone sees a delicately bu ilt pretty blonde with cur ly hair, blue eyes, a straight nose and a high forehead, one is inclined to think that the beauty is intelligent and nice. It may be disappoin­ting to think later 'What a stupid, capricious, impo lite bore!'

On the contrary, when one sees a skinny brunette with ugly ir­regular features — a hooked nose, pointed chin, close-set eyes and

thin lips, strange thoughts come to one's head; because it is the im­age of evil people — cruel and cunning . It may be a relief some time later to find her a clever, gentle and good-mannered lady and think: 'What charm! A heart of gold !'

Another general misconception lies in the fact that children are always expected to resemble their parents. And parents like it when children take after them. Relatives like to compare moles, the shape of noses, etc. The greatest compliment is: "They are as like as two peas'. The greatest disappointment is to find nothing in common. We want to deny people their exclusiveness, we don't want to admit that nature has selected other options from an enormous genetic f und developed over generations. Why do we like our copies? Who knows!

Nature likes to play tricks on us. But don't you think it is a pre­sent on the part of nature? Life becomes not a boring routine, but a brilliant kaleidoscope of characters and appearances which often clash.

1. Do you agree that appearances are deceptive? Tell your classmates about your own experience.

2. Do you think it is worth judging by appearances? Give your reasons.

3. Look at the pictures below and choose the right word from the lists to describe the shape of one's face, eyes, nose, chin, lips, forehead.

Face:

a) oval b) round c) long d) square

Eyes :

a) almond b) slanting c) round d) narrow

Nose :

a) aquiline b) hooked c) straight d) upturned

Chin:

a) protruding b) split c) double d) pointed

Lips:

a) thin b) plump c) thick d) heart-shaped

Forehead:

a) wrinkled b) narrow c) balding d) high

4. Find people among your relatives who resemble one another. Describe their appearance.

5. Say a few words about your character. Do you take after your parents?

TEXT

Young Archimedes

(Extract from the story by A.Huxley "Young Archimedes". Abridged.)

It was the view which finally made us take the place. Our nearest neighbours lived very near. We had two sets of them,1 as a matter of fact, almost in the same house with us. One was the peasant family. Our other neighbours were the owners of the villa.

They were a curious people, our proprietors. An old husband, grey, listless, tottering, seventy at least; and a signora of about forty, short, very plump, with tiny fat hands and feet and a pair of very large, very dark eyes, which she used with all the skill of a born co­median.

But we had found other reasons, after a few days' residence,2 for liking the house. Of these the most cogent was that, in the peasant's youngest child, we had discovered the perfect play-fellow for our own small boy.3 Between little Guido — for that was his name — and the youngest of his brothers and sisters there was a gap of se­ven years. He was between six and seven years old and as preco­cious, self-assured, and responsible as the children of the poor ge­nerally are.

Though fully two and a half years older than little Robin — and at that age thirty months are crammed with half a lifetime's experi­ence4 — Guido took no undue advantage of his superior intelligence and strength. I have never seen a child more patient, tolerant, and untyrannical. He never laughed at Robin; he did not tease or bully, but helped his small companion when he was in difficulties and ex­plained when he could not understand. In return, Robin adored him, regarded him as the model and perfect Big Boy,5 and slavishly imitated him in every way he could.

Guido was a thoughtful child, given to brooding.6 One would find him sitting in a corner by himself, chin in hand, elbow on knee, plunged in the profoundest meditation. And sometimes, even in the midst of the play, he would suddenly break off, to stand, his hands behind his back,7 frowning and staring at the ground. And his eyes, if one looked into them, were beautiful in their grave and pensive calm.

They were large eyes, set far apart and, what was strange in a dark-haired Italian child, of a luminous pale blue-grey colour. They were not always grave and calm, as in these pensive moments. When he was playing, when he talked or laughed, they lit up. Above those eyes was a beautiful forehead, high and steep and domed in a curve that was like the subtle curve of a rose petal.8 The nose was straight, the chin small and rather pointed, the mouth drooped a lit­tle sadly at the corners.

My gramophone and two or three boxes of records arrived from England. Guido was immensely interested. The first record he heard, I remember, was that of the slow movement of Bach's Con­certo in D Minor for two violins. That was the disc I put on the turn-table.

Guido came to a halt in front of the gramophone and stood there, motionless, listening. His pale blue-grey eyes opened them­selves wide; making a little nervous gesture that I had often noticed in him before, he plucked at his lower lip with his thumb and fore­fingers.

After lunch he reappeared. 'May I listen to the music now?' he asked. And for an hour he sat there in front of the instrument, hishead cocked slightly on one side, listening while I put one disc after another. Thenceforward he came every afternoon.

What stirred him almost more than anything was the Coriolan overture. One day he made me play it three or four times in succes­sion; then he put it away.

'I don't think I want to hear that any more,' he said.

'Why not?'

'It's too... too...' he hesitated, 'too big,' he said at last. 'I don't really understand it. Play me the one that goes like this.' He hummed the phrase from the D Minor Concerto.

'Do you like that one better?' I asked.

He shook his head. 'No, it's not that exactly. But it's easier.'

'Easier?' It seemed to me rather a queer word to apply to Bach.

In due course, the piano arrived. After giving him the minimum of preliminary instruction, I let Guido loose on it.9 He made excel­lent progress. Every afternoon, while Robin was asleep, he came for his concert and his lesson. But what to me was more interesting was that he had begun to make up little pieces on his own account.10 He had a passion for canons. When I explained to him the principles of the form he was enchanted.

'It is beautiful,' he said, with admiration. 'Beautiful, beautiful. And so easy!'

Again the word surprised me.

But in the invention of other kinds of music he did not show himself so fertile11 as I had hoped.

'He's hardly a Mozart,' we agreed, as we played his little pieces over. I felt, it must be confessed, almost aggrieved.

He was not a Mozart. No. But he was somebody, as I was to find out,12 quite extraordinary. It was one morning in the early sum­mer that I made the discovery. I was sitting in the warm shade of our balcony, working. Absorbed in my work, it was only, I suppose, after the silence had prolonged itself a considerable time that I be­came aware that the children were making remarkably little noise. Knowing by experience that when children are quiet it generally means that they are absorbed in some delicious mischief,13 1 got up from my chair and looked over the balustrade to see what they were doing. I expected to catch them dabbling in water, making a bon­fire, covering themselves with tar. But what I actually saw was Guido, with a burnt stick in his hand, demonstrating on the smooth paving-stones of the path, that the square on the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides. Robin listened, with an expression on his bright, freckled face of perfect incomprehension.

Guido implored: 'But do just look at this. It's so beautiful. It's so easy.'

So easy... The theorem of Pythagoras seemed to explain for me Guide's musical predilections. It was not an infant Mozart we had been cherishing; it was a little Archimedes with, like most of his kind, an incidental musical twist.14

Leaning on the rail of the balcony, I watched the children be­low. I thought of the extraordinary thing I had just seen and of what it meant.

I thought of the vast differences between human beings. We classify men by the colour of their eyes and hair, the shape of their skulls. Would it not be more sensible to divide them up into intel­lectual species? There would be even wider gulfs between the ex­treme mental types than between a Bushman and a Scandinavian.'5 This child, I thought, when he grows up, will be to me, intellectu­ally, what a man is to a dog.

Proper Names

Archimedes [,¸kI'mi:di:z] — Архимед

Aldous Huxley ['þld@s 'hökslI] — Олдос Хаксли

Guido ['gwi:d@U] — Гвидо

Robin ['rÁbIn] — Робин

Bach [b¸k] — Бах

D Minor Concerto ['di: 'maIn@ k@n'¶Æ:t@U] — концерт «Ре-минор»

Coriolan [,k@UrI@'l¸t] — Кориолан

Mozart ['m@Uts¸t] — Моцарт

Pythagoras [paI'T{g@r@s] — Пифагор

Vocabulary Notes

1. We had two sets of them ... — Это были две семьи ...

2. ... after a few days' residence... — ... прожив несколько дней ...

3. ... in the peasant's youngest child we had discovered the perfect play-fellow for our own small boy. — ... младший ребёнок из этой крестьянской семьи оказался прекрасным другом для нашего собственного малыша.

4. ... thirty months are crammed with half a lifetime's experience ... — ... в тридцать месяцев вмещается опыт, приобретаемый за полжизни ...

5. ... regarded him as the model and perfect Big Boy ... — ... считал его образцом для подражания и настоящим Большим Маль­чиком...

6. ... given to brooding ... — ... склонный к размышлениям ...

7. ... he would suddenly break off, to stand, his hands behind his back ... — ... он вдруг неожидано прерывал своё занятие и вставал, заложив руки за спину...

8. ... domed in a curve that was like the subtle curve of a rose petal. — ... очертания которого напоминали тонкие очертания лепест­ка розы.

9. ... I let Guido loose on it. — ... я разрешил Гвидо играть на нём сколько угодно.

10. ... to make up little pieces on his own account. — ... само­стоятельно сочинять маленькие произведения.

11. ... he did not show himself so fertile ... — ... он не особенно пре­успел ...

12. ... as I was to find out... — ... как мне было суждено обнару­жить ...

13. ... they are absorbed in some delicious mischief... — ... они увле­чены какой-нибудь восхитительной шалостью...

14. ... with, like most of Ms kind, an incidental musical twist. — ... как это бывает в большинстве подобных случаев, неожиданно наделённый ещё и музыкальными способностями.

15. ... between a Bushman and a Scandinavian. — ... между буш­меном и скандинавом (Прим.: бушмен — представитель на­родности, проживающей в Южной Африке).

Comprehension Check

1. What made the family rent the house?

2. What were the two sets of neighbours they had?

3. What sort of people were the owners of the villa?

4. What did the parents discover in the peasant's youngest child?

5. What made Guido so responsible and precocious?

6. What gap was there between Guido and Robin?

7. Did Guido take advantage of his superior intelligence and strength?

8. How did Guido treat Robin?

9. What was Robin's attitude to Guido?

10. What kind of child was Guido?

11. What did Guido look like? What was strange about his eyes?

12. What was Guido immensely interested in once?

13. What piece of music stirred him more than anything?

14. Did Guido make slow progress in playing the piano?

15. What did he start doing on his own account?

16. Did he show himself fertile in the invention of all kinds of music?

17. What word surprised the author in Guide's comment on the mu­sic?

18. Why were Robin's parents almost aggrieved?

19. What interrupted the author's work one morning?

20. What did the author see when he looked over the balustrade?

21. What sort of discovery did the author make one morning?

22. What kind of ideas came to the author's mind?

Phonetic Text Drills

○ Exercise 1

Transcribe and pronounce correctly the words from the text.

Signora, comedian, cogent, precocious, undue, untyrannical, to tease, to bully, to regard, to frown, to stare, luminous, to droop, concerto, gesture, to pluck, forefinger, thenceforward, succession, to loose, to enchant, to confess, to aggrieve, ex­traordinary, mischief, balustrade, to dabble, bonfire, hypote­nuse, right-angled, triangle, to implore, theorem, predilec­tion.

○ Exercise 2

Pronounce the words and phases where the foolowing clusters occur.

1. s+t+r

Strength, instruction, extraordinary, balustrade, demon­strating, extreme;

2. plosive + r

Proprietors, grey, brothers, brooding, break, grave, gramo­phone, preliminary, progress, agreed, prolonged;

3. plosive/n + D

Take the place, at that age, at the ground, sat there, like the subtle curve; in these, on the turn-table, stood there, again the word, made the discovery.

○ Exercise 3

Pronounce after the announcer and say what kind of false assimilation should be avoided.

Was the view, was the peasant, was that, as the children, months, his small companion, as the model, was strange, was straight, was the disc, was somebody, was sitting.

○ Exercise 4

I. Pronounce correctly the second form of regular verbs.

Lived, used, discovered, crammed, explained, imitated, loo­ked, pointed, drooped, arrived, interested, opened, plucked, asked, cocked, hummed, enchanted, surprised, aggrieved, watched.

II. Pick out compound nouns from the text, transcribe them, and put pri­mary and secondary stresses.

○ Exercise 5

Transcribe and intone the bit starting with 'I don't tffink I want to hear...' and ending with '... a queer word to apply to Bach.'

EXERCISES

Exercise 1

Match the words on the left with the meaning on the right.

Adjectives:

1. curious A. thinking deeply about something

2. listless B. having no energy or enthusiasm

3. tolerant C. having or showing good reasoning power

4. pensive D. allowing other people to say and do what

5. intellectual they think is right even if one doesn't

6. tyrannical agree with it

7. patient E. being able to stay calm and not get

annoyed

G. unusual and interesting

F. acting cruelly and unjustly towards the

people who one controls

Verbs:

1. totter A. make fun of somebody, deliberately

2. bully embarrass somebody

3. tease B. walk in an unsteady way

4. stir C. delight, bewitch, charm somebody

5. enchant D. care lovingly and tenderly

6. cherish E. think about something a lot seriously and

7. brood often unhappily

F. excite somebody, make one react with a

strong emotion

G. use one's strength or power to hurt or

frighten somebody

Nouns:

1. gapA. the state of being unable to

2. skilunderstand something l

3. comB. mental preference, liking panion

4. inteC. the ability to understand and learnlligence

5. prethings dilection

6. misD. a great difference between twochief

7. incomprehensionE. ability to do something well

F. someone who you spend time with

G. naughty behaviour of children,

eagerness to have fun by playing

tricks or by embarrassing people

Exercise 2

I. Draw lines between the pairs matching the words on the left with their opposites on the right.

self-assuredcalm

fatundelightful

dark-hairedinferior

nervousthin, slender

deliciousfair-haired

listlessmiserable

superiorenergetic

steeprough

smoothsloping

II. Draw lines between the pairs matching the words on the left with the words or phrases of similar meaning on the right.

plumpprematurely developed

tinyreasonable

precociousrather fat

sensibleodd

queerexceptional

extraordinaryconvincing

cogentstill

motionlessserious

graveextremely small

Exercise 3

Choose a suitable word or phrase from the passage you have read to com­plete the sentences.

1. The owners of the villa were a ... people. There was a... of almost thirty years between husband and wife.

2. The signora had very large, black eyes and she used them with ... .

3. Robin adored Guido, he ... him as the ... and copied him in ... he could.

4. Being a ... child, Guido was given to ... and liked to sit... , chin .... elbow ....... in the profoundest meditation.

5. Sometimes Guido suddenly interrupted the game and stood ... at the ground.

6. If you looked into Guide's eyes you would find out that they were beautiful in their ... and ... calm. They were set... .

7. When Guido was listening to the music, he ... at his lower lip with his ... and ... .

8. Soon Guido started ... little pieces on ... . He had ... for canons.

9. Guido was really ... by canons and the principles of the form.

10. When Robin's parents played Guide's little pieces over they felt almost....

11. There was an expression of ... on Robin's bright and ... face when Guido was... the theorem of Pythagoras to him.

12. The author expected the boys to be ... in some ... , to ... them ... in water or ... a bonfire.

13. Guido appeared to be not an... Mozart, Robin's parent had been ... but... Archimedes with an ... musical twist.

14. There was a wide ... between Guido and Robin as between the two different... types.

Exercise 4

Fill in the blanks in the following sentences. Use only one expression in each space. Change the form of a word or a phrase if necessary.

to laugh at somebody to be an Archimedes

to make progress to shake one's head

to make up on one's own account

to make noise to put something away

in return to come to a halt

to know by experience to be crammed

to take advantage

of something to be in difficulties

1. My brother is in the habit of... those people he has a grudge against.

2. The silence was oppressive. He ... that something was wrong.

3. She was so scared that she couldn't say a word. When the policeman asked her something she just ... to say "No".

4. Dick adored my daughter. As soon as she started play­ing the piano he ... near it and could stand motionless for half an hour enjoying both my daughter and the mu­sic.

5. You never know what's on his mind. It's characteristic of him to ... all sorts of stories. No wonder his friends do not have much confidence in him.

6. Sometimes it may be so annoying to look after kids. They like to ... when playing.

7. As Brian was left to himself and had to go through lots of difficulties his life appeared ... with all sorts of expe­rience.

8. Little George is a special child; he is immensely interested in maths and physics. His parents and teachers are so proud of him that they say that he ....

9. Jane is always calm and patient and never loses her temper when explaining things to her pupils. That is why they just adore her... .

10. Practically all composers started writing music ... in eariy childhood.

11. One's career depends on how quickly he or she ... in ac­quiring new skills and knowledge.

12. In sports and games competitors always try to ... their op­ponents' mistakes and weaknesses.

13. After a child has played enough with his new toy, he ... and forgets about it for a while playing with his old favourite ones.

14. Noble and generous people always come to help their friends when the latter ....

Exercise 5

Give the English equivalents for the Russian words and expressions.

A.

Ходить пошатываясь, ковыляя; размышлять; задирать кого-либо; обожать; лелеять; быть очарованным; волно­вать кого-либо; подражать кому-либо; злоупотреблять чем-либо; прервать (занятие); преуспевать в чём-либо; увлекаться чем-либо; испытывать затруднения; умолять; дразнить; плескаться в воде.

В .

Гладкий; странный; апатичный; пухлый; развитой не по годам; самоуверенный; ответственный; веснушчатый; крутой (лоб); изящный; мечтательный; серьёзный; ост­рый (подбородок); необыкновенный.

С.

Разница в семь лет; на целых два с половиной года старше; интеллектуальное и физическое превосходство; склонный к размышлению; заложив руки за спину; уста­вившись в землю; подперев подбородок рукой; опершись локтем о колено; широко расставленные глаза; уголки рта слегка опущены; глаза широко раскрылись; пощипывая нижнюю губу большим и указательным пальцами; нерв­ный жест; слегка склонив голову набок; напевать без слов; музыкальные способности.

Exercise 6

Change the following sentences using the phrases from the text instead of the ones in italics.

1. Nick was five years younger than his brother.

2. Though Andrew was athletic and much stronger than all his play-fellows he never used it for his own benefit trying to overawe them with it.

3. Daniel always thought that his brother was a good example for him.

4. Having stayed several days at a health resort, we quickly got bored.

5. In fact, we were on good terms with our companions.

6. Frank was absolutely absorbed in watching a cowboy film and nothing could make him stop doing it.

7. After explaining the most important things to him I let him play the guitar as much as he wanted.

8. He did not feel determined enough and could not start a new business.

9. You can't divide people up into good and bad ones because human nature is not that simple.

10. The girl's face showed that she couldn't understand any­thing though she listened to the speech with great atten­tion.

11. I was aware of his making progress in music but listening to his pieces you couldn't say he was as good as Mozart.

12. When Alex was told that she was stingy it made him feel up­set and angry because he had never dreamed of having a stingy wife.

13. Nothing could move him more than a nice, quiet folk song performed by a peasant woman.

14. Ann's daughter is often absorbed in thinking deeply about something and whatever you say to her goes in one ear and out the other.

Exercise 7

Translate into English.

1. Наши друзья были владельцами виллы. Мистеру Редгрейву было около семидесяти, его жене — примерно сорок.

2. Младший из семьи Редгрейвов стал прекрасным дру­гом для нашего малыша.

3. Малыш Дэнни был развит не по годам, уверен в себе и обладал большим чувством ответственности.

4. Я никогда не видел ребёнка более терпеливого и сни­сходительного к другим.

5. Дэнни не был тираном и не пользовался своим ум­ственным и физическим превосходством.

6. Наш малыш считал своего друга образцом для подра­жания и всячески стремился доходить на него. .

7. Дэнни часто погружался в глубокие раздумья.

8. Он любил стоять, заложив руки за спину, нахму­рившись и уставясь в землю.

9. Широко расставленные глаза Дэнни излучали тихий ясный свет.

10. Общее выражение лица мальчика было очень жизне­радостное, но уголки рта были как-то грустно опу­щены.

11. Когда мальчик слушал музыку и интересные истории, он сидел широко раскрыв глаза и слегка наклонив голову набок.

12. Больше всего его волновали истории с трагическим концом.

13. В математике Дэнни делал потрясающие успехи.

14. Поглощённый своими объяснениями, Дэнни не за­мечал, что лица его приятелей выражали полное не­понимание.

Exercise 8

Expand on the following.

1. The owners of the villa were a curious people.

2. Though fully two and a half years older than little Robin, Guido took no undue advantage of his superior intelligence and strength.

3. Robin adored Guido.

4. Guido was a thoughtful child.

5. Guido was immensely interested in listening to music.

6. Guido made excellent progress in playing the piano.

7. The boy was hardly a Mozart.

8. The theorem of Pythagoras seemed to explain Guide's mu­sical predilections.

9. I thought of the vast differences between human beings.

Exercise 9

Speak about the author's experience in Italy:

1. in the third person;

2. in the person of one of the proprietors;

3. in the регеод of Guido;

4. in the person of little Robin.

Exercise 10

Discussion points.

1. Did Guide's appearance correlate with his character? Why?

2. What could make Guido so patient and tolerant?

3. What do you think of little Robin? Compare the boys.

4. What sort of people were Robin's parents, in your opi­nion?

5. Fancy your own child imitating somebody slavishly. What would you tell him or her?

6. Have you ever met children like Guido? Tell the class about them.

7. Do you believe that genius always shows in early child­hood? Prove your point.

8. The vast differences between human beings — what are they?

Exercise 11

Comment on the following words of the author.

'...it was a little Archimedes with, like most of his kind, an in­cidental musical twist.'

'We classify men by the colour of their eyes and hair, the shape of their sculls. Would it not be more sensible to divide them up into intellectual species?'

Exercise 12

Describe several people using the patterns from the passage you have read. Introduce your description with a sentence similar to the pattern:

Pattern: a) They were a curious people, our proprietors.

b) An old husband, grey, listless, tottering, seventy at least.

c) A signora ofabout jourty, short, very plump, with tiny hands andfeet and a pair ofvery large,

very dark eyes.

A model paragraph:

She is a nice person, my friend. A young giri, of about twenty, blond, slender, with an upturned nose, etc.

Exercise 13

Speak about people's age.

I. Give your own examples according to the models below. Speak about your relatives or friends.

Pattern: He was between six and seven (years old).

Between little Guido and the youngest of his brothers and sisters there was a gap of six or seven years.

He was fully two and a halfyears older (younger) than lit­tle Robin.

II. Work in pairs. Look at the list below and using the given information about the Roycrofts ask your partner the following questions:

1. When was he/she born?

Use:

to be bornin the forties

in the mid(dle) forties

some time during the forties

2. Approximately how old is he/she now?

Use:

to be in one's early/late teens

in one's mid(dle) thirties

in one's early/late forties

under forty

over forty

The Roycroft family:

Alice - 1930/1933 Monica - 1981/1982 Nick - 1965/1967 Fred - 1950/1952 Anthony - 1988/1989 Mark - 1922/1925 Liza - 1955/1956 Lucy - 1947/1949 Вill - 1975/1976

Pattern : — When was Alice Roycroft born?

— She was born in the thirties.

— Approximately how old is she now?

— She must be in her late sixties.

Exercise 14

I. Judging by the description below say if a person looks his or her age.

Pattern: He looks his age.

He looks old for his age.

He does not look old for his age.

He looks young (too young for his age).

1. Brenda's father is only forty but he is bald and rather stout.

2. Though retired John travels a lot and goes in for lawn ten­nis. He is grey-haired but looking at him and being aware of his life-style you'll never say he is in his late sixties.

3. Jack's wife was fat and stooping. She walked tottering and used a stick. You couldn't believe that she was just in her early fifties.

4. Nora is tall and slender and very attractive. Her good looks appealed to me as soon as I saw her. Is she really in her mid fifties?

5. My brother has grown thinner and his illness took some colour off his cheeks, his hair is touched with grey at the temples and it makes him look older.

6. I bumped into my old friend yesterday when walking in the park. These seven years have brought favourable changes in him. Though he is over fifty he looks as if he were forty five.

II. Write a couple of similar paragraphs and let your partner decide if a per­son looks his or her age.

Exercise 15

Pick out the necessary words and word-combinations which you would choose to describe people in the pictures below.

1) good-looking/plain/attractive/handsome/ugly/beautiful;

2) to be of medium height/tall/short;

3) slim/slender/stout/plump/fat/stooping/narrow-shouldered /broad-shouldered/long-armed/long-legged;

3) round/oval/pale/red/sallow/pretty/fireckled face;

4) close-set/deep-set/slanting eyes;

5) upturned/fleshy/hooked/aquiline/straight nose;

6) finely-curved/thin/full/plump lips;

7) pointed/round/double/square chin;

8) grey/thin/wavy/curly/straight/short/long hair:

9) wear one's hair combed back/in plaits/done in a knot/ parted in the middle/on the right/left side.

Exercise 16

Look at the students of your group and say:

1) who has the following type of hair

a) straight, long, short, curly, wavy;

b) fair, daric, blonde, black, brown, grey.

2) whose constitution can be characterised as:

a) short, tall, of medium height;

b) slim, plump, very thin.

3) whose complexion is: pate, daric, pink.

4) who has: plump cheeks, hallow cheeks, cheeks with dim­ples.

Exercise 17

Look at the models and try to understand how we use 1) look; 2) look like. Note the difference between the questions 'How does he/she look?', 'What does he/she look like?'. Dont confuse these questions with "What is he/she like?'.

Pattern:

She looks gloomy. How does he/she look?

She is slim, dark-haired, What does he/she look like?

blue-eyed and wears her What is she like?

hair combed back.

She is well-bred and intelligent,

a bit shy and never lets you

down.

Group the sentences in the following passages matching them with the proper question, as shown above. Translate the passages.

1. The girl was delicately-built, very slender, with full lips and deep-set eyes. They looked sad and made you feel sorry for her.

2. She was a lovely little girl of about five, plump, with an up­turned nose and dimpled rosy cheeks. Her hazel eyes and silky long hair added to her attraction.

3. Melancholy and perplexed, the woman was sitting at the ta­ble. Her faded eyes were grave and she looked upset.

4. Cruel but very clever and shrewd, he was quite an extraor­dinary person.

5. Mark was dark-haired and romantically handsome, with his merry laugh and charm of the person who comes from this charming country, Spain.

6. Emily was full of anxiety. She was stubbornly British and didn't find India beautiful or exciting.

7. Rachel was a bit old-fashioned and she was sweet in a way. Her eyes were close-set and a little slanting but they didn't spoil her pale oval face.

8. He wasn't even that handsome: his proportions were wrong; he was too tall for his shoulders; his hair was too short; his arms were too long.

9. The immigration officer is wearing a dark-green uniform, like a soldier's, and there are two actual soldiers leaning against the wall beside him, in crisp blue shirts with short sleeves.

10. In front of Rennie there's a tiny woman, not five feet tall. She's wearing a fur coat and a black wool jockey cap tilted at an angle. She must be at least seventy but it's hard to tell.

11. He was like iron. All of us knew that he was not easily put off and that nothing could make him change his mind.

12. She was unable to control her jealousy, and her friends sometimes called her an Othello in spite of her being a woman.

13. Phil looked pretty exhausted. He had had no sleep the last night as he had a great deal to do in the hospital and could never find an hour or two to have a nap.

Exercise 18

I. Following the patterns below make up 4 sentences characterising a per­son. Use look, look like, look as if, and look as though.

Pattern: a) Jane looks fantastic/charming/terrific/tired/strange/ very elegant/smart/happy, etc.

b) She looks like a peacock/wbra/old cat, etc. in this sort of dress.

c) Her dress looks as though it's made of'bright feathers/ metal wires, etc.

d) She looks as if she's going to a fancy dress party/ Buckingham palace, etc.

II. Use the models abore in a short dialogue.

Exercise 19

Work in small groups. Describe the following people: 1) one of your class-mates; 2) one of your favourite film-stars, singers, musicians; 3) a well-known public figure. Your partners should try to guess the name of the person you describe. Talk about the person's general appearance, face, clothes and anything else that would help your partners to recognise him or her.

► Use:

To have little make-up on the face; to enjoy good health; to be a picture of health; to lose one's good looks; to look after one's appearance; to be full of joy; to add to one's attraction; to have delicate features; to give somebody the impression of some­ thing; to be the perfect type of (the Englishman); to be dressed in something; to wear/to be wearing something; to have some­thing on; to be smartly/tastily/well dressed.

Exercise 20

Look at the following words used to describe people's character. Make two columns of 1) what you think are bad characteristics; 2) what you think are good characteristics.

tolerantgeneroussympathetic

irresponsibleunsociablecruel

ambitiousintelligentsly

patientsillyeven-tempered

thriftysinceregreedy

shrewdrudeill-mannered

bad characteristics good characteristics

II. Use some of the words in a sentence describing someone's character.

Exercise 21

How would you describe a person who

... likes to talk with other people? ... hates to communicate?

... looks on the bright side of things? ... looks on the black side of things?

... gives his or her last to other people?... never lends you money?

... has a high opinion of himself or herself? ... never praises himself or herself?

... easily flies into a rage? ... never loses his or her temper?

... tells the troth to others? ... cheats other people?

... is practical in approach to life? ... is dreamy in approach to life?

Exercise 22

What would you think of a person who says:

1. Ladies first!

2. I can't control myself when I should keep quiet.

3. I'm not easily put off if I have made up my mind.

4. I don't care for him. He is inferior to me, you know.

5. Whatever she may say I won't lose my temper.

6. Darling! I never grudge you anything, be it clothes, money, a car.

7. I always feel sony for people who are in trouble.

8. I just love cucumbers with milk, Picasso's paintings and freckled faces.

9. I have got used to ten hours work every day.

10. I prefer to be in the company of other people and have a chat with them.

11. Whatever you may ask me to do for you, I will do it. What­ ever you may say, I will foigive you.

► Use: He must be ... She may be... He is likely to be ...

The words given below may help you:

Hard-working, original, sympathetic, quick-tempered, open-handed, arrogant, well-bred, sociable, obstinate, self-posses­sed, tolerant.

Exercise 23

Define if the speaker likes or dislikes the people he/she is talking about. Use your dictionary to understand what kind of connotations (positive or negative) the words characterising the person have.

1. I find Sam's wife selfish.

2. Molly is stingy.

3. David is quite broad-minded.

4. Dorian is so pushy.

5. Harry seems to be extravagant.

6. Paul is shy.

7. Margaret is always frank.

8. Brian is quite arrogant.

9. Bob can be patient.

Exercise 24

Work in small groups. Put these qualities into order of importance and say what qualities you admire most in other people. Add some important quali­ties missing from this list if you find it necessary. Compare the results and draw collective portraits of people who you prefer.

Sense of humour, kindness, intelligence, independence, toler­ance, ambition, sincerity, honesty, tenderness, creativity, good looks, courage, humility, generosity.

Exercise 25

Reword each sentence starting with the words given in the pattern.

Pattern: a) You must be more polite to people.

— It is necessary/important/essential to be more polite to people.

b) He was la zy and refused to complete the work.

— He was so la zy that he re fused to complete the work.

1. You must be more reserved when dealing with stubborn and short-tempered people.

2. You should be reasonable so as not to make the wrong deci­sion.

3. Children must be disciplined and obedient when parents instruct them.

4. One must have initiative and be creative to start a business of one's own.

5. Parents should be mild and gentle when talking with babies.

6. The old man was listless, and nothing could stir him.

7. Robert is witty and intelligent, and he is the heart and soul of the company.

8. Pat is dull, indeed. I fall asleep when she's talking.

9. Jack is stubborn. He always has his own way.

10. Thomas is capable and never fails his exams.

11. Her cousin's jokes are just boring. I'm fed up with them.

Exercise 26

Change the sentences using the verb seem.

Pattern: He's very absent-minded.

He seems (to be) very absent-minded.

1. Ann is very modest and a bit shy.

2. Paul is absolutely weak-willed.

3. Maria is ill-mannered.

4. Peter is pretty sociable.

5. Helen is very sensitive.

6. Susan is extremely jealous of her husband.

7. Steven is fantastically rude to his wife.

8. Victoria is a good mixer.

9. Barbara is generous.

10. Erwin is very shrewd.

11. Bill is just hot-tempered.

12. Mark is quite sensible.

13. Jane is pretty serious.

Exercise 27

Guess what these people might say when complaining about the things other people do. The words given below may be helpful.

Light-minded, unsociable, unreliable, rude, impolite, ill-bred, unreserved, hot-tempered, nosy, obstinate, fussy, selfish.

► Use: a) He is so + adjective.

b) He is such a + adjective + noun.

Pattern: Nick's mother is complaining about her son who never obeys her.

— He is so disobedient. (He is such a disobedient boy). I'd like him to be obedient.

1. Jane is complaining about her son who never shares his problems with her.

2. The teacher is complaining about Jack who lacks good-manners.

3. Bill's friend is complaining of Вill who often lets him down and goes back on his word,

4. Mary is complaining of her sister who is very hard to get along with.

5. Jane is complaining about her classmate who is quick to get angry.

6. Tom is complaining of his playmate who cannot take him­self in hand.

7. Ann is complaining of her boss who often loses his temper and is hard to deal with.

8. All the women are complaining of Jim who never stands aside to let a woman enter a room before him and never helps any of them into her coat.

9. Dennis is complaining about Margaret who pokes her nose into his business.

10. The Headmaster is complaining of Paul who plays truant.

11. My sister's husband is complaining of my sister who makes so much fuss about the house.

12. Angela is complaining about her son who thinks only of himself.

Exercise 28

You've just joined a group of students at the University. Suppose the teacher asks you to introduce yourself to the other students, and 'to say something about yourself. What would you say? What adjectives do you think best describe your own character? How can you prove these charac­teristics?

Pattern: Talkative — I'm talkative because I love to chat with my friends.

Exercise 29

Imagine a friend of yours is flying to London to stay with your English friends. They will be meeting him/her at the airport. To recognise him/her they need a description of your friend, some details of his/her appearance.

1. Say what he/she looks like and what sort of clothes he/she usually wears.

2. Give a short description of your friend's character and express your hope that they willget on well together.

Exercise 30

Imagine an ideal man/woman. Describe him/her briefly. Dwell upon his/her appearance, personality and the way he/she treats other people. Use the topical words and expressions.

Exercise 31

Use your dictionary to clarify your understanding of the following idioms. Translate them. Make up a situation to prove your proper understanding of each idiom.

1. to throw dust in one's eyes;

2. to have a big mouth;

3. to cost an arm and a leg;

4. to keep a stiff upper lip;

5. to keep your fingers crossed;

6. to put your best foot forward;

7. to be born with a silver spoon in one's mouth;

8. to be all skin and bones;

9. to cut one's teeth;

10. to give someone the cold shoulder;

11. to pull someone's leg.

Exercise 32

I. Say whether you know a person about whom you could say that he or she is:

1. as innocent as a babe unborn;

2. as cunning as a fox;

3. as busy as a bee;

4. as neat as a new pin;

5. as slippery as an eel;

6. as thin as a rake;

7. as true as steel;

8. as obstinate as a donkey;

9. as wise as an owl.

II. Tell your partner about him or her using the sayings given above.

Exercise 33

Find the Russian equivalents for the following proverbs and use the latter in a proper context.

1. A good name is better than riches.

2. A little body often harbours a great soul.

3. A word is enough to the wise.

4. All that glitters is not gold.

5. Handsome is as handsome does.

6. He that is full of himself is very empty.

7. You cannot judge a tree by its bark.

Exercise 34

Translate the following quotations and comment upon them.

'The better I get to know men, the more I find myself loving dogs'

Charles de Gaulle

'I sincerely wish ingratitude was not so natural to the human heart as it is.'

Alexander Hamilton

'You can fool some of the people all of the time, and all of the people some of the time, but you cannot fool all of the people all the time.'

Abraham Lincoln

'Human nature is rarely uniform.'

Waller Scott

'I hope I shall always possess maintain what I consider the character of an Honest Man' firmness and virtue enough to most enviable of all titles, the

George Washington

Exercise 35

Role-play "A Formal Gathering".

Setting: A formal gathering in a grand villa on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea.

Situation: The Rych family invite a lot of people to their villa to the engagement of their son and the daughter of the Welthy family. The guests hardly know each other. They entertain themselves by discussing the appearance and character of the people they see around. The host and the hostess circulate and hear what different people say about each other.

Characters:

Card I—II — Christopher and Christine, the fiances.

Card III—IV — Mr and Mrs Rych, the owners of the villa. Card V—VI — Mr and Mrs Welthy, Christine's parents.

Card VII—VIII — Franklin and Frances, newly-weds. Frank­lin is Christopher's cousin. He owns a tex­tile factory and is often away from home.

Card IX—X — Patricia and Clotilda — two middle-aged single women. They are Christine's aunts. They never married because they could not find a good match.

Card XI—XII — Stephen and Stephanie, a married couple. Stephen is a distant relative to the Rych family.

Card XIII—XIV — Clement and Clementine, a married couple. Clement is a distant relative to the Welthy family.

WRITING

Exercise 1

Prepare to write a dictation. Learn the spelling of the italicized words and phrases from Introductory Reading and exercise 1 on page 242.

Exercise 2

Write a short description of somebody's physical appearance and cha­racter.

Use:

to be as/not so ... as somebody, to be very much the same in appearance, the very image of somebody, to be as like as two peas, to be (very much) like somebody, to be not a bit alike, to take after/to look like/to resemble somebody, to bear no re­semblance to somebody, to behave like somebody, to appeal to somebody, to take to somebody, to like/dislike the way one wears one's hair/walks/talks/speaks/behaves/dresses, to be characteristic of somebody.

Begin with 'Here's the description of a man/woman/girl whom ...', "Fancy a woman ...', 'Imagine a man ...'.

Note:

Descriptions may be technical and suggestive. Technical de­scriptions just give an objective account of the look or the structure of an object. They are characterised by the neutral style and vocabulary. Simple wording and grammar are the best choice for the purpose of writing a technical description.

Suggestive descriptions convey the impression and the emotions evoked by the look of an object. The use of emotio­nally coloured words and various grammatical structures help to gain the effect. The author does not merely inform the reader, but appeals to the readers's feelings.

The description of a person may be either technical or sug­gestive.

Model paragraph of a technical description:

Here is the description of Mrs. White. She is in her eariy thirties. She is fairly slim and about average height. She has got blonde shoulder-length curly hair. She's got dark-blue eyes. Her oval face is slightly wrinkled. She's got a small upturned nose and finely-curved plump lips. Mrs. White is intelligent, communicative and perfectly fit for her job.

Model paragraph of a suggestive description:

Fancy a girl in her late teens. She is a pleasant-looking young lady, with soft brown eyes and a straight nose. I like the way she wears her long dark hair. It is parted in the middle, combed back and done in a knot. A classical type. By the way, she is very much like her mother about her hair and eyes. They say, her mother resembled her when she was 18. She was even as tall as her daughter. I took to the girl as soon as I met her. I like the way she walks; she keeps herself erect. She is very slender and always looks fresh. Her manner of talking also ap­peals to me. As for her character, I can't say anything definite. She seems to be mild and gentle and she is sure to have a way with her. But I think she may be also very energetic and self-determined.

Exercise 3

Write a short description of two people different in appearance. Touch upon their face, general appearance, clothes.

Exercise 4

Write an essay on one of the following topics:

1. My Self-Portrait.

2. What Kind of People Do You Get On with Best?

3. Looking through a Family Album.

Exercise 5

Write:

1. about your first meeting with someone who later became your close friend. What were some of the things you no­ticed about him or her when you first saw him or her?

2. your first letter to your imaginary English pen-friend. Give him or her a good idea of your appearance, personality and interests.

3. about one of the books you have read, explaining which of the characters you admired or liked and which of the cha­racters you found less/least attractive.

Lesson 10 WEATHER

INTRODUCTORY READING AND TALK

The naughtiest thing in the worid is the weather. It's like a capricious woman who always does the opposite to what you ask her.

When you want to go for a picnic in the open air you ask the skies to remain clear and the day to be fine. Nervously you switch on the radio and listen to the weather forecast. You tremble with joy to hear that it'll stay warm and dry with bright sunshine, and moderate breeze. Your imagination draws a hot summer afternoon and your­self saying: 'Nice weather we are having today!' You take a lot of food and no warm clothes, go to the countryside but... do not get anything sunny.

You get it cloudy and cool with intermittent drizzle which ends with a thundery shower. The sky is so heavily cast with clouds, the downpours follow one another with such frequency, the rumbling of thunder and Hashes of lightning are so frightening that you've got no illusions left. You throw away the food and go back hungry and an­gry. And when you are already approaching your home soaked to the skin it suddenly brightens up. Oh, Goodness!

Each summer every student survives through the best time of his or her life — an examination session. Then many students plead: 'Please, weather, stay cloudy, chilly or even cold with brisk northerly wind and nun torrents leaving pools and peddles everywhere, espe­cially on the playground. And I'll be a good student'. The radio promises: 'Patchy light drizzle with showery outbreaks of rain.' But the "patch" is never in the right place. Instead the skies send heat and excellent weather for a sun tan. Everyone knows that sun tan never helps at exams.

And it is always like this. When you go skiing and want to have frosty weather with a lot of snow, it starts thawing and your skis sink in the slush. Instead of a snowfall and hoarfrost on the trees you get excellent sleet. The weather does not feel any pangs of re­morse.

When you go in the car to the country, enjoying nice weather and a beautiful view of a rainbow in the blue sky, you pay no atten­tion to some haze on the horizon. Some time later a thin mist in the distance turns into a thick fog and you spend a lovely two hours in­stead of one at the steering wheel.

When you plant some much-cared-for flowers in the garden, ei­ther a ground frost or a hail storm kills them. Digging muddy flower­beds one feels exasperated: 'What beastly weather we've had this week! And it keeps nasty! Wretched!'

To tell the troth, sometimes the weather is ashamed and turns for the better. But not always. More often it sticks to its own pattern and after a short warm spell turns bad again. Why is it always like this? Maybe, because the weather likes surprises and wants to bring in adventures to our life, breaking the boring routine with marvel­lous happenings?

1. Do you agree that the weather is like a capricious woman? Prove your point.

2. Say what weather you like best of all and why.

3. Do you listen to the weather forecasts? Do you trust them? Have you heard the weather forecast for today? Was it right?

4. Look at the pictures and say what the weather Is like in them.

5. Explain how you understand the proverb.

Whether the weather is cold

Or whether the weather is hot

We'll weather the weather

Whatever the weather

Whether we like it or not.

○ TEXT

Fog on the Barrow-Downs

(Extract from the book by J. R. R. Tolkien "The Lord of the Rings". Abridged)

That night they heard no noises. But either in his dreams or out of them, he could not tell which, Frodo heard a sweet singing run­ning in his mind;1 a song that seemed to come like a pale light be-hind a grey rain-curtain.

The vision melted into waking;2 and there was Tom whistling; and the sun was already slanting down the hill and through the open window.

After breakfast they made ready to say farewell, as nearly heavy of heart3 as was possible on such a morning; cool, bright, and clean under a washed autumn sky of thin blue. The air came fresh from the North-West.

They rode off along a path and looked out from the hill-top over lands under the morning. It was now as clear and far-seen as it had been veiled and misty when they stood upon the knoll in the Forest. They took a deep draught of the air.4

Their way wound along the floor of the hollow, and round the green feet of a steep hill into another deeper and broader valley. As they journeyed the sun mounted, and grew hot. Each time they climbed a ridge the breeze seemed to have grown less. When they caught a glimpse of the country westward the distant Forest seemed to be smoking, as if the fallen rain was steaming up again. A shadow now lay round the edge of sight, a dark haze above which the sky was like a blue cap.5 On that side the hills were higher and looked down upon them; and all those hills were crowned with green mounds, and on some were standing stones, pointing upwards like jagged teeth out of green gums. The view was somehow disquieting; so they turned from the sight and went down into the hollow circle. In the midst of it there stood a single stone, standing tall under the sun above, and at this hour casting no shadow. They set their backs6 against the east side of the stone. It was cool, as if the sun had had no power to warm it. There they took food and drink.

Riding over the hills, and eating their fill,7 lying a little too long; these things are, perhaps, enough to explain what happened. How­ever, that may be: they woke suddenly from a sleep they had never meant to take. The standing stone was cold, and it cast a long pale shadow. The sun was gleaming through the mist; north, south, and east, the fog was thick, cold and white. The air was silent, heavy and chill.

The hobbits8 sprang to their feet in alarm, and ran to the western rim. They found that they were upon an island in the fog. Even as they looked out in dismay towards the setting sun, it sank before their eyes into a white sea, and a cold grey shadow sprang up in the East behind. The fog rolled up to the walls and rose above them, and as it mounted it bent over their heads until it became a roof. They felt as if a trap was closing about them. They packed up as quickly as their chilled fingers would work.

Soon they were leading their ponies in single file9 over the rim and down the long northward slope of the hill, down into a foggy sea. As they went down the mist became colder and damper, and their hair hung lank and dripping on their foreheads. When they reached the bottom it was so cold that they halted and got out cloaks and hoods, which soon became bedewed with grey drops. Then, mounting their ponies, they went slowly on again. To prevent their getting separated and wandering in different directions they went in file, with Frodo leading. Suddenly Frodo saw a hopeful sign. On either side ahead a darkness began to loom through the mist; and he guessed that they were at last approaching the gap in the hills. 'Come on! Follow me!' he called back over his shoulder, and he hurried forward. His pony reared, and he fell off. When he looked back he found that he was alone: the others had not fol­lowed him.

'Sam!' he called. 'Pippin! Merry! Come along! Why don't you keep up?'10

There was no answer. Fear took him, and he ran back. As he struggled on he called again, and kept on calling more and more frantically. He was weary, sweating and yet chilled. It was wholly dark.

'Where are you?' he cried out miserably.

There was no reply. He stood listening. He was suddenly aware that it was getting very cold, and that up here a wind was beginning to blow, an icy wind. A change was coming in the weather. The mist was flowing past him in shreds and tatters. His breath was smok­ing.11 He looked up and saw with surprise that faint stars were ap­pearing overhead amid the strands of hurrying cloud and fog. Oat of the east the biting wind was blowing.

'Where are you?' he cried again, both angry and afraid.

'Here!' said a voice, deep and cold, that seemed to come out of the ground. 'I am waiting for you!'

'No!' said Frodo; but he did not run away. His knees gave,12 and he fell on the ground. Nothing happened, and there was no sound. Trembling he looked up in time to see a tall dark figure like a shadow against the stars. It leaned over him. He thought there were two eyes, very cold though lit with a pale light that seemed to come from some remote distance. Then a grip stronger and colder than iron seized him. The icy touch froze his bones, and he remembered no more.

When he came to himself again, for a moment he could recall nothing except a sense of dread. Then suddenly he knew that he was imprisoned, caught hopelessly; he was in a barrow. A Barrow-wight had taken him, and he was probably already under the dreadful spells of the Barrow-wights about which whispered tales spoke. Hedared not move, but lay as he found himself: flat on his back upon a cold stone with his hands on his breast.

As he lay there, thinking and getting a hold on himself, he no­ticed all at once that the darkness was slowly giving way:13 a pale greenish light was growing round him. He turned, and there in the cold glow he saw lying beside him Sam, Pippin, and Merry.

There was a loud rumbling sound, as of stones rolling and fal­ling, and suddenly light streamed in. A low door-like opening appeared at the end of the chamber beyond Frodo's feet; and there was Tom's head against the light of the sun rising red behind him.

'Come, friend Frodo!' said Tom. 'Let us get out on to the clean grass! You must help me bear them.' Together they carried out Merry, Pippin and Sam. To Frodo's great joy the hobbits stirred, robbed their eyes, and then suddenly sprang up. They looked about in amazement. 'What in the name of wonder?14 began Merry. 'Where did you get to, Frodo?'

'I thought that I was lost', said Frodo; 'but I don't want to speak of it.' But Tom shook his head, saying: 'Be glad, my merry friends, and let the warm sunlight heat now heart and limb! Cast off these cold rags! Run naked on the grass!'

The air was growing very warm again. The hobbits ran about for a while on the grass. Then they lay basking in the sun with the de­light of those that have been wafted suddenly from bitter winter to a friendly clime, or of people that, after being long ill, wake one day to find that they are unexpectedly well and the day is again full of promise.

Proper Names

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien ['³Án 'rÁnld 'rU@l tÁlkIn] — Джон Роналд Руэл Толкин

Barrow-downs [b{r@U,daUnz] — Курганы (Прим.: в текстеместо захоронения древних королей)

Frodo ['frÁd@U] — Фродо

Torn [tÁm] — Том

Sam [s{m] —Сэм

Pippin — ['pIpIn] — Пиппин

Merry — ['merI] — Мерри

Barrow-wight [b{r@U"waIt] — призрак Курганов

Vocabulary Notes

1. But either in his dreams or out of them, he could not tell which, Frodo heard a sweet singing running in his mind ... — Ho Фродо не знал, во сне или наяву, до него доносилось нежное пение ...

2. The vision melted into waking ... — Он проснулся, и видение растворилось ...

3. After breakfast they made ready to say farewell as nearly heavy of heart as was possible on such a morning ... — ... После завтрака они приготовились распрощаться; на душе у них почему-то было неспокойно, несмотря на такое утро ...

4. They took a deep draught of the air. — Они глубоко вдохнули воздух.

5. A shadow now lay round the edge of sight, a dark haze above which the sky was like a blue cap. — Теперь силуэт леса по всему краю окаймляла тёмная полоса, небо над которой было похоже на голубой колпак.

6. They set their backs against the east side of the stone. — Они сели, прислонившись спинами к той стороне камня, которая была обращена на восток.

7. ... and eating their fill... — ... и плотно пообедав ...

8. hobbits ['hÁbIts] — хоббиты

9. Soon they were leading their ponies in single file ... — Вскоре они уже цепочкой вели своих пони ...

10. Why don't you keep up? — Почему вы не поспеваете?

11. His breath was smoking. — При дыхании появлялся парок.

12. His knees gave ... — Ноги у него подкосились ...

13. As he lay there, thinking and getting a hold on himself, he noticed all at once that the darkness was showly giving way ... — Вот так лёжа, размышляя и приходя в себя, он вдруг заметил, что темнота медленно расступается ...

14. What in the name of wonder? — Что за чудеса?

Comprehension Check

1. What did Frodo hear in his sleep?

2. Who was whistling?

3. When did the hobbits start out?

4. What was the country like?

5. What was the weather like?

6. Where did the hobbits stop and what for?

7. Why did they fall asleep?

8. What change in the weather did they see when they woke up?

9. What did they do after waking up?

10. Why did Frodo hurry forward?

11. What was Frodo suddenly aware of?

12. What happened to Frodo?

13. What did Frodo realise when he came to himself again?

14. Whom did Frodo suddenly see?

15. Where did Tom and Frodo bear the others?

16. What was the weather like again?

Phonetic Text Drills

○ Exercise 1

Transcribe and pronounce correctly the words from the text.

Vision, whistling, slanting, farewell, knoll, to journey, to mount, mound, jagged, disquieting, to cast, to roll, northward, bedewed, to wander, sign, to rear, frantically, weary, to sweat, tatter, strand, dread, barrow-wight, chamber, naked, to bask, to waft.

○ Exercise 2

Pronounce the words and phrases where the following clusters occur.

1. plosive + r

Dreams, breakfast, made ready, bright, draught, and round, grew, breeze, crowned, green, trap, dripping, grey drops, prevent, approaching, breath, grip, great, cold rags, promise.

2. t+s/s+t

Sweet singing, that seemed, that side, standing stones, cast­ing, against, east side, white sea, mist, stronger, streamed.

3. plosive + 1

Clean, clear, glimpse, circle, explain, gleaming, quickly, stood listening, it leaned, clime, people, unexpectedly.

○ Exercise 3

Pronounce after the announcer and say what phonetic phenomenon the following word groups have in common:

1. Down the hill, upon them, on their foreheads, when they reached, in the hills, in the weather, on the ground, on the grass, then they lay, in the sun.

2. And the sun, round the green, found that, amid the strands, cold though lit, rubbed their eyes, and then, and the day.

3. Breakfast they made, that they, about them, reached the bottom, against the stars, thought there were, that the darkness, against the light, thought that, let the warm sun­light.

○ Exercise 4

Explain how the sound [f] affects preceding or following consonants.

1. Frodo, fresh, from, frantically, froze, friendly;

2. Hurried forward, that faint stars, and fog.

○ Exercise 5

Group the phrases below according to the varieties of false assimilation which may occur in them.

Breeze seemed, as they journeyed, was steaming up, was cold, was silent, as they looked, was closing, as their chilled fingers, was so cold, as he struggled, was suddenly aware, was smoking, with surprise, was slowly giving way.

○ Exercise 6

Transcribe and intone the sentences. Comment upon the intonation pat­tern in imperative, exclamatory sentences and sentences with direct ad­dress.

\ Sam!P he "called. ||

\ Pippin! \ Merry! 'Come a\ long!P ||

‘I am \ waiting for "you!P ||

\ Cоmе, "friend "Frodo!’"said "Tom. ||

But 'Tom 'shook his 'head "saying: 'Be \ glad, my "merry "friends,

and 'let the 'warm 'sunlight ­heat now 'heart and \ limb! || 'Cast

'off these 'cold \ rags! || 'Run \ naked on the "grass!' ||

EXERCISES

Exercise 1

Match the following definitions in the left column with the words in the right column. Find sentences with these words in the text.

Verbs:

1. shine with interrupted brightnessA. melt

1. appear indistinctlyB. slant

2. change to liquid condition by heatC. bedew

3. move upwardsD. gleam

4. cover or sprinkle with dew or waterE. mount

5. be or feel very coldF. loom

6. diverge from a vertical or horizontal lineG. freeze

Nouns:

1. gentle windA. shadow

1. climateB. breeze

2. round portion of liquid such as hangs or C. cloud

falls separately

3. grave-mound D. shred

4. patch of shade, region not reached by sun E. barrow

5. visible water vapour floating in air high F. clime

above the ground

6. torn or broken pieceG.drop

Adjectives:

1. biting, harsh; piercingly cold A. damp

1. of fairly low temperature, fairly cold B.icy

2. slightly or fairly wet C. chill

3. unpleasantly cold to feel D. bitter

4. covered with ice, very cold E. lank

5. indinstinct in form; of, or covered with, F.cool mist

6. straight and limp G. misty

Exercise 2

Consult your dictionary and give all possible derivatives from the following words.

sun mist air

fog wind light

rain dark warm

Exercise 3

Find in the text one or more synonyms to the following words.

to smoke a shred to sink cool

to rise cold to journey to cast

Exercise 4

Pick out from the text:

1) all verbs used with the nouns: sun , shadow, fog, rain;

2) all adjectives used with the nouns: fog, wind, morning, air, light, mist.

Exercise 5

Explain the difference between the synonyms or analogous words from the text.

to chill — to freeze

breeze — wind

to smoke — to steam up

shreds — tatters — strands

veil — haze — mist — fog

cool — chill — cold — icy — bitter

Exercise 6

Find the English equivalents to the following words or phrases.

A.

Пелена дождя, потянул свежий ветерок, было далеко видно, по низу лощины, солнце поднялось, стало жарко, после дождя поднимались испарения, отбрасывать тень, солнечные лучи пробивались сквозь дымку, заходящее солнце, туман подкатывал, закоченевшие пальцы, волосы обвисли, покрылись каплями, погода менялась, появи­лись звезды, темнота рассеивалась, забрезжил зеленова­тый свет, ворвался поток света, вставало красное солнце, нежиться на солнце.

В.

Звучать в сознании, попрощаться, с тяжёлым сердцем, прислониться спиной, плотно пообедать, вскочить на ноги, в ужасе, остановиться, сесть на пони, поспевать, склониться над кем-либо, издалека, выбраться, протереть глаза, сбросить лохмотья, нежиться на солнце.

Exercise 7

I. Give the first form of the following irregular verbs in the past tense.

rode, stood, wound, grew, caught, lay, set, woke, meant, sprang, sank, bent, felt, hung, froze, began, fell, lost.

II. Give the past form of the following regular verbs.

melt, wash, veil, mount, seem, crown, turn, roll, chill, halt, guess, rear, hurry, struggle, stream, waft.

Exercise 8

Write out into your notebook all expressions used to describe good or bad weather in the text.

Good weather Bad weather

Exercise 9

Fill in the gaps in the sentences with one of the expressions from the list. Change their form if necessary.

To run in one's mind, to give way, to catch a glimpse, in sin­gle file, to get separated, to come from some remote dis­ tance, to come to oneself, to be heavy of heart, to be crow­ned with, to grow less, to spring to one's feet, to be lost, to call back over one's shoulder, to freeze one's bones, to rub one's eyes.

1. The rain ceased and the wind ... ; soon everything had be­come quiet in nature.

2. Though we were sitting, we all ... when he appeared in the room: our astonishment was so great. No one could ex­pect it.

3. To manage everything we decided ... and meet again later; thus each one could carry out his task better.

4. Having wandered for an hour along the narrow streets, I re­alised at last that I....

5. The top of the mountain was ... a snowcap although there were green woods in blossom at the foot.

6. The tourists were slowly walking ... . It was a lot easier to walk like this across the marshy ground.

7. The voices of our friends ..., we did not understand how far away they were.

8. I had to leave Paris soon. I ... because it meant the end of my careless and happy life in the city which I started to love so much.

9. For a whole day Ronald could not get rid of a simple mel­ody which he heard on the radio in the morning: it was constantly ....

10. The operation was over and the patient was ... . At first he could not understand where he was.

11. Whithout turning around, he ... , but nobody answered. In surprise he turned his head and saw nobody.

12. Deadly fear ... . I could not move, I could not even stir a finger.

13. Though we passed the open door very quickly, I managed ... of the people who gathered in the director's office.

14. The medicine did a world of good: the disease started ... , which was almost a miracle.

15. The sight in front of me was so unbelievable, that I felt an impulse ... , but kept back, remembering that I was not a child.

Exercise 10

Find in the text sentences starting with the following words and express the same idea using different wording and grammar.

1. The vision melted into waking ...

2. It was now as clear and far-seen ...

3. Their way wound along ...

4. A shadow now lay round the edge of sight...

5. In the midst of it there stood a single stone ...

6. However, that may be ...

7. To prevent their getting separated ...

8. On either side ahead a darkness ...

9. As he straggled on he called again ...

10. He was suddenly aware that it was getting very cold ...

11. He thought there were two eyes ...

12. As he lay there, thinking and getting a hold on him­self ...

13. To Frodo's great joy the hobbits stirred ...

14. Then they lay basking in the sun ...

Exercise 11

Retell the story of the hobbits' journey:

1. in the third person;

2. in the person of Frodo;

3. in the person of Tom.

Exercise 12

Discussion points.

1. What can you say about the hobbits' journey: was it difficult or pleasant, interesting or boring?

2. Can you say that the weather is one more character in the story? Prove your point.

3. Does the weather help the hobbits somehow or does it in­terfere somehow?

4. Do you think that the author tries to draw a parallel "nature — weather" in the story? Prove your point.

Exercise 13

I. Translate into Russian the following bits from the same book by J. R. R.

Tolkien.

1. They had been two days in this country when the weather turned wet. The wind began to blow steadily out of the West and pour the water of the distant seas (...) in fine drenching rain. By nightfall they were all soaked.

2. But before long the snow was falling fast, filling all the air, and swirling into Frodo's eyes.

While they were halted, the wind died down, and the snow slackened until it almost ceased. (...) But they had not gone more than a furlong when the storm returned with fresh fury. The wind whistled and the snow became a blinding blizzard.

3. Nothing happened that night worse than a brief drizzle of rain an hour before dawn. (...) Already the fog was thinning. (...) In the mid-morning the clouds drew down lower, and it began to rain heavily.

4. The sky was utterly dark, and the stillness of the heavy air foreboded the storm. Suddenly the clouds were seared by a blinding flash. Branched lighting smote dawn upon the east­ward hills.

5. The thunder was rumbling in the distance now. The light­ning flickered still, far off among the mountains in the South. A keen wind was blowing from the North again. The clouds were torn and drifting, and stars peeped out.

6. The hurrying darkness, now gathering speed, rushed up from the East and swallowed the sky. There was a dry splitting crack of thunder right overhead. Searing lightning smote down into the hills. Then came a blast of savage wind.

7. There was another crack of thunder, and then the rain came. In a blinding sheet, mingled with hail, it drove against the cliff, bitter cold.

II. Using some of the underlined words or expressions describe a rain­storm or a snowstorm you were caught in once.

Exercise 14

Study the Topical Vocabulaiy and add other analogous words to the follow­ing lists. Explain the difference in their meanings.

rainfall snowfall wind

rain snowstorm whirlwind

Exercise 15

Match the nouns with adjectives to make common phrases.

Pattern : heavy rain, heavy snow, etc.

Nouns: rain

wind

fog

snow

sky

air

Adjectives: heavybitter

bitingchilly

strongcloudy

freshbrisk

thickdrizzling

thinhot

coldpiercing

brightsoutherly

clearswirling

chillmisty

cleandrenching

Exercise 16

Add the missing forms.

1. north ...?... northerly

south southern ...?...

east ...?... ...?...

west ...?... ...?...

2. north-east...?...north-easterly

north-westnorth-western...?...

south-east...?......?...

south-west...?......?...

Exercise 17

Choose the right word from a couple of similar looking ones. Change word forms if necessary.

1. (slush, sleet)

a) The ... under my feet was awful. I had an impression that I was walking through a muddy sea.

b) The rain changed into .... Wet snowflakes were falling on the ground and melted there.

2. (ice drift, snowdrift)

a) The path was hedged by two long .... They were like two mountain ranges.

b) The ... started at night. In the morning the children ran to the river to look at the huge blocks of ice drifting across the water.

3. (icing, icicle)

a) There was heavy... on the road and all cars were moving very slowly.

b) After a thaw there appeared ... on the edge of the roof; they looked like sparkling needles.

4. (frost, hoarfrost)

a) Tree branches were covered with ... and the forest looked enchanting and somewhat mysterious.

b) The ... was biting the nose and the cheeks. It was im­possible to stay long in the street.

5. (draught, drought)

a) Severe ... killed the crops. Not a drop of rain fell on the ground for a month.

b) When the door opened, the ... blew off the papers down on to the floor.

6. (to freeze, to be freezing)

a) In winter all rivers and lakes in these parts always ....

b) The temperature was quite low and I felt that I ....

7. (blizzard, drizzle)

a) Boring ... spoiled the day. It was too wet and dull.

b) The ... was blinding us. Snowflakes were swirling in the air.

8. (light, lightning)

a) There is not enough ... in the room. The table should be moved closer to the window.

b) The ... split the sky into two parts. A deafening thunder crack followed.

Exercise 18

I. Below you see examples of several weather forecasts from English newspapers. Read and translate them.

I. General situation: Many eastern coastal areas of Eng­land will; stay cloudy and cool, with patchy light drizzle during the morning. Western parts of Wales and south-west England will be cloudy with showery outbreaks of rain, al­though western Wales will brighten up during the after­noon. The rest of England and Wales will stay warm and dry with hazy sunshine, although there will be a brisk eas­terly breeze. Showery rain over Northern Ireland will clear during the afternoon. Scotland will be dry with sunny peri­ods, but eastern coasts will be cloudy and western areas may have rain during the morning.

"The Independent"

II. Cloud and outbreaks of rain over England and Wales will clear during the morning. The afternoon will be mostly dry with bright or sunny spells, although wintry showers will develop at times in the north and north-west.

Scotland and Nothern Ireland will have another cold day with sunshine and blustery showers expected. The

showers will be heavy in places and falling as snow over the high ground.

Outlook: Bright with wintry showers at times, especially in the north. Rain spreading eastwards on Monday.

"Daily Express"

III. Forecast: A dry, sunny start over England and Wales, but there may be light showers adjacent to the southern North Sea. Western Scotland and Nothern Ireland will be­come cloudy during the morning with outbreaks of rain moving to these areas by midday. This weather will spread south-eastwards to all parts of Scotland, north-west Eng­land and north Wales by the evening. Temperatures: 8 C° (46 F°) in East Anglia, 10 C° (50 F°) in Nothern Ireland.

Outlook: Little change in southern and eastern parts of England during Tuesday and Wednesday. There will be cool nights with frost and possibly patchy fog, but diy with sunny spells during daylight hours. Early cloud and rain in north-western districts will gradually die out during Tuesday.

"The Independent"

IV. Weather: England and Wales will start cloudy with out­breaks of rain. However, brighter, showery weather already over Scotland and Nothern Ireland will slowly spread south and east throughout the day. The showers will be heaviest and most frequent in the north, falling as sleet or snow over hills and mountains, with drifting occurring in places. It will feel cold in the blustery and strong westerly wind.

Outlook: Sunny intervals and showers are expected. Feeling colder than of late in the north-westerly wind.

"Daily Express"

II. Match the Russian phrases from list A with their English equivalents from list B.

A.

Местами дожди/туман; ожидается сухая тёплая погода; на востоке области пройдут сильные проливные дожди; на почве возможны заморозки; ветер северный, умеренный, 10—15 м/сек; в дальнейшем холодный характер по­годы сохранится; облачная, дождливая погода; к концу недели погода изменится.

В .

The showers will be heavy in the East; we are in for a warm dry spell; moderate northerly wind, 1—15 metres per second; a change in the weather by the end of the week; patchy rain/fog; the weather will stay cold; ground frosts are possible; cloudy and wet.

III. Make up your own weather forecast for the next day.

Exercise 19

I. Look at the following patterns, expressing one's delight with the weather or dislike of it. Translate them into Russian.

For good weather For bad weather
It's absolutely marvellous! It certainly is horrible.
Isn't it gorgeous! Nasty day, isn't it?
It's so nice and hot! Isn't it dreadful?
Personally I think it's so nice when it's hot, isn't it? I hate rain.
I adore it. Don't you? I don't like it at all. Do you?

II. Work in pairs. Use these patterns to respond to the following.

A.

Nice day, isn't it?

What a glorious morning!

Fancy such a day in December!

It's so nice when it's warm.

What a beautiful winter evening!

This breeze is so refreshing!

It's so surprisingly warm for this time of the year!

What a fine day we are having!

I love the sun. Isn't it wonderful?

B .

Dull morning, isn't it?

Nasty day, isn't it?

I hate snow.

What a horrible day!

The heat is unbearable.

I can't stand this wind.

The weather is turning bad.

Rain all day long. Isn't it dreadful?

It's pouring again. Isn't it wretched?

Exercise 20

Discuss with a partner the weather you are having at present. Choose questions and answers from the models given below.

Questions:

What do you think of the weather?

What's the weather outside?

I wonder what the weather is going to be like.

Will the weather keep?

Do you think it will clear up?

Do you think it is going to turn out fine?

What is the weather forecast for today?

Answers:

We are in for a spell of good weather.

It looks like rain.

The weather is turning bad.

It'll change for the better.

The weather is fine/nice/lovely/beautiful.

The weather is nasty/wretched/awful/dull.

The day is rainy/windy/bright/sunny.

The weather is favourable.

The sky is overcast/cloudy/clear.

It's snowing/pouring/raining/drizzling.

The wind is rising.

It has been raining on and off for ...

The fog is lifting.

Exercise 21

Compare the weather in your parts with the weather in Great Britain. Use the daily forecasts in British newspapers.

Exercise 22

Translate into English.

1. Утро началось с моросящего дождя, который посте­пенно усилился и к полудню перешел в сильный ливень.

2. Я слышала прогноз погоды на сегодня: днем солнечно и тепло, температура около 20 ° С, ветер восточный, умеренный; ночью температура около нуля, на почве местами заморозки.

3. Зима наступает здесь в ноябре — начинают дуть север­ные ветры, из-за чего средняя температура становится ниже, выпадает первый снег.

4. Весной легкий ветер часто нагоняет облака. Небо за­тягивается тучами и погода портится.

5. Ожидается улучшение погоды — дождь прекратится и станет сухо и жарко.

6. В июле невыносимая жара привела к засухе. За месяц не выпало ни капли дождя.

7. Белые снежинки тихо кружили в воздухе и ложились на землю. К утру всё было завалено сугробами.

8. Первые лучи солнца пробились сквозь пелену тумана. К девяти туман начал рассеиваться.

9. Всходило солнце, дул теплый ветерок, над землёй курился туман.

10. Высокая ель отбрасывала тень, там можно было спас­тись от жары.

11. С неба падал мокрый снег, было холодно и сыро. Сапоги промокли, потому что под ногами тоже был талый снег.

12. После дождя прояснилось и на небе появилась много­цветная радуга. Хорошая примета.

13. Такой грозы я не припомню: гром, молния, сильные порывы ветра, а потом — град.

14. Было чудесное утро. Быстро встало солнце и иссушило капли росы на траве.

15. Сначала подмораживало. Ветви деревьев покрылись инеем. На дороге был сильный гололед. Потом начало оттаивать.

Exercise 23

Recall the weather on the day of 1) your entrance examination in English, 2) your last exam at school, 3) your last birthday. As you may be not quite sure of the weather on that day, use the models below to express hesita­tion.

As far as I remember ...

If my memory serves me right ...

I seem to remember ...

I am not sure about it, but ...

I can't be absolutely sure about it, of course, ...

If I remember correctly ...

Exercise 24

What is the weather like in different parts of Russia in spring, summer, autumn and winter?

Exercise 25

Say what mood in you prevails when 1) it is a cold winter day; 2) it is a hot summer night; 3) it is a warm spring evening; 4) it is a cool autumn mor­ning.

Exercise 26

Think for five minutes and write what you like to do in good and bad weather. Compare your activities with those written by other classmates. Choose the most original ideas.

Exercise 27

For hundreds of years people have accumulated weather lore. Do you be­lieve that there are signs in nature that may predict the weather? What are they? Is weather lore reliable? Comment on the pieces of weather lore below.

A snow year — a rich year.

Farewell frost — fair weather next.

Good winter — good summer.

Red sky at night, shepherd's delight; red sky in the morning, shepherd's warning.

When the dew is on the grass, rain will never come to pass. If bees stay at home, rain will soon come; if they fly away, fine will be the day.

A sunshiny shower won't last half an hour. Mackerel sky, mackerel sky, not long wet and not long dry.

Exercise 28

Work in groups and discuss with your classmates the topics you see below. Let one of you sum up what all of you have said.

1. Your favourite season or your favourite month.

2. The season or month you dislike.

3. The climate of Russia and Great Britain.

4. The climate in one of the countries where you have been.

Exercise 29

1. Read the poem from Winnie-the-Pooh by A. Milne.

Lines Written by a Bear of Very little Brain

On Monday, when the sun is hot,

I wonder to myself a lot:

'Now is it time or is it not,

That what is which and which is what?'

On Tuesday, when it hails and snows,

The feeling on me grows and grows

That hardly anybody knows

If those are these or these are those.

On Wednesday, when the sky is blue

And I have nothing else to do,

I sometimes wonder if it's true

That who is what and what is who.

On Thursday, when it starts to freeze

And hoarfrost twinkles on the trees,

How very readily one sees

That these are those — but whose are these?

On Friday —

II. Finish the poem above that was not completed by Winnie-the-Pooh.

Exercise 30

Fill in the gaps in the sentences below-with one of the following idioms: to catch the wind with a net, not to have the foggiest idea , to chase rainbows, a bit of blue sky, to be snowed under, to be on cloud nine, a storm in a tea cup, thunderous applause, to save for a rainy day, under the weather, to snowball, out of season.

1. When the audience like a pertomance, they show it with...

2. When you feel that you'll never finish your work, you're ...

3. When you are completely in the dark about something, you ...

4. When a project gets bigger and bigger, it...

5. When you are ecstatically happy, you are ...

6. When you feel unwell, you say that you are ...

7. When you pursue illusory goals or hopes, you ...

8. When you get yourself busy with a useless thing, you ...

9. When you lay up money for the future, you ...

10. When something is absolutely out of place, it is ...

11. When somebody gets some hope at last, he or she gets ...

12. When there is a lot of fuss about a small mishap, it is ...

Exercise 31

Translate the following proverbs and sayings or give their Russian equiva­lents. Explain their meaning and use them in 3-sentence situations of your own.

1. Every cloud has a silver lining.

2. It never rains but it pour's.

3. Rain before seven, fine before eleven.

4. One swallow does not make a summer.

5. Make hay while the sun shines.

6. Sow the wind and reap the whirl-wind.

7. Everything is good in its season.

8. It is an ill wind that blows nobody any good.

Exercise 32

Translate the quotations and comment upon them.

'There is really no such thing as bad weather, only different kinds of good weather.'

John Rusk in

'When two Englishmen meet, their first talk is of the weather.'

Samuel Johnson

'Life, believe, is not a dream,

So dark as sages say;

Oft a little morning rain

Foretells a pleasant day!'

Charlotte Bronte

Exercise 33

0Role Play "Office Gossip after the Summer Vacation".

Setting: The offices of the famous international corporation "Rich People Banks".

Situation: The first working day after a summer vacation. Lunch time. The people speak about their tours to different places during their leaves. They mainly speak about the weather which they were lucky or unlucky to have.

Characters:

Card I- Mr Merryweather, the boss's assistant. He stayed with his wife in a hotel on the Canary Islands for three weeks. The weather was very nice.

Caid II - Cleopatra, the secretary of the boss. She went hiking to the Pennine Mountains in Great Brit­ain. The weather was changeable.

Card III—IV — Nina and Tina, two typists. They went to­gether to a youth camp in France. The weather was warm and sunny.

Card V—VI — Ted and Ned, two computer programmers. They went fishing to the lakes of Norway. The

weather was rainy.

Card VII — Mrs Ames, a clerk. She went to the US to visit her relatives in California. It was very hot.

Card VIII — Mrs James, a clerk. She went to Canada with her husband to some sports events. The weather was cool, but they liked it.

Card IX — Mr Flames, an accountant. He was unlucky not to have had a leave, but to have gone on business to Alaska. It was rather cold there.

Card X — Mr. Blames, a business manager. He went travelling to China. It was hot but rainy.

WRITING

Exercise 1

Prepare to write a dictation. Learn the spelling of the italisized words and phrases from Introductory Reading and exercise 1 on page 274.

Exercise 2

Study the weather in your region for a whole week. Write down your obser­vations. Use the following models.

A.

Monday: Occasional drizzle, bright spells, cold.

Tuesday: Scattered showers, hail and snow over high ground.

Wednesday: Snow showers heavy in the North, sunny pe­ riods, cold.

Thursday: Cloudy with showers of sleet or snow, rather cold.

Friday: Some rain in the South at first, early fog, frost patches.

Saturday: Mainly dry, some bright intervals, milder.

Sunday: Rain at times, temperatures near normal.

B .

Monday: Fog early, followed by dry sunny day.

Tuesday: Rather cloudy with some rain, bright periods.

Wednesday: Changeable with rain at times, near normal temperatures.

Thursday: Rain in places, mainly dry later.

Friday: Showers at first, sunny spells, little change.

Saturday: Rain chiefly in the North and West, sunny in­ tervals.

Sunday: Normal temperatures, max. 20 °C, sunshine.

Exercise 3

Write an essay on one of the following topics.

1. A Lot of People Like Winter (Summer) but I Hate It.

2. How the Weather Can Help People in Difficult Situations.

3. Once I Was Caught in a Rainstorm/Snowstorm.

4. How the Weather Affects Me.

5. I Don't Believe Weather Forecasts; I Believe Weather Lore.

Exercise 4

Write a summary of the following text.

Cold? Britain Is Actually Getting Hotter

Most Britons could be forgiven for thinking a new Ice Age is upon us. Small comfort, then, as we struggle through snowdrifts and cope with burst pipes, that the present cold is a sign the British climate is generally getting milder.

Ironically, most scientists now believe the short sharp shock of severe cold that has struck Europe for three winters running is an indicator that the world is growing warmer. The burning of fossil fuels is building up a blanket of carbon dioxide in the atmospere, creating a "greenhouse" effect.

Britain and Europe have certainly experienced weather this cold before. In the 17th century, the Thames froze solid so of­ten that it became a regular winter sports attraction. The weather then was so severe that it is sometimes referred to as the Little Ice Age. Even in the early 19th century, Britain's cli­mate was still colder than it is today. We still have a cherished picture of Charles Dickens's Christmases — although, in fact, snow at Christmas has been a rarity in southern England for 150 years.

Studies of temperature trends around the world show that it has been warming up since the middle of the 19th century. Most experts agree that this is a result of human activities. By burning coal and oil, we are putting carbon dioxide into the air. This acts like a blanket round the earth, trapping heat that would otherwise escape into space. As long as we keep burning fossil fuel, the trend is likely to continue. So why have we had such severe cold spells in Europe recently? According to re­searchers at the University of East Anglia, it is all part of the same process. When the climate of the globe changes, it doesn't do so evenly. Britain and Western Europe are just un­lucky in being in the path of a particularly significant wind shift.

By comparing the weather in different seasons, during the warmest and coldest years of the 20th century, the researchers have built up a picture of what is going on. Their key new dis­covery is that although spring, summer and autumn are all warmer, severe cold spells in winter are most likely over the whole of central Europe. So then, short cold spells mean it's generally getting warmer — but the bad news is it could get TOO warm. If the predictions come true — and the present changes are exactly in line with computer forecasts — within the next 40 or 100 years we shall see a change in climate as dra­matic as the shift which ended the last Ice Age.

Note:

A summary is the expression of the essence of some piece of writing in a condensed form. The main ideas of the piece should be presented clearly, concisely and precisely. The length of a summary makes up approximately one third of the length of the original source. Writing a summary includes seven stages:

1) reading the original text to grasp the main idea;

2) re-reading the passage to check up your understanding;

3) selecting the essential points;

4) linking the points in a logical order;

5) writing a rough copy of a new concise text;

6) comparing the summary with the original passage to see whether all essentials are included;

7) writing a fair copy of a summary.

In writing a summary only the information taken from the passage should be used. A summary does not contain repeti­tions, illustrative details, figures of speech, wordy phrases con­sisting of meaningless words. A good summary shows one's ability to understand and to present ideas.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING

FAMILY LIFE

Text Cheaper by the Dozen

Mother took an active part in church and community work. She didn't teach a class, but she served on a number of committees. Once she called on a woman who had just moved to town, to ask her to serve on a fund-raising committee.

'I'd be glad to if I had the time,' the woman said. 'But I have three young sons and they keep me on the run. I'm sure if you have a boy of your own, you'll understand how much trouble three can be.'

'Of course,' said Mother. 'That's quite all right. And I do un­derstand.'

'Have you any children, Mrs. Gilberth?'

'Oh, yes.'

'Any boys?'

'Yes, indeed.'

'May I ask how many?'

'Certainly. I have six boys.'

'Six boys!' gulped the woman. 'Imagine a family of six!'

'Oh, there're more in the family than that. I have six girls, too.'

'I surrender,' whispered the newcomer. 'When is the next meet­ing of the committee? I'll be there, Mrs. Gilberth. I'll be there.'

One teacher in the Sunday school, a Mrs. Bruce, had the next-to-largest family in Montclair. She had eight children, most of whom were older than we. Her husband was very successful in busi­ness, and they lived in a large house about two miles from us. Mother and Mrs. Bruce became great friends.

About a year later, a New York woman connected with some sort of national birth control organisation came to Montclair from a local chapter. Her name was Mrs. Alice Mebane, or something like that. She inquired among her acquaintances as to who in Mont­clair might by sympathetic to the birth control movement. As a joke, someone referred her to Mrs. Bruce.

'I'd be delighted to cooperate,' Mother's friend told Mrs. Me­bane, 'but you see I have several children myself.'

'Oh, I had no idea,' said Mrs. Mebane. 'How many?'

'Several,' Mrs. Bruce replied vaguely. 'So I don't think I would be the one to head up any birth control movement in Montclair.'

'I must say, I'm forced to agree. We should know where we're going, and practise what we preach.'

'But I do know just the person for you,' Mrs. Bruce continued. 'And she has a big house that would be simply ideal for holding meetings.'

'Just what we want,' purred Mrs. Mebane. 'What is her name?'

'Mrs. Frank Gilberth. She's community-minded, and she's a career woman.'

'Exactly what we want. Civic minded, career woman, and — most important of all — a large house. One other thing — I suppose it's too much to hope for — but is she by any chance an organiser? You know, one who can take things over and drive ahead?'

'The description,' gloated Mrs. Bruce, 'fits her like a glove.'

'It's almost too good to be true,' said Mrs. Mebane, wringing her hands in ecstasy. 'May I use your name and tell Mrs. Gilberth you sent me?'

'By all means,' said Mother's friend. 'Please do. I shall be disap­pointed, if you don't.'

'And don't think that I disapprove of your having children,' laughed Mrs. Mebane. 'After all, many people do, you know.'

'Careless of them,' remarked Mrs. Bruce.

The afternoon that Mrs. Mebane arrived at our house, all of us children were, as usual, either upstairs in our rooms or playing in the back yard. Mrs. Mebane introduced herself to Mother.

'It's about birth control,' she told Mother.

'What about it?' Mother asked, blushing.

'I was told you'd be interested.'

'Me?'

'I've just talked to your friend, Mrs. Bruce, and she was cer­tainly interested.'

'Isn't it a little late for her to be interested?' Mother asked.

'I see what you mean, Mrs. Gilberth. But better late than never, don't you think?'

'But she has eight children,' said Mother.

Mrs. Mebane blanched, and clutched her head.

'My God,' she said. 'Not really.'

Mother nodded.

'How perfectly frightful. She impressed me as quite normal. Not at all like an eight-child woman.'

'She's kept her youth well,' mother agreed.

'Ah, there's work to be done, all right,' Mrs. Mebane said. 'Think of it, living right here within eighteen miles of our national birth control headquarters in New York City, and her having eight children. Yes, there's work to be done, Mrs. Gilberth, and that's why I'm here.'

'What sort of work?'

'We'd like you to be the moving spirit behind a Montclair birth control chapter.'

Mother decided at this point that the situation was too ludicrous for Dad to miss, and that he'd never forgive her if she didn't deal him in.

'I'll have to ask my husband,' she said. 'Excuse me while I call him.'

Mother stepped out and found Dad. She gave him a brief expla­nation and then led him into the parlour and introduced him.

'It's a pleasure to meet a woman in such a noble cause,' said Dad.

'Thank you. And it's a pleasure to find a man who thinks of it as noble. In general, I find the husbands much less sympathetic with our aims than the wives. You'd be surprised at some of the terrible things men have said to me.'

'I love surprises,' Dad leered. 'What do you say back to them?'

'If you had seen, as I have,' said Mrs. Mebane, 'relatively young women grown old before their time by the arrival of unwanted young ones. And population figures show... Why Mr. Gilberth, what are you doing?'

What Dad was doing was whistling assembly. On the first note, feet could be heard pounding on the floors above. Doors slammed, there was a landslide on the stairs, and we started skidding into the parlor.

'Nine seconds,' said Dad pocketing Ms stopwatch. 'They're short of the all-time record.'

'God's teeth,' said Mrs. Mebane. 'What is it? Tell me quickly. Is it a school? No. Or is it...? For Lord's sakes. It is!'

'It is what?' asked Dad.

'It's your family. Don't try to deny it. There're the spit and im­age of you, and your wife, too!'

'I was about to introduce you,' said Dad. 'Mrs. Mebane, let me introduce you to the family — or most of it. Seems to me like there should be some more of them around here someplace.'

'God help us all.'

'How many head of children do we have now, Lillie, would you say off hand?'

'Last time I counted, seems to me there was an even dozen of them,' said Mother. 'I might have missed one or two of them, but not many.'

'I'd say twelve would be a pretty fair guess,' Dad said.

'Shame on you! And within eighteen miles of national head­quarters.'

'Let's have tea,' said Mother.

But Mrs. Mebane was putting on her coat. 'You poor dear,' she clucked to Mother. 'You poor child.' Then turning to Dad. 'It seems to me that the people of this town have pulled my leg on two different occasions today.'

'How revolting,' said Dad. 'And within eighteen miles of na­tional headquarters, too.'

(Story by Frank B. Gilbreth, Junior;

and Ernestine Gilbreth Carey. Abridged)

HOME

Text 1

'Now, you'd better come upstairs with me and I'll show you your room. It used to be mine when I was small and it has lots of pictures of bears round the wall so I expect you'll feel at home. 'She led the way up a long flight of stairs, chattering all the time. Paddington followed closely behind, keeping carefully to the side so that he didn't have to tread on the carpet.

'That's the bathroom,' said Judy. 'And that's my room. And that's Jonathan's — he's my brother, and you'll meet him soon. And that's Mummy and Daddy's.' She opened a door. 'And this is going to be yours!'

Paddington nearly fell over with surprise when he followed her into the room. He'd never seen such a big one. There was a large bed with white sheets against one wall and several big boxes, one with a mirror on it. Judy pulled open a drawer in one of the boxes. 'This is called a chest of drawers,' she said. 'You'll be able to keep all your things in here.'

Paddington looked at the drawer and then at his suitcase. 'I don't seem to have very much. That's the trouble with being small — no one ever expects you to want things. '

(Extractfrom "A Bear fr om Peru in England" by Michael Bond)

Text 2

Our new home was altogether different. The night-nursery, which Jeanne and I shared, had its own bathroom and lavatory. This was promotion indeed. No longer a nurse to supervise but a children's maid, whose orders we could disregard. The day-nursery was on the other side of the house, and could be reached in three separate ways by running down the imposing main staircase, going through the dining-room, and running up a secondary staircase known as the green stairs; by running up the back staircase, which was outside the night-nursery door, along the white corridor on the second floor outside D's and M's bedroom,* and so down the higher flight of the green stairs; and by crossing the first-floor landing and slipping through the double drawing-room, which took about one minute.

* Dad and Mum' bedroom.

These last two methods were unpopular with the grown-up world, but when they were out the way a superb race could be set in motion between Jeanne and myself, one of us taking the first alter­native, the other the second. I generally found the second most suc­cessful. It was cheating to go through the drawing-room. Besides, someone might be dusting there. Angela now had her own little bedroom, on the same floor as M and D, and was therefore supe­rior. She did not join in the races.

I soon discovered that our lavatory window led on to a flat roof over the dustbins in the courtyard, and by climbing out of this win­dow, and creeping along this same flat roof, one could drop down over the dustbins and reach the coutyard. This was promptly dis­couraged. A pity. It damped adventure.

The garden at the back of the house made up for this disap­pointment. First a lawn, then, encircled by bushes, a parapet that looked down on to the lower garden several feet below, where there was a herbaceous border, and also vegetables. I would walk along the narrow parapet, eyes front, while Jeanne, below me in the lower garden, would try to climb through it unseen, and so surprise me. This she seldom achieved.

(Extract from "Myself When Young" by Daphne du Maurier)

Text 3

Michael gave the room a complacent glance.

'I've had a good deal of experience. I always design the sets my­self for our plays. Of course, I have a man to do the rough work for me, but the ideas are mine.'

They had moved into that house two years before and they had put it into the hands of an expensive decorator. The house was fur­nished in extremely good taste, with a judicious mixture of the an­tique and the modern and Michael was right when he said that it was quite obviously a gentleman's house. Julia, however, had in­sisted that she must have her bedroom as she liked, and having had exactly the bedroom that pleased her in the old house in Regent's Park which they had occupied since the end of the war she brought it over bodily. The bed and dressing-table were upholstered in pink silk, the chaise-longue and the armchair in Nattier blue; over the bed there were fat little gilt cherubs who dangled a lamp with a pink shade, and fat little gilt cherubs swarmed all round the mirror on the dressing-table. On satinwood tables were signed photographs, richly framed, of actors and actresses and members of the royal family. The decorator had raised his supercilious eyebrows, but it was the only room in the house-in which Julia felt completely at home. She wrote her letters at a satinwood desk, seated on a gilt Hamlet stool. Luncheon was announced and they went downstairs.

They sat at a refectory table, Julia and Michael at either end in very grand Italian chairs, and the young man in the middle on a chair that was not at all comfortable, but perfectly incharacter.

(Extract from "Theatre "by W. S. Maugham)

DAILY ROUTINE

Text 1

One Morning in Victor Wicox's Life

Monday, January 13th , 1986. Victor Wilcox lies awake, in the dark bedroom, waiting for his quartz alarm clock to bleep. It is set to do this at 6.45. How long he has to wait he doesn't know. He could easily find out by groping for the clock, lifting it to his line of vision, and pressing the button that illuminates the digital display. But he would rather not know. He feels as if he is the only man awake in the entire world.

The alarm clock cheeps.

He presses the snooze button* on the clock with a practised fin­ger and falls effortlessly asleep. Five minutes later, the alarm wakes him again, cheeping insistently like a mechanical bird. Vie sighs, hits the Off button on the clock, switches on his bedside lamp, gets out of bed and paddles through the deep pile of the bedroom carpet to the en suite bathroom.

* A button one the alarm clock; pressing the snooze button during the alarm action sequences will temporarily terminate the sequences for 8 or 9 minutes, then the sequences will start over again. Snooze function can be repeated as many times as desired within the 1 hour 59 minutes alarm sequences.

He does not greatly care for the dark purplish suite but it had been one of the things that attracted Marjorie when they bought the house two years ago — the bathroom, with its kidney-shaped handbasin and goldplated taps and sunken bath and streamlined loo and bidet. And, above all, the fact that it was 'en suite'.

Vic flushes the toilet and steps on to the bathroom scales. Ten stone, two ounces. Quite enough for a man only five feet, five and a half inches tall. Vic frowns in the mirror above the handbasin, thinking again of last month's accounts, the annual review... He runs hot water into the dark purple bowl, lathers his face with shaving foam from an aerosol can, and begins to scrape his jaw with a safety razor.

Vic wipes the tidemark of foam from his cheeks and fingers the shaven flesh appraisingly. Dark brown eyes stare back at him. Who am I? He grips the washbasin, leans forward on locked arms, and scans the square face. You know who you are: it's all on file at Divi­sion*.

* Division file: a file containing the minimum of information about an employee (cf. "личное дело").

Wilcox: Victor Eugene. Date of Birth: 19 Oct. 1940. Place of Birth: Easton, Rummidge, England. Marital Status: married (to Marjorie Florence Coleman, 1964). Children: Raymond (b. 1966), Sandra (b. 1969), Gary (b. 1972). Present Position: Managing Direc­tor, J. Pringle & Sons Casting and General Engineering.

That's who I am.

Vic grimaces at his own reflection, as if to say: somebody has to earn a living in this family.

He shrugs on his dressing-gown, which hangs from a hook on the bathroom door, switches off the light, and softly re-enters the dimly lit bedroom. Marjorie has, however, been woken by the sound of plumbing.

'Is that you?' she says drowsily; then, without waiting for an an­swer, 'I'll be down in a minute.'

'Don't hurry,' says Vic. Don't bother would be more honest, for he prefers to have the kitchen to himself in the early morning, to prepare his own simple breakfast and enjoy the first cigarette of the day undisturbed.

He picks up the Business Section of the Times and takes it into the kitchen. While the kettle is boiling he scans the front page.

The kettle boils. Vic makes a pot of strong tea, puts two slices of white bread in the toaster, and opens the blinds on the kitchen win­dow to peer into the garden. A grey, blustery morning, with no frost. One morning not long ago he saw a fox walking past this same win­dow.

Vic has eaten his two slices of toast and is on his third cup of tea and first cigarette of the day when Marjorie shuffles into the kitchen in her dressing-gown and slippers. She carries the Daily Mail, whichhas just been delivered.

' Shall I do you a bit of bacon?' says Marjorie.

'No, I've finished.'

Vic takes the Daily Mail. The tempo of his actions begins to ac­celerate. He strides through the kitchen, where Marjorie is listlessly loading his soiled breakfast things into the dishwasher, and runs up the stairs. Back in the en suite bathroom, he briskly cleans his teeth and brushes his hair. He goes into the bedroom and puts on a clean white shirt and a suit. He has six business suits, which he wears in daily rotation. Today is the turn of the navy-blue pinstripe. He se­lects a tie diagonally striped in dark tones of red, blue and grey. He levers his feet into a pair of highly polished black calf Oxfords*.

* Walking shoes laced above the instep.

When he comes downstairs again, Marjorie helps him on with his camelhair overcoat. 'When will you be home?' she inquires.

'I don't know. You'd better keep my dinner warm.'

She closes her eyes and tilts her face towards him. He brushes her lips with his.

Vic passes through the glazed porch and out into the open air. The cold wind ruffles his hair and makes him flinch for a moment. As he approaches the garage door it swings open as if by magic — in fact by electricity, activated by a remote-control device in Vic's pocket. He backs the car out, shutting the garage door with another touch on the remote control. Vic puts the automatic gear level into Drive, and glides away.

Now begins the best half-an-hour of the day, the drive to work. Vic swings on to the motorway, going north-west, and for a few miles gives the Jaguar its head, moving smoothly up the outside lane at 90.

Vic is very near his factory now. He turns down Coney Lane and reaches the main entrance. The barrier is raised and he drives to his personal parking space.

Vic pushes through the swing doors to the reception lobby.

'Good morning, Vic.' His secretary, Shirley, smirks from be­hind her desk.

'Morning, Shirley. Make us a cup of coffee, will you?'

He hangs up his camelhair coat in the anteroom, shrugs off the, jacket of his suit and drapes it over the back of a chair. He sits down at his desk and opens his diary. He leafs through the file of corre­spondence in his Intray. He lights a cigarette, inhales deeply, and blows two plumes of smoke through his nostrils. Through walls and windows comes a muffled compound noise of machinery and traf­fic, the soothing, satisfying sound of men at work.

(Extract from "Nice Work" by David Lodge. Abridged)

Discussion points.

1. Vic grimaces at his own reflection. What kind of grimace can it be? Can you imitate it and show it to the class?

2. Vic prefers to remain alone in the morning. What about you?

3. What kind of person is Vic? Prove your point.

4. Imagine what else Vic will do on this day. How will his day end?

Text 2

One Morning in Robyn Penrose's Life

Robyn rises somewhat later than Vic this dark January Monday. Her alarm clock, a replica of an old-fashioned instrument pur­chased from Habitat, with an analogue dial and a little brass bell on the top, rouses her from a deep sleep at 7.30. Unlike Vic, Robyn in­variably sleeps until woken. Then worries rush into her conscious­ness, as into his; but she deals with them in a rational, orderly man­ner. This morning she gives priority to the fact that it is the first day of the winter term, and that she has a lecture to deliver and two tu­torials to conduct. She always feels a twinge of anxiety at the begin­ning of a new term. She sits up in bed for a moment, doing some complicated breathing and flexing of the abdominal muscles, learned in yoga classes, to calm herself.

She was born, and christened Roberta Anne Penrose, in Melbourn, Australia, nearly thirty-three years ago, but left that country at the age of five to accompany her parents to England. Robyn had a comfortable childhood. She attended an excellent grammar school which she left with four A grades at A-level. Though urged by the school to apply for a place at Oxbridge, she chose instead to go to Sussex University.

Robyn kicks off the duvet and gets out of bed. She goes to the window, pulls back the curtain, and peers out. She looks up at the grey clouds scudding across the sky. A gust of wind rattles the sash window and the draught makes Robyn shiver. Clutching herself, she skips to the door from rug to rug, like a Scottish country dancer, across the landing and into the bathroom. She pulls the nightdress over her head and steps into the bath, not first pulling the chain of the toilet because that would affect the temperature of the water coming through the showerhead on the end of a flexible tube, with which she now hoses herself down. She steps from the bath, stretch­ing for a towel in one of those ungainly postures so beloved of Im­pressionist painters.

Robyn, a dressing-gown over her underclothes and slippers on her feet, descends the short dark staircase to the ground floor and goes into her narrow and extremely untidy kitchen. She lights the gas stove, and makes herself a breakfast of muesli, wholemeal toast and decaffeinated coffee. The sound of the Guardian dropping on to the doormat sends her scurrying to the front door. Robyn scans the front-page headline of the Guardian, but does not linger over the text beneath. She puts her soiled breakfast things in the sink, already crammed with the relics of last night's supper, and hurries upstairs.

Robyn straightens the sheet on the bed, shakes and spreads the duvet. She sits at her dressing-table and vigorously brushes her hair, a mop of copper-coloured curls. Now she robs moisturizer into her facial skin as protection against the raw wintry air outside, coats her lips with lip-salve, and brushes some green eyeshadow on her eye­lids. Her simple cosmetic operations completed, she dresses herself in green tights, a wide brown tweed skirt and a thick sweater loosely knitted in muted shades of orange, green and brown. She takes from the bottom of her wardrobe a pair of half-length fashion boots in dark brown leather and sits on the edge of the bed to pull them on.

Robyn goes into her long narrow living-room, which also serves as her study. She lifts from the floor a leather bag, and begins to load it with the things she will need for the day.

Returning to the kitchen, Robyn turns down the thermostat of the central heating and checks that the back door of the house is locked and bolted. In the hall she wraps a long scarf round her neck and puts on a cream-coloured quilted cotton jacket. Outside, in the street, her car is parked, a red six-year-old Renault Five. Robyn turns the ignition key, holding her breath as she listens to the starter's bronchial wheeze, then exhales with relief as the engine fires.

She drives through the gates of the University, parks her car in one of the University's car parks, and makes her way to the English Department. She passes into the foyer of the Arts Block. There are several students slouching against the wall, or sitting on the floor, outside her room. Robyn gives them a wry look as she approaches, having a pretty good idea of what they want.

'Hallo', she says, by way of a general greeting as she fishes for her door key in her coat pocket. 'Who's first?'

Eventually they are all dealt with, and Robyn is free to prepare for her lecture at eleven. She opens her bag, pulls out the folder containing her notes, and settles to work.

(Extrac tfrom "Nice Work" by David Lodge. Abridged)

Discussion points.

1. How does Robyn's morning differ from Vic's?

2. What kind of person is Robyn? Prove your point.

3. Imagine what else Robyn will do on this day. How will her day end?

Text3

The Day before You Came

I must have left my house at eight because I always do,

My train, I'm certain, left the station

Just when it was due.

I must have read the morning paper going into town,

And having gotten through the editorial,

No doubt, I must have frowned.

I must have made my desk around a quarter after nine,

With letters to be read

And heaps of papers waiting to be signed.

I must have gone to lunch at half past twelve or so,

The usual place, the usual bunch,

And still on top of this, I'm pretty sure, it must have rained

The day before you came.

I must have lit my seventh cigarette at half past two

And at that time I never even noticed I was blue,

I must have kept on dragging through the business of the day

Without even knowing anything,

I hid a part of me away;

At five I must have left, there's no exception to the rule,

A matter of routine — I've done it ever since

I've finished school.

A train back home again —

Undoubtedly I must have read the evening paper then.

Oh, yes, I'm sure my life was well within it's usual frame

The day before you came

I must have opened my front door at eight o'clock or so

And stopped along the way to buy some Chinese food to go.

I'm sure I had my dinner watching something on TV —

There's not, I think, a single episode of Dallas that

I did not see. I must have gone to bed around a quarter after ten:

I need a lot of sleep and so I like to be in bed by then;

I must have read a while the latest one by Marilyn French

Or something in that style,

It's funny, but I had no sense of living without aim

The day before you came.

And turning out the light I must have yawned

And snuggled up for yet another night,

And rattling on the roof

I must have heard the sound of rain

The day before you came.

(A Song by ABBA)

DOMESTIC CHORES

Text 1

Dishwashers

Over the last fifty years housework has been made considerably easier by the invention of an increasing number of labour-saving de­vices and appliances, mostly electrical, which have drastically cut down the amount of time and effort previously needed to do the everyday household chores. For many years now there have been vacuum cleaners, electric irons, washing machines and floor-polishers; now we have electric potato-peelers and even electric carving knives. We can buy cookers that will switch themselves on and produce a meal that is ready to eat the minute we-get back home. If we have one of those electric pop-up toasters, we can make toast at the breakfast table itself. Mashed potatoes can be quickly and effortlessly made with a mixer, which usually has a variety of attachments that enable you to make all sorts of other more exotic things like fresh orange juice or real mayonnaise. And a tumble-drier can save you from the frustration of hanging out the washing only to have to bring it in again ten minutes later when menacing storm-clouds loom over.

Probably the most important piece of electrical equipment to become widely used in the last twenty years is the dishwasher. Washing up by hand is not only a time-consuming task (it can take longer than eating the meal itself), but also an extremely boring one, particularly when you are on your own, and it also ruins your hands. Dishwashers come in a range of different sizes and models to suit your purse, the size of your family, and the layout of the kitchen. They can be stood on the floor or on a worktop, or they can be mounted on a wall. And their capacity ranges from six to twelve place-settings. If you buy one, it is worth having it plumbed into the main water supply to save you having to connect robber pipes to your taps each time you use it. All you have to do is load the dirty dishes, glasses and cutlery into the racks inside the machine, pour in some special detergent powder, close the door and switch it on; it does the rest by itself while you get on and do more interesting things. Of course, most dishwashers can't accommodate large saucepans and frying pans, and you do have to scrape all scraps of solid food from the dishes before you put them in to avoid blocking the filters, but the machine will wash almost everything else and get rid of even the most stubborn egg and lipstick stains. When the washing cycle is over, the machine dries the plates and glasses with its own heat, and indeed they can be left inside until they are needed for the next meal.

If you buy a medium-sized dishwasher, you probably won't need to wash up more than once a day. The drawback of this, ofcourse, is that you have to have enough dishes, cutlery, etc. to last three or four meals. So it can happen that people who buy a dish­washer have to buy new china and glasses, either because they ha­ven't got enough or because the ones they've got don't fit the ma­chine. This extra expense may not only be necessary, but also desir­able, for one has to remember that dishwashers can be quite noisy. This means that many people prefer only to use their machine once a day, preferably last thing at night, when you can just shut the kitchen door on it and go to bed.

(From "Meanings into Words" by Adrian Doff, Christopher Jones and Keith Mitchell)

I. Read the text "Dishwashers" and express your agreement or disagree­ment with the following claims about dishwashers.

1. They cannot be stood on the floor.

2. You can hang them on the wall.

3. You cannot use them for washing cutlery.

4. You do not need any detergent powder for washing up.

5. There is a special place in any dishwasher for large sauce­pans and frying pans.

6. They get rid of most stubborn stains and of scraps of solid food.

7. Hot air flowing through dishes dries them.

8. Dishwashers can be quite noisy.

II. Work in pairs. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of having a dishwasher. One of you prefers to have it while the other is not fond of electrical appliances in general.

III. Work in pairs. Explain to each other in you own words the advantages and disadvantages of:

1. vacuum cleaners;

2. automatic cookers;

3. electric toasters;

4. mixers.

IV. Work in groups. Give your opinion on the use of labour saving devices. If you are in favour of this sort of appliances, use:

To make housework considerably easier; to cut down the amount of time and effort; to save one a lot of bother; labour and time consuming task; to do the everyday household chores; to switch themselves on/off; to save smb. from doing smth; extremely boring; to ruin one's hands; can be stood on the floor or on a worktop; can be mounted on a wall; to load the dirty dishes, etc. into; the racks inside the machine; pour in some detergent powder; to do the rest by itself; to dry the plates, etc.; the washing cycle; to be worth buying;

If you are not in favour of them, use:

To suit one's purse; the layout of one's kitchen; can't accom­modate large saucepans and frying pans; to have to scrape all scraps of solid food from the dishes; to block the filters; to have enough dishes, cutlery, etc. to fit the machine; extra expense, noisy; get out of order; to be not worth buying; to repair; to take away much use­ful and valuable physical activity; to need exercise.

Text 2

So great is our passion for doing things ourselves, that we are becoming increasingly less dependent on specialized labour. No one can plead ignorance of a subject any longer, for there are countless do-it-yourself publications. Armed with the right tools and materials, newly-weds gaily embark on the task of decorating their own homes. Men of all ages spend hours of their leisure time installing their own fireplaces, laying out their own gardens; build­ing garages and making furniture. Some really keen enthusiasts go so far as to build their own record players and radio transmitters. Shops cater for the do-it-yourself craze not only by running special advisory services for novices, but by offering consumers bits and pieces which they can assemble at home.

Wives tend to believe that their husbands are infinitely resource­ful and versatile. Even husbands who can hardly drive a nail in straight are supposed to be born electricians, carpenters, plumbers and mechanics. When lights fuse, furniture gets rickety, pipes get clogged, or vacuum cleaners fail to operate, wives automatically as­sume that their husbands will somehow put things right. The worst thing about the do-it-yourself game is that sometimes husbands live under the delusion that they can do anything even when they have been repeatedly proved wrong. It is a question of pride as much as anything else.

(Extract from "Developing Skills" by L. G.Alexander)

SHOPPING FOR FOOD

Text Sweet Sixteen

Sixteen soft pink blankets fold inwards over sixteen soft warm smiling babies. Sixteen dark-haired young mothers meet their six­teen babies' soft smiling mouths in a kiss.

Naomi looks round to see the cluster of other mothers, like her­self, mesmerised by Granada TV Rental's windows*. The cluster breaks, and its various components span out across the cool maible floor.

* Granada TV Rental — the name of a supermarket.

Lucy strains to stand up in her pushchair. Naomi eases her out of the canvas straps and settles her on the red seat of the silver trol­ley. She pauses momentarily, to decide which is to be the first aisle of the journey; should she start with soft drinks, vegetables, frozen foods, tins — she decides on fruit juice.

As they wheel past the rack of special-offer Mars bars, Naomi gently deflects Lucy's outstreched hand, her thumb briefly stroking the soft palm of Lucy's hand. I could do the shopping with my eyes shut, thinks Naomi, once a week for how many weeks, everything always in the same place. She turns the trolley to the right, to the fridge where the pineapple juice cartons — she stops. The open maw of the fridge gapes. It is empty. Ah well. Perhaps they have run out of cartons of fmit juice.

She decides to do dairy products next; cream, butter, some yo­ghurt — but instead, on the racks where the dairy products used to be, she finds pizzas, steak and kidney pies in transparent wrappings, and further on packets of frozen raspberries. Something is wrong. She begins to collect, feeling uneasy that it isn't in the order of her choice, worried that if she leaves things now to go on to another aisle, they will have disappeared when she gets back.

She wheels on, to where she expects to find the vegetable racks: the net bags of apples, avocados. But instead there are long spa­ghetti packets, rice, curled pasta. Again she collects, panic begin­ning to rise. She mustn't show it to Lucy, who is happy being wheeled at such sightseeing speed.

Naomi makes confidently for the cold meat counter; it is dark, piled up with towers of soft toilet paper; the plastic box where scraps of meat were sold cheaply, the ends of cuts, is upside down, empty. For the first time she notices the other women. They walk fast, their heads slightly bent, cradling highpiled baskets, anxiety on their faces, grabbing cereals, bread, soap powders, cleansers, hurrying past pensioners, running, running.

Lucy now has a fist in her. mouth, enjoying the game.

Naomi speeds up to join the pace, taking what she can whe­rever she can, until she arrives at the back of the floor space, at the point where the soft drinks used to be. Naomi gasps. The once smooth space is now a raw gash, copper cables twisting like thick muscle fibre, clinging to the broken brick and plaster gaps in the walls.

Naomi hears a voice saying. Nothing is where it was. Lucy gig­gles and she realises that she has spoken out loud. She looks round. No one seems to have heard her. They are all too busy. Naomi looks down at the trolley. It is full of everything she has meant to buy, but none of it is in the right order.

Naomi wheels the trolley slowly towards the cash tills. Lucy, sensitive to the change in pace, stops giggling; she is now pale and still. Naomi joins a queue at a cash till, watching the other women.

Naomi stands behind a woman who fumbles for her cheque book. Naomi watches paper bags, plastic carriers, boxes and baskets flash between the tills and the plate glass window.

Naomi's turn comes. She lifts a bottle of lemon and lime out of the trolley. The outside is sticky. Naomi moves her index and se­cond fingers to a dry part of the bottle, her hand slips, the bottle falls, its soft edge knocks against the rim of the conveyor belt and bursts.

Thick, bright green liquid squirts luminously back into the trol­ley, over tins of tuna fish. Lucy claps her hands in delight, and reaching into the trolley, she lifts a packet of white flour and drops it with a dull thud on the floor. A white cloud powders the feet of the women. Lucy giggles. Naomi feels a cloud of answering laughter rise in her, tries to keep it down, looks up and catches the eye of the woman queuing behind her. The woman smiles, ruffles Lucy's hair and then lifts a bag of tomatoes from her own baskets and hurls it overarm against the special offer of tea bags. Red seed drips down against the green boxes.

The women look at one another. Suddenly bits of flattened, squared ham fly free of their jellied, cellophane packets, duck pate bursts out of its blue pottery bowls, salt and vinegar crisps crackle underfoot, sliding through white cottage cheese.

The lights of the cash tills spark white, the women sitting at the money machines aren't sure which way to turn, one picks up a cu­cumber and slides it along the floor, into a welcoming pool of rasp­berry yoghurt.

Outside the plate glass window red and blue lights flash as pale men in dark blue peer through the window at all Christmas and birthday and anniversary celebrations in one.

Ten feet away, sixteen dark-haired mothers smile at their babies for the sixteenth time and enfold them in sixteen warm, pink blan­kets.

(Story by Michelene Wandor. Abridged)

I. Answer the questions.

1. Where does Naomi see sixteen mothers first?

2. Who is Lucy?

3. How old can Lucy be?

4. What aisle does Naomi choose to be the first one?

5. Does the sight in front of her eyes meet her expectations?

6. What does she decide to do next?

7. What does Naomi see on the racks where the dairy products used to be?

8. What does Naomi find on the vegetable racks?

9. What kind of box does she find empty?

10. Does Naomi notice the other women?

11. Does Naomi manage to collect everything she has meant to buy?

12. What does Naomi see at a cash till?

13. What happens when Naomi lifts a bottle of lemon and lime?

14. Why does Lucy drop a packet of white flour?

15. How does the woman behind her react?

16. What do the other women start doing?

17. How do the women sitting at the cash tills react?

18. What do the phrases "red and blue lights flash" and "pale men in dark blue" mean?

19. Why is the story called Sweet Sixteen?

II. Discussion points.

1. Do you find the end quite unexpected?

2. Was it an abnormal reaction on the part of the customers?

3. What caused this sort of reaction, in your opinion?

SHOPPING FOR CONSUMER GOODS

Text 1

Christmas Presents

... on Christmas day we went into the lounge and opened our presents. I was dead disappointed when I saw the shape of my pres­ent. I could tell at a glance that it didn't contain a single microchip. Ok, a sheepskin coat is warm but there's nothing you can do with it, except wear it. In fact after only two hours of wearing it, I got bored and took it off.

However, my mother was ecstatic about her egg timer; she said, 'Wow, another one for my collection.' Rosie ignored the chocolate Santa I bought her. That's 75 pence wasted! This is what I got:

3/4 length sheepskin coat (out of Little Woods catalogue)

Slippers (like Michael Caine wears, although not many people know that)

Swiss army knife (my father is hoping I'll go out into the fresh air and use it)

Tin of humbugs (supposedly from the dog)

Knitted Balaclava helmet (from Grandma Mole).

(Extract from "The Growing Pains of Adrian Mole " by Sue Townsend)

Discussion points.

1. Do you think that people who are closest to you expect more expensive presents?

2. Some people think that it is more preferable to receive a personal, carefully chosen gift however small and inexpen­sive, than a big, expensive gift or simply the gift of money. What do you think, and why?

3. Describe in detail an object that you always wanted as a child. Explain why you wanted it so badly, whether you eventually got it and how, and what the significance of it is for you now.

Text 2

A Shopping Expedition

The man in the gentlemen's outfitting department at Barkridge's held Paddington's hat at arm's length between thumb and fore­finger. He looked at it distastefully.

'I take it young ... er, gentleman, will not be requiring this any more, Madam?' he said.

'Oh yes, I shall,' said Paddington, firmly. 'I've always had that hat — ever since I was small.'

'But wouldn't you like a nice new one, Paddington?' said Mrs. Brown, adding hastily, 'for best?'

Paddington thought for a moment. 'I'll have one for worst if you like,' he said. 'That's my best one!'

The salesman shuddered slightly and, averting his gaze, placed the offending article in the far end of the counter.

'Albert!' He beckoned to a youth who was hovering in the back­ground. 'See what we have in size 4 7/8.' Albert began to rummage under the counter.

'And now, while we're about it,' said Mrs. Brown, 'we'd like a nice warm coat for the winter. Something like a duffle coat with toggles so that he can do it up easily, I thought. And we'd also like a plastic raincoat for the summer.'

The salesman looked at her haughtily. He wasn't very fond of bears and this one, especially, had been giving him queer looks ever since he'd mentioned his wretched hat. 'Has Madam tried the bar­gain basement?'* he began. 'Something in Government Surplus...'**

* A section of a shop set aside for special offeis, Li.e. goods at reduced prices. Not necessarily a basement.

** Government Surplus shops sprang up everywhere in England after the war. Originally they sold surplus military coats, shirts, boots, etc. Now they sell tough outdoor clothing, camping equipment, working clothes, etc. Very little of their stock is nowadays bought from the government.

'No, I haven't,' said Mrs. Brown, hotly. 'Government Surplus indeed! I've never heard of such a thing — have you, Paddington?'

'No,' said Paddington, who had no idea what Government Sur­plus was. 'Never!' he stared hard at the man, who looked away un­easily. Paddington had a very persistent stare when he cared to use it. It was a very powerful stare. One which his Aunt Lucy had taught him and which he kept for special occasions.

Mrs. Brown pointed to a smart blue duffle coat with a red lining. 'That looks the very thing,' she said.

The assistant gulped. 'Yes, Madam. Certainly, Madam.' He beckoned to Paddington. 'Come this way, sir.'

Paddington followed the assistant, keeping about two feet be­hind him, and staring very hard. The back of the man's neck seemed to go a dull red and he fingered his collar nervously. As they passed the hat counter, Albert, who lived in constant fear of his su­perior, and who had been watching the events with an open mouth, gave Paddington the thumbs-up sign.* Paddington waved a paw. He was beginning to enjoy himself.

* When a Roman gladiator had overcome another he was expected to ask the Emperor or senior person present at the games whether he was to kill his opponent or not. If the Emperor held his thumb down it meant 'kill him'. If the thumb pointed upward it meant 'spare him'. By extention, thumbs-up = life and hope.

He allowed the assistant to help him on with the coat and then stood admiring himself in the mirror. It was the first coat he had ever possessed. In Peru it had been very hot, and though his Aunt Lucy had made him wear a hat to prevent sunstroke, it had always been much too warm for a coat of any sort. He looked at himself in the mirror and was surprised to see not one, but a long line of bears stretching away as far as the eye could see. In fact, everywhere he looked there were bears, and they were all looking extremely smart.

'Isn't the hood a trifle large?' asked Mrs. Brown, anxiously.

'Hoods are being worn large this year. Madam,' said the assis­tant. 'It's the latest fashion.' He was about to add that Paddington seemed to have rather a large head anyway but he changed his mind. Bears were rather unpredictable. You never quite knew what they were thinking and this one in particular seemed to have a mind of his own.

'Do you like it, Paddington?' asked Mrs. Brown.

Paddington gave up counting bears in the mirror and turned round to look at the back Vicw. 'I think it's the nicest coat I've ever seen,' he said, after a moment's thought. Mrs. Brown and the assis­tant heaved a sigh of relief.

'Good,' said Mrs. Brown. "That's settled, then. Now there's just the question of a hat and a plastic mackintosh!'

She walked over to the hat counter, where Albert, who could still hardly take his admiring eyes off Paddington, had arranged a huge pile of hats. There were bowler hats, sun hats, trilby hats, berets, and even a very small top hat. Mrs. Brown eyed them doubtfully. 'It's largely a question of his ears. They stick out rather.'

'You could cut some holes for them,' said Albert.

The assistant froze him with a glance. 'Cut a hole in a Barkridge's hat!' he exclaimed. 'I've never heard of such a thing.'

Paddington turned and stared at him. 'I... er...' The assistant's voice trailed off. 'I'll go and fetch my scissors,' he said, in a queer voice.

'I don't think that will be necessary at all,' said Mrs. Brown, hurriedly. 'It's not as if he had to go to work in the city, so he doesn't want anything too smart. I think this woollen beret is very nice. The one with the pom-pom on top. The green will go well with his new coat and it'll stretch so that he can pull it down over his ears when it gets cold.'

Everyone agreed that Paddington looked very smart, and while Mrs. Brown looked for a plastic mackintosh, he trotted off to have another look at himself in the mirror. He found the beret was a little difficult to raise as his ears kept the bottom half firmly in place. But by pulling on the pom-pom he could make it stretch quite a long way, which was almost as good. It meant, too, that he could be po­lite without getting his ears cold.

The assistant wanted to wrap up the duffle coat for him but after a lot of fuss it was agreed that, even though it was a warm day, he should wear it. Paddington felt very proud of himself and he was anxious to see if other people noticed.

(Extract from "A Bear from Peru in England" by M. Bond)

Text 3

Harrods

ENTER A DIFFERENT WORLD

Welcome to Harrods — a different world for a million reasons. Harrods is the largest store in Europe with goods displayed in 60 windows and five and a half hectares of selling space. In one year over 14 million purchases are made in the 214 departments where you can buy anything from a pin to an elephant - if you can con­vince the manager of the Pet Department that you are a suitable elephant owner, that is! It is Harrods' policy to stock a wide and exciting range of merchandise in every department to give the cus­tomer a choice of goods which is unique in its variety and which no other store can match: Harrods stocks 100 different whiskies, 57 single malts, 450 different cheeses, 500 types of shirts and 9,000 ties to go with them, 8,000 dresses and 150 different pianos.

Harrods also offers a number of special services to its customers including a bank, an insurance department, a travel agency, Lon­don's last circulating library, a theatre ticket agency and a funeral service. £40 million worth of goods are exported annually from Harrods and the Export Department can deal with any customer purchase or order and will pack and send goods to any address in the world. Recently, for example, six bread rolls were sent to New York, a handkerchief to Los Angeles, a pound of sausages to a yacht anchored in the Mediterranean, a Persian carpet to Iran and a £5,000 chess set to Australia. Harrods has a world-wide reputation for first-class service. It has a staff of 4,000, rising to 6,000 at Christ­mas time.

Harrods sells 5 million different products, not all of which are actually kept in stock in the store itself. To handle this enormous range, a new computerized warehouse is being built. It will be the largest warehouse in Britain and the second largest in Europe and will deal with a wider range of goods than any other distribution centre in the world. Thanks to its modem technology a customer will be able to order any product (for example, a dining table or a dishwasher) from any assistant in the store. The assistant will be able to check its availability immediately on a computer screen, de­cide with the customer on a suitable delivery date and time and then pass the order directly to the warehouse through the computer. The time of delivery will be guaranteed to within one hour.

For many of London's visitors Harrods is an important stop on their sightseeing programme. Henry Charles Harrod's first shop was opened in 1849, but the building as it stands today was started in 1901 and it has become one of London's landmarks. It has many items of architectural interest: the plaster ceilings are original, as is the famous Meat Hall with its Victorian wall tiles, and the light fit­tings on the ground floor date back to the 1930s. A morning spent strolling round Harrods is guaranteed to give any shopper an appe­tite, and to feed its customers Harrods has six restaurants, ranging from the Circle self-service restaurants offering delicious food at reasonable prices to the famous Harrods Restaurant, where queues form every afternoon for the "Grand Buffet Tea", which fora fixed price allows you to eat as many cream cakes and gateaux as your greed will allow while waitresses serve you with India or China tea. If you feel like a drink you can choose between the pub atmosphere of the Green Man Tavern and the sophistication of the Cocktail Lounge. Harrods truly is a different world.

(Advertising Leaflet)

MEALS AND COOKING

Text

Correct Eating Habits

"Eat to live. Do not live to eat" is an old saying the truth of which a person realises only when he or she suffers from some seri­ous ailment like a heart condition and is advised by his or her physi­cian to cut down on his or her food. All schools of medicine lay em­phasis on correct eating habits for a healthy life.

Remember that after you have had a hearty meal, the pressure on your heart is increased. The amount of food should be such that the hunger is assuaged, but there is no feeling of fullness.

The second golden rule is to avoid fats and too much starch and carbohydrates derived from sugar. In communities where sugar in­take is low, there is very little incidence of heart disease.

The third rule is that stimulants like spices (chillies etc.) should be avoided. A bland diet with a little salt and a pinch of pepper may not taste as good as highly spiced food would, but it would be safer in the long run.

Kids with high cholesterol need an exotic diet. Mostly, they should stick to the guidelines that apply to all adults. Officially, the American Heart Association recommends that kids get no more than 30 percent of their calories from fat. That means (1) Limiting fast-food runs to once or twice a week. Otherwise, push the salads and leave out the jumbo fries, high-fat sauces, and everything-but-the-kitchen-sink burgers; (2) Sticking to lower-fat pizza toppings like mushrooms, ground beef, veggies, and plain cheese; (3) Choo­sing peanut butter, lean meat or skinless chicken or turkey for lunchtime; put limits on high-fat items like hot dogs, luncheon meats, and deep-fried anything; (4) Serving more complex carbohydrates like fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain products. Kids may not al­ways eat them, but at least they'll recognise them on sight.

Fortunately, lots of foods that kids like are also good for them. Most breakfast cereals are low in fat, for instance, as are pasta, lean meats, bread, tuna, skinless chicken, and fruit.

1. Discuss correct eating habits for grown-ups and children dwelling on:

1. the amount of food a person should eat;

2. the consumption of fats, starch and carbohydrates;

3. the use of stimulants;

4. going to fast-food places.

COLLEGE LIFE

Text 1

Classroom Notetaking

How would you feel if you were forced to spend hours and hours sitting in a hard-backed chair, eyes wide open, listening to the sound of someone else's voice? You wouldn't be allowed to sleep, eat, or smoke. You couldn't leave the room. To make matters worse, you'd be expected to remember every point the speaker made, and you'd be punished for foigetting. And, to top it off, you'd have to pay thousands of dollars for the experience.

Sounds like the torture scene from the latest spy thriller? Actu­ally, it's nothing of the kind. It's what all college students do who take a full load of courses.

Unfortunately, many students do regard these hours as tor­ture, and they do all sorts of things to deaden the pain. Some of them sit through class with glared eyes, minds wandering some­where. Others hide in the back of the room, sneaking glances at the newspaper or the book. Still others reduce the pain to zero: they simply don't come to class. These students do not realize that they are missing out on one of the most important aspects of their edu­cation.

One reason you should take lecture notes is that lectures add to what you read in textbooks. Lecturers combine the material and ap­proaches of many texts, saving you the trouble of researching an en­tire field. They keep up to date with their subjects and can include the latest studies or discoveries in their presentations. The best lec­turers combine knowledge with expert showmanship. Both infor­mative and entertaining speakers, they can make any subject leap wildly to life.

But isn't it good enough just to listen to these wonderful people without writing down what they say? Studies have shown that after two weeks you'll forget 80% of it. And you didn't come to the lec­ture room just to be entertained. You came to learn. The only way to keep the material in your head is to get it down in permanent form — in the form of lecture notes.

There are three steps to mastering the art of taking good lecture notes: the preparation, the note-taking process itself, and the post-lecture review.

Preparation.

First, mentally prepare yourself to take good notes. Examine your attitude. Remember, you're not going to the lecture room to be bored, tortured, or entertained; you're going there to learn. Also, examine the material the lecture will cover. Read the textbook chapter in advance.

Second, prepare yourself physically. Get a good night's sleep, and get to class — on time. Even better, get to class early, so you can get a good seat near the front of the room. You'll hear better there and be less tempted to let your mind wander. You'll also have time to open your notebook to a new page, find your pen, and write the date and topic of the lecture at the top. This way, you won't still be groping under your chair or flipping through pages when the lec­turer begins to speak.

Process.

Be prepared to do a good deal of writing in class. A good role of thumb for taking notes is, "when in doubt, write it down". After class, you will have time to go over your notes and make decisions about what is important enough to study and what is not. But in the midst of a lecture, you don't always have time to decide what is really important and what is quite secondary. You don't want to miss getting down a valuable idea.

Be sure to always write down what the lecturer puts on the board. If he or she takes the time to write something on the board, it is generally safe to assume that such material is important. And don't fall into the trap that some students make. They write down what is on the board but nothing more. They just sit and listen while the instructor explains all the connections between those words that have been chalked on the board. Everything may be perfectly clear to a student then, but several days later, chances are that all the connecting materials will be forgotten. If you write down the expla­nations in class, it will be much easier for you to make sense of the material and to study it later.

Here are some other hints for taking good classroom notes:

If you miss something, don't panic. Leave space for it in your notes and keep going. Later, get the missing information from a classmate or your textbook

Don't ignore the very beginning and end of class, often lecturers devote the first five minutes of their lectures to a review of material already covered or a preview of the next day's lecture. The last five minutes of a lecture can contain a clear summary of the class. Don't spend the first five minutes of class getting your materials out and the last five minutes putting them away. If you do, you'll probably miss something important.

Post-Lecture Review.

The real learning takes place after class. As soon as you have time, sit down and reread your notes. Fill in anything unclear or missing while it's still fresh in your mind. Then write a few key words and phrases that summarise the points of the lecture.

Cover your notes, and, using only these key words, try to recon­struct as much of the lecture as you can. This review will cement the major points in your memory and will save significant time when you study for the exam.

To sum all this up, be prepared to go into class and be not just an active listener but an active notetaker as well. Being in class and taking good notes while you are there are the most valuable steps you can take to succeed in college.

Answer the questions.

1. What do you do during a classroom lecture?

2. Do you sit and stare at the lecturer, wondering if he or she will ever stop?

3. Do you try to write everything which is said, but can't keep up?

4. Why take lecture notes? Isn't it good enough just to listen to the lecturer without writing down what he or she says?

5. What are the three steps to mastering the art of taking good lecture notes? Discuss in class each step.

6. Could you think of some more hints for taking good class­room notes?

7. Have you got your own tips on how to make the best use of class time?

Text 2

Examination

Then, for months, there was nothing in life save work: a careful planning out of day and night in order that sleeping and eating and exercise might encroach as little as possible on the working hours.

From early morning till late at night the desperate meek untidy heads of girls were bowed over tables in the library, their faces when they lifted them were feverish and blurred with work.

Pages rustled; pencils whispered; squeaking shoes tiptoed in and out. Somebody tapped out a dreary tune on her teeth; somebody had a running cold; somebody giggled beneath her breath; some­body sighed and sighed.

Examination week.

This week there was nothing in your mind save the machine which obeyed you smoothly, turning but dates and biographies, contrasting, discussing, theorizing.

Judith walked in a dream among the pale examination faces that flowed to their doom. Already at nine o'clock the heat struck up from the streets, rolled downwards from the roofs. By midday it would by extremely unpleasant in Cambridge.

This was the great examination hall. Girls were filing in, each carrying a glass of water, and searching in a sort of panic for her place. Here was a white ticket labelled Earle, J. So Judith Earte really was expected, an integral part of this grotesque organized un­reality. No hope now.

The bench was hard.

All over the room girls' heads turned, nodding and winking at friends, whispering, giggling and grimacing with desperate bravery. One simulated suicide by leaning her bosom on her fountain pen.

Then panic descended suddenly upon Judith. Her head was like a floating bubble; there was nothing in it at all. She caught at threads of knowledge and they broke, withered and dissolved like cobwebs in the hand. She struggled to throw off a crowding confu­sion of half remembered words.

A headful of useless scraps rattling about in emptiness — The clock struck nine.

'You can begin now', said a thin voice from the dais.

There was an enormous sigh, a rustling of paper, then silence.

The questions had, nearly all, at first glance a familiar reassuring look. It was all right. Panic vanished, the mind assembled its ener­gies coolly, precisely, the pen flew.

After an hour the first pause to cool her forehead with a stick of frozen Eau de Cologne and to sip some water.

Girls were wriggling and biting their pens. Somewhere the toothtapper was playing her dreary tune.

Another hour fled. The trouble was having too much to say, rather than too little. The room was rigid, dark with concentration now.

Three hours. It was over. You could not remember what you had written; but you had never felt more firm and sure of mind. Three hours nearer to life.

A troop of undergraduates passed on the way from their exami­nation room. They looked amused and exhilarated. They stuffed their papers into their pockets, lit pipes, straightened their shoulders and went cheerfully to lunch.

The girls crept out in twos and threes, earnestly talking, com­paring the white slips they carried.

'Did you do this one?'

'What did you put for that?'

'Oh, I say! Will they take off marks do you think?'

'It was a beast.'

'Oh, it might have been worse.'

Girls really should be trained to be less obviously female stu­dents. It only needed a little discipline.

'Of course I see now I shan't pass — It seems a pity, after all that work — My memory is practically gone —'

Back to the vault now for another three hours.

That day passed smoothly; and the next.

Suddenly there were no answers to be written from nine till twelve, from two till five — no lectures, no coachings, no notes, no fixed working hours. Instead, a great idleness under whose burden you felt lost and oppressed. The academic years were gone for ever.

(Extract from "Dusty Answer" by R. Lehman)

CHARACTER AND APPEARANCE

Text

Improving Appearance

Most women all over the world are interested in improving their appearance. Here are some passages for those who care and wish to make the best of themselves — of their features, their skin and theirfigure.

What you have got to realise, however, is that true beauty is not just a matter of having a pretty face. It is much more.

Real beauty is the self-awareness that makes you. It is having sparkle, poise, serenity and confidence. It is having an awareness that makes everyone you come in contact with feel that you are a very special and attractive person. It is radiance that comes from good health.

Beauty is being able to make the best of yourself.

Putting it another way — there really are no plain people in this world. Undoubtedly some may have better features than others, but then, very very few of us can claim to come up to the current stan­dards of plastic beauty.

Each one of us can, or is, at least, capable of improving oneself, and exuding the radiant glow of an attractive and confident person.

A careless attitude about yourself and an abuse of the body are quickly followed by fading and weakness, whereas careful nurturing will prolong the years of youthfulness, beauty and comfort.

Give proper care to your body, and you can be vitally alive as well as stay attractive all your life.

Remember, nothing you do is going to perform any magical change overnight. Any of the treatments you follow for body care has to be regularly repeated in order to give it a fair chance to work.

As health and beauty go hand in hand, check on the list of ques­tions listed below to see if you qualify to be a member of the healthy group.

1. Do you have a good posture? There should be no sagging in the middle or drooping in the shoulders.;

2. Are your eyes clear?

3. Do you have a happy facial expression that is alive and lacks strain?

4. Are you fussy about your food? Do you eat well?

5. Do you sleep well?

6. Is the colour of your skin healthy?

7. Are your teeth in good condition?

8. Do you take a lively interest in living?

9. Finally — do you give the general impression of good health and vigour?

The answers to all the questions except the first part of question 4 should be an emphatic YES. However, if out of the ten "yes" an­swers you score right with seven to eight questions, you should be in fairly good health.

You need a full-length mirror so that you can look at yourself critically from the head to toe, keep a check on your figure and examine your posture.

Healthy eyes have a sparkle about them that is quite irresistible. Like your skin, fair and shining, clear eyes indicate good health. If you suffer ill-health or feel emotionally or physically low, your eyes become dull and strained-looking.

Sleep is very vital for clear healthy eyes. You need at an average at least eight hours of sleep in a day, without it, your eyes become dull, puffy and red. Dark circles also appear.

CHOOSING A HAIR STYLE.

The style that you choose for your hair should depend on the type of hair you have and on the shape of your face.

However fashions may fluctuate, there are certain rules that do not change. Keep these in mind before you choose the style.

Keep fine hair short and fluffy.

Hair that is medium or coarse takes most styles well.

Heavy or thick hair must not be kept very long, as it does not hang well.

Study the shape of the face by severely drawing back all your hair. Remember, the right hair style can make you look more at­tractive by drawing attention away from your physical flaws towards your more attractive features.

LONG FACE

Keep your hair fairly short — long hair tends to "pull down" your whole appearance. Go in for width at the temple — it helps to "broaden" your face. Fringes look good as they help to "shorten" the face.

HEART-SHAPED FACE

Softness at the temples and fullness just below ear level suits a heart-shaped face best. Avoid a centre parting because it tends to emphasise your pointed chin.

SQUARE FACE

Fringes and curls flicked forward help to soften "corners". Cut your hair short at the temples. Avoid a severe hair style.

ROUND FACE

The ideal hair length is just below chin level. Choose a straightish style with a centre parting. Avoid fringes, curls or waves.

OVAL FACE

An oval face can take most hair styles well. However, do keep your age and personality in mind.

PEAR-SHAPED FACE

Give width to temples and keep hair off the forehead. Short hair looks best.

MAKING-UP

Quite possibly you have an imperfect skin or imperfect features. But do not despair. Make-up applied well can do wonders for your appearance.

Perfect skin and perfect features are exceedingly rare. Most models in the glamorous beauty and fashion magazines have in fact quite unremarkable faces. It is make-up that makes them look so eye-catching and glamorous.

If, however, you are one of the rare and lucky ones to have a perfect skin and perfect features, remember that good make-up can make you absolutely beautiful.

Everyday make-up should look completely natural. Its primary object should be to correct colour faults of the complexion, disguise imperfections and accentuate good features.

When your skin is healthy and absolutely clean, make-up can, and should be kept light. Radiance, rather than a pink and white prettiness, should be your aim.

Use less make-up all the time for a fresher and younger look.

(Extract from "The Piper Book of Beauty" by Chodev)

I. Read the passage and say what you think of it.

II. Choose advice which suit your type of face adding advice of your own if necessary.

WEATHER

Text I

British Weather

"Other countries have a climate; in England we have weather." This statement, often made by Englishmen to describe the special meteorological conditions of their country, is both typical of the English and true. In no country other than England can one experi­ence four seasons in the course of a single day! Day may break as a mild spring morning; an hour or so later black clouds may have ap­peared from nowhere and the rain may be pouring down. At midday conditions may be really wintry with the temperature down by about fifteen degrees. And then, in the late afternoon, the sky will clear, the sun will begin to shine and for an hour or two before dark­ness falls, it will be summer.

The problem is that we never can be sure which of the different types of weather we will find. Not only do we get several different sorts of weather in one day, but we may very well get a spell of win­ter in summer and vice versa. The foreigner may laugh when he sees the Englishman setting forth on a brilliantly sunny morning wearing a raincoat and carrying an umbrella, but he may well regret his laughter later in the day! And, of course, the weather's variety pro­vides a constant topic of conversation, and you must be good at dis­cussing the weather.

(Extract from "Mode rn English I for Teacher Students" by G. Graustein)

Text II

British Climate

Britain has a generally mild and temperate climate. It lies in middle latitudes to the north-west west of the great continen­tal land mass of Eurasia, but the prevailing winds are south­ westerly. The climate is subject to frequent changes but to few ex­tremes of temperature. Although it is largely determined by that of the eastern Atlantic, occasionally during the winter months easterly winds may bring a cold, dry, continental weather which, once es­tablished, may persist for many days or even weeks.

In Britain, south-westerly winds are the most frequent, and those from an easterly quarter the least. Winds are generally stronger in the north than in the south of the British Isles, stronger on the coasts than inland, and stronger in the west than in the east. The strongest winds usually occur in the winter. The stormiest re­gion of the British Isles is along the north-west coast, with over 30 gales a year; south-east England and the east Midlands are the least stormy.

Near sea level the mean annual temperature ranges from 8 °C (47 °F) in the Hebrides to 11 °C (52 °F) in the extreme south-west of England. During a normal summer, the temperature occasionally rises above 27 °C (80 °F) in the south, but temperatures of 32 °C (90 °F) and above are infrequent. Extreme minimum tempera­tures depend to a large extent on local conditions, but -7 °C (20 ° F)may occur on a still, clear winter's night, -12 °C (10 °F) is rare, and -18 °C (0 °F) or below has been recorded only during exceptionally severe winter periods.

The British Isles as a whole have an annual rainfall of over 40 inches, while England alone has about 34 inches. Rain is fairiy well distributed throughout the year, but, on the average, March to June are the driest months and October to January the wettest. A period of as long as three weeks without rain is exceptional, and usually confined to limited areas. In successive years, however, remarkably contrasting weather conditions are sometimes experienced.

The distribution of sunshine over the British Isles shows a gen­eral decrease from south to north, a decrease from the coast inland, and a decrease with altitude. During May, June and July — the months of longest daylight — the mean daily duration of sunshine varies from five and a half hours in western Scotland to seven and a half hours in the extreme south-east of England; during the months of shortest daylight — November, December and January — sun­shine is at a minimum, with an average of half an hour a day in some parts of the Highlands in Scotland and two hours a day on the south coast of England.

In fine, still weather there is occasionally haze in summer and mist and fog in winter. Until about 1956 dense fogs containing smog and other pollution from the burning of coal used to occur from time to time in London and other centers of population. Since then, as a result of changes in fuel usage and the operation of clean air legislation, fogs have become less severe.

(Extract from "Britain. An Official Handbook")

I. Read and translate the text.

II. Work in pairs. Let one of the students read out some sentences from the text and the other student interrupt him, asking him/her to clarify things, to check the details.

Pattern

a)Britain has a generally mild and temperate climate. It lies...

— What do you mean "temperate "?

— I mean it is free from the extremes of heat and cold.

— Oh, I understand.

b) — The climate is subject to frequent changes but to few extremes of temperature.

— Sony, I don't quite see what you mean by "subject to frequent changes"?

— I mean that it has a tendency to change frequently.

— I think I understand.

c) — In fine still weather there is occasionally a haze in summer.

— What is a haze?

— It is a thin mist.

— I see.

Text III

The Weather

This is the most important topic in the land. Do not be misled by memories of your youth when, on the Continent, wanting to de­scribe someone as exceptionally dull, you remarked: 'He is the type who would discuss the weather with you.' In England this is an ever-interesting, even thrilling topic, and you must be good at dis­cussing the weather.

EXAMPLES FOR CONVERSATION

For Good Weather

'Lovely day, isn't it?'

'Isn't it beautiful?'

'The sun...'

'Isn't it goigeous?'

'Wonderful, isn't it?'

'It's so nice and hot...'

'Personally, I think it's so nice when it's hot — isn't it?'

'I adore it — don't you?'

For Bad Weather

'Nasty day, isn't it?'

'Isn't it dreadful?'

'The rain... I hate rain...'

'I don't like it at all. Do you?'

'Fancy such a day in July. Rain in the morning, then a bit of sunshine, and then rain, rain, rain, all day long.'

'I remember exactly the same July day in 1936.' .

'Yes, I remember too.'

'Or was it in 1928?'

'Yes, it was.'

'Or in 1939?'

'Yes, that's right.'

Now observe the last few sentences of this conversation. A very important rule emerges from it. You must never contradict anybody when discussing the weather. Should it hail or snow, should hurricanes uproot the trees from the sides of the road, and should some­one remark to you: 'Nice day, isn't it?' — answer without hesita­tion: 'Isn't it lovely?'

Learn the above conversations by heart. If you, are a bit slow in picking things up, learn at least one conversation, it would do won­derfully for any occasion.

If you do not say anything else for the rest of your life, just re­peat this conversation, you will still have a fair chance of passing as a remarkably witty man of sharp intellect, keen observation and ex­tremely pleasant manners.

English society is a class society, strictly organized almost on corporative lines. If you doubt this, listen to the weather forecasts. There is always a different weather forecast for farmers. You often hear statements like this on the radio:

'Tomorrow it will be cold, cloudy and foggy; long periods of rain will be interrupted by short periods of showers.'

And then:

'Weather forecast for farmers. It will be fair and warm, many hours of sunshine.'

You must not forget that the farmers do grand work of national importance and deserve better weather.

It happened on innumerable occasions that nice, warm weather had been forecast and rain and snow fell all day long, or vice versa. Some people jumped rashly to the conclusion that something must be wrong with the weather forecasts. They are mistaken and should be more careftil with their allegations.

I have read an article in one of the Sunday papers and now I can tell you what the situation really is. All troubles are caused by anti­cyclones. (I don't quite know what anticyclones are, but this is not important; I hate cyclones and am very anti-cyclone myself.) The two naughtiest anti-cyclones are the Azores and the Polar anti­cyclones.

The British meteorologists forecast the right weather — as it really should be — and then these impertinent little anti-cyclones interfere and mess up everything.

That again proves that if the British kept to themselves and did not mix with foreign things like Polar and Azores anti-cyclones they would be much better off.

(Story by G.Mikes)

I. Discussion points.

1. What topics besides the weather are most important in Russia?

2. What other conversational formulas would you recommend to leam by heart in order to look a person of sharp intel­lect?

3. What other groups of population besides fanners deserve better weather?

4. What else interferes with the right forecasting except anti­cyclones?

5. What would you prescribe to the Russians to be much bet­ter off?

II. Choose the most unexpected answer and think of an unexpected prize for it.

Poem

January Brings the Snow

January brings the snow,

Makes our feet and fingers glow.

February brings the rain,

Thaws the frozen lake again.

March brings breeze loud and shrill,

Stirs the dancing daffodil.

April brings the primrose sweet,

Scatters daisies at our feet.

May brings flocks of pretty lambs,

Skipping by their fleecy dams.

June brings tulips, lilies, roses,

Fills the children's hands with posies.

Hot July brings cooling showers,

Apricots and gilly flowers.

August brings the sheaves of corn

Then the harvest home is borne.

Warm September brings the fruit,

Sportsmen then begin to shoot.

Fresh October brings the pheasant,

Then to gather nuts is pleasant.

Dull November brings the blast,

Then the leaves are whirling fast.

Chill December brings the sleet,

Blazing fire and Christmas treat.

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

Family Life

aspirant [@'spaI@r@nt] претендент
aunt тётя
baby-sitter няня
bachelor холостяк
be head over ears in love влюбиться по уши
be lost in admiration of smb. заглядываться на кого-либо
be related быть родственниками
be of full age быть совершеннолетним
best man шафер
bless the marriage благословить брак
bread-winner кормилец
bride невеста
bridesmaid подружка невесты
brother брат
care about smb. заботиться о ком-либо
childless бездетный
civil marriage гражданский брак
cleanliness ['klenlInIs] опрятность
cot детская кроватка
cousin двоюродный брат или сестра
court [kþt] smb. ухаживать за кем-либо
cross marriage перекрёстный брак
date назначать свидание
diamond ['daI@m@nd] anniversary бриллиантовая свадьба
divorce [dI'vþs] разводиться
divorcee [dI,vþ'si:] разведенный/ая муж/жена
double date свидание, на которое приходят две пары
do well at school хорошо учиться в школе
dowry ['daU@rI] приданое
earn money зарабатывать деньги
earn one's living зарабатывать на жизнь
efficient [I'fISnt] housewife хорошая хозяйка
engagement [In'geI³m@nt] помолвка
expect a baby ждать ребёнка
faithfulness верность
fall in love влюбиться
family album семейный альбом
fiance [fI'¸nser] жених
fiancee [fI'¸nseI] невеста
flirt флиртовать
foster mother

1) кормилица

2) приёмная мать

fraternal [fr@'tÆ:nl] братский
generation gap разница между поколениями, проблема отцов и детей
get/have a crush on smb. потерять голову из-за кого-либо
get married вступить в брак, пожениться
get on well together хорошо ладить с кем-либо
give flowers/presents дарить цветы, подарки
go Dutch каждому платить за себя (в ресторане, баре и пр.)
go steady with smb. постоянно встречаться с кем-либо
go out бывать в обществе, ходить развлекаться
golden anniversary золотая свадьба
grandparent бабушка или дедушка
great grandparent прабабушка или прадедушка
groom жених
grumble at smb. ворчать на кого-либо
guardian ['g¸dI@n] опекун
harem ['he@r@m] гарем
head of the house глава семьи
honeymoon медовый месяц
host(ess) хозяин/хозяйка (по отношению к гостям)
household хозяйство
housewife домохозяйка
husband муж
in-laws (/»., pi.) родственники со стороны мужа или жены
juggle a family and a career заниматься семьёй и работой одновременно
keep house вести хозяйство
keep the family содержать семью
kith and kin родня, родные и близкие
let smb. down подводить, покидать в беде
live apart жить раздельно
live on one's parents быть на содержании родителей
love marriage брак по любви
maid of honour свидетельница (на свадьбе), по­дружка невесты
make a pass at smb. делать попытку познакомиться, пытаться ухаживать
make acquaintance of smb. познакомиться с кем-либо
marital status [m@'raItl 'steIt@s] семейное положение
marriage certificate [s@'tIfIk@t] свидетельство о браке
marriage advertisement брачное объявление
marriage of convenience [k@n'vÖnI@ns] брак по расчёту
married женатый, замужняя
marry for love/money жениться по любви/расчёту
marry low вступить в неравный брак
maternal [m@'tÆ:nl] материнский
maternity home родильный дом
match партия (о браке)
misalliance ["mIs@'laI@ns] неравный брак, мезальянс
monogamy [m@'nÁg@mI] моногамия, единобрачие
nappy пеленка
new-born новорожденный
newly-wed молодожён
nephew ['nevju:] племянник
niece племянница
offspring отпрыск
parent родитель
parental [p@'rentl] родительский
pass the age выйти из возраста
paternal отцовский
pick up подцепить кого-либо
polygamy [p@'lIg@mI] полигамия, многобрачие
pram коляска
propose делать предложение
proposal предложение
raise children растить детей
relative родственник
resemble smb. быть похожим на кого-либо
rush into marriage скоропалительно жениться
single неженатый/незамужняя
sibling ['sIblIÎ] родной брат или сестра
silver anniversary серебряная свадьба
singles' bar бар для одиноких
sister сестра
solvent ['sÁlv@nt] без материальных проблем (стиль газетных объявлений)
spouse [spaUz] супруг
spinster незамужняя женщина
stepmother мачеха, неродная мать
stepfather отчим, неродной отец
take after smb. быть похожим на кого-либо
take children to- водить детей в ...
twin близнец
triplet ['trIplIt] близнец из тройни
uncle ДЯДЯ
wallflower дама, оставшаяся без кавалера (на балу)
wedding свадьба
wedlock супружество (книжн.)
widow(er) вдова/вдовец
wife жена
Conversational Formulas:
He's a good family man. Он — хороший семьянин.
He takes after his parents. Он похож на родителей.
How long have you been married? Как давно вы женаты?
She is an efficient housewife. Она хорошая хозяйка.
She comes from a good family. Она из хорошей семьи.
They are a nice family. У них прекрасная семья.
Cheaper by the dozen. (У них) семеро по лавкам.
They had their wedding Они сыграли свадьбу
in the autumn/winter. осенью/зимой.

Dwelling

adjacent [@'³eIs@nt] примыкающий
adorn украшать
alcove [{lk@Uv] альков, ниша
appliance [@'plaI@ns] приспособление, устройство, прибор
armchair кресло
apartment квартира
balcony балкон
bathroom ванная комната
basement [beIsm@nt] подвал, фундамент
be crammed up with furniture быть заставленным мебелью
be cramped for space мало места
be short of light мало света
bedroom спальня
bedside table тумбочка
bedspread покрывало
blind [blaInd] штора
block of flats многоквартирный дом
block out the light загораживать свет
bookcase книжный шкаф
building здание
building society строительное общество
bungalow [böÎg@l@U] бунгало
bunk bed двухъярусная кровать
camp bed раскладушка
carpet ковёр
ceiling ['si:l@Î] потолок
cellar [s@l@] подвал, погреб
central heating центральное отопление
chair стул
chandelier ["S{ndI'lI@] люстра
chest of drawers ['¶est @v'drþz] комод
china фарфор
closet ['klÁzIt] стенной шкаф, чулан
coat rack вешалка
coffee table журнальный столик
communal ['kÁmjUnl] flat коммунальная квартира
convenience [k@n'vi:nj@ns] удобство
cosy уютный
cooker плита
cooker hood вытяжка
corridor коридор
cottage коттедж, домик
country-house загородный дом
cover with dust sheets покрыть чехлами (о мебели)
cover покрывало
crammed up with things забитый вещами
crockery фарфоровая и фаянсовая посуда
crystal ['krIstl] хрусталь
cupboard ['köb@d] шкаф, сервант
curtain занавеска
curtain rail карниз
cushion ['kUS@n] диванная подушка
cutlery ножевые изделия, металлические столовые приборы
decorate оформлять, украшать
detached house отдельный дом
dining room столовая
dinner set столовый сервиз
dish-drainer сушилка для посуды
do the decorating делать косметический ремонт
door-handle дверная ручка
double bed двуспальная кровать
drawing room гостиная
dressing-table туалетный столик
drive in a nail забить гвоздь
dustbin мусорное ведро
dwelling жилище
entrance вход
fail to operate сломаться
feel at home чувствовать себя как дома
fence забор
fitted carpet палас, ковровое покрытие
fireplace камин
flight of stairs лестничный пролёт
floor (parquet, polished) пол (паркетный, натёртый)
floor polisher полотёр
flowered цветастый
fluorescent [flU@'resnt] lamp лампа дневного света
flush-toilet унитаз
four-poster ['fþ'p@Ust@] bed кровать с альковом
freezer морозильная камера
fridge холодильник
front of the house фасад дома
focus of the room центральное место в комнате
furnish меблировать
furniture мебель
garage ['g{r¸Z] гараж
get rickety расшататься (о мебели)
hall прихожая
hangings портьеры
hearth [h¸T] очаг
hedge изгородь
home дом, домашний очаг
houseplant комнатное растение
housewarming party новоселье
interior [In'tI@rI@] интерьер
keyhole замочная скважина г
kitchen кухня
know where things go знать, где что лежит
lamp лампа
lavatory ['l{v@trI] туалет
let a flat сдавать квартиру
lift лифт
lights fuse/go out лампочки перегорают
linoleum [lI'n@Ulj@m] линолеум
living room гостиная
look out onto ... выходить на ... (об окнах)
lounge [laUn³] гостиная
lustre ['löst@] люстра
mansion ['m{nS@n] особняк, большой дом
mat коврик, циновка
mixer tap смеситель, кран
modem accomodations современные удобства
mortgage ['mþgI³] ссуда, заём (при покупке дома)
move in/to въезжать, переезжать
move the furniture around передвигать мебель
neighbour сосед
nursery детская комната
one/two/...-room flat одно/двух/... комнатная квартира
one/two/...-storeyed house одно/двух/...этажный дом
oven [övn] духовка
owner владелец, собственник
palace дворец
papered оклеенный обоями
parquet ['p¸keI] паркет
patterned с рисунком
pillow подушка
pillow-case наволочка
pipes get clogged трубы засоряются
plain однотонный (о ткани)
portable переносной
put things right починить, исправить
quilt [kwIlt] стёганое одеяло
radiator ['reIdIeIt@] батарея центрального отопления
real estate agency ['rI@l I,steIt 'eI³@nsI] агентство недвижимости
refrigerator [rI'frI³@reIt@] холодильник
refuse-chute ['refjüs"Süt] мусоропровод
renovate ['renoUveIt] подновлять, ремонтировать, реконструировать
repair ремонт
room комната
rent a flat снимать квартиру
rug пушистый коврик
running water водопровод
self-contained flat отдельная квартира
semi-detached house ['semIdI't{tSt] один из двух домов под общей крышей
share a room with smb. проживать в одной комнате с кем-либо
sheet простыня
shift передвигать
show the dirt пачкаться
single bed односпальная кровать
sink раковина (на кухне)
sky-scraper ['skaI,skreIp@] небоскрёб
sofa диван
sewing-machine ['s@UIÎm@"SÖn] швейная машина
space место, пространство
spacious [,speIS@s] просторный
spyhole дверной глазок
stack chairs составлять стулья
standard lamp торшер
statuette [,st{tjU'et] статуэтка
stereo ['stI@rI@] system стереосистема
stool табурет
storeroom кладовая
stove плита, печь
tap кран
tea set чайный сервиз
three quarter ['TrÖ'kwþt@] bed полутораспальная кровать
TV set . телевизор
throw open распахнуть
threshold ['TreS(h)@Uld] порог
tiled покрытый кафельной плиткой
toilet туалет
tubular ['tju:bjUl@] steel chair стул с алюминиевыми ножками
unlock the door отпереть дверь
upholstered furniture мягкая мебель
upholstery [öp'h@Ulst@rI] обивка
utensil [ju:'tensl] посуда, утварь
vacuum cleaner ['v{kjU@m,kli:n@] пылесос
vegetable cutter овощерезка
waffle-maker вафельница
wall lamp бра
wall-paper ['wþl,peIp@] обои
wall units стенка
wardrobe шкаф
washing machine стиральная машина
wash-basin ['wÁS"beIsn] (умывальный) таз, умывальная раковина
washing wall-paper моющиеся обои
whitewash

n . — побелка

v . — белить, делать

побелку
window-sill подоконник
yard [j¸d] двор
Conversational Formulas:
Do you live in a house or а block of flats? У вас свой дом или квартира?
I've just had my flat repaired. Я только что отремонтировал(а) квартиру.
Their flat is well furnished. У них квартира хорошо обставлена.
We moved to another flat.

1) Мы переехали на новую квартиру.

2) Мы поменяли квартиру

I live at15 Pushkin Street. Я живу в доме 15 по улице Пушкина.
I live on the fourth floor. Я живу на пятом этаже.

Daily Routine

annoy [@'nOI] smb. надоедать, досаждать
apply make-up/cosmetics [kÁz'metIks] накладывать косметику
arrange a party организовать вечеринку
arrive at work late/on time приезжать на работу с опозданием/вовремя
attend classes of aerobics[e@'r@UbIks] посещать занятия аэробикой
awake smb. будить
awake out of a dream пробуждаться ото сна
awaken просыпаться, пробуждаться
be a TV addict [{dIkt] не отрываться от телевизора
be an early riser рано вставать
be awake бодрствовать, не спать
be busy быть занятым
be/feel sleepy (refreshed, tired) хотеть спать, быть сонным (чувствовать себя бодрым/ чувствовать себя усталым)
be fixed at... o'clock быть назначенным на ... часов
be frustrating [frös'treItIÎ] вызывать разочарование
be fussy about smth. быть привередливым в чём-либо
be in/out быть дома/не быть дома
be sporty заниматься спортом
bedtime время ложиться спать
brush up on smth. освежать в памяти,
восстанавливать знания
call on smb. зайти к кому-либо, нанести короткий визит
catch a bus садиться на автобус
catch up on smth. нагнать, наверстать
clean one's teeth чистить зубы
collect smb. (from school) забирать кого-либо (из школы)
comb [k@Um] one's hair расчёсывать волосы
daily routine [rütÖn] распорядок дня
do morning exercises делать зарядку
do one's hair причесываться
do the cleaning делать уборку
do the cooking готовить
do the homework делать уроки
do the housework заниматься домашним хозяйством
do the shopping делать покупки
get dressed одеваться
get down to work приниматься за работу
(not to) get enough sleep (не) высыпаться
get into trouble попасть в беду, иметь неприятности
get out of bed вставать
get up on time/late/early вставать вовремя/поздно/рано
go for a mn делать пробежку
go out выходить в свет, бывать в обществе
go shopping ходить в магазин
go to a disco ['dIsk@U] ходить на дискотеку
go to keep-fit classes ходить на спортивные занятия
have a good night's rest хорошо выспаться
have a hasty ['heIstI] bite наскоро перекусить
have/take a shower принимать душ
have a snack перекусить
have a warm-up ['wþmöp] делать зарядку, разминаться
have the last say in smth. последнее слово остаётся за кем-либо
keep fit быть в форме (вести здоровый образ жизни)
keep late hours сидеть допоздна
keep smb. busy заниматься чем-либо
leisure ['l@Z@] time досуг
lie awake all night пролежать всю ночь, не смыкая глаз
lie in bed валяться в постели
lunchtime время ланча
make a timetable составлять расписание
make the bed застилать/стелить постель
organize one's time планировать время
plan one's week распланировать неделю
put on make up накладывать косметику, краситься
practise swimming/running заниматься плаванием/ бегом
put in a good mood привести кого-либо в хорошее расположение духа
receive guests принимать гостей
relax [rI'l{ks] отдыхать
set off to work отправляться на работу
sit up late засиживаться до поздней ночи
sleep like a log спать мёртвым сном
stay in не выходить, оставаться дома
stay in bed лежать/оставаться в постели
stay out of trouble не влезать в неприятности
strip off to ... раздеться до ...
take a nap вздремнуть, подремать
take a rest отдыхать, спать
take smb. out пригласить, повести кого-либо куда-нибудь
treat

1) удовольствие, наслаждение

2) угощение

use to the full пользоваться чем-либо в полной мере
vary ['ve@rI] (from day to day) менять, разнообразить(день ото дня)
wake up просыпаться
work out 1) разрабатывать
2) заниматься физическими упражнениями

Conversational Formulas:

Не who does not work neither shall he eat. I could get no rest.

I haven't slept a wink.

Let's call it a day.

Let's make a rest from work.

He has a very tight schedule.

Кто не работает, тот не ест.

У меня не было ни минуты покоя.

Я глаз не сомкнул(а).

На сегодня всё.

Давайте сделаем передышку.

Его день расписан по минутам.

Domestic Chores

abrasive [@breIsIv] powder чистящий порошок
air проветривать (помещение)
apron ['eIpr@n] передник
ash зола
attachment насадка (для миксера и т. п.)
basin ['beIsn] таз, миска
be not much of a housewife быть не очень хорошей хозяйкой
beat выбивать, выколачивать (мягкую мебель, ковры и т. п.)
bleach [blÖ¶] отбеливать
block блокировать, засорять
blue

n. — синька

v. — подсинивать

bottle-brush щётка, ёрш для мытья бутылок
broom метла, веник
brush (stiff -, clothes ~) щётка (жёсткая ~, платяная ~)
chaos ['keI@s] хаос, беспорядок
cinder ['sInd@]

1) пепел, зола

2) угольки

clean

1) чистить, очищать

2) убирать (комнату)

dry-cleaner's ["draI'klÖn@z] химчистка
do the cleaning делать уборку
cleanser ['klenz@] жидкое чистящее средство
clear the table убирать со стола
clear up a mess clothes line прибирать, убирать верёвка бельевая
clothes-peg зажим, прищепка
cook-general прислуга, выполняющая обязанности кухарки и горничной
Daily приходящая работница, подёнщица
damage things портить вещи
damp cloth darks (и., pi.) влажная тряпка тёмное белье (собир. сущ.)
detergent [dI'tÆ:³@nt] моющее средство
dish-cloth кухонное, посудное полотенце
dish-washer посудомоечная машина
domestic chores [d@'mestIk '¶þz] домашние обязанности
domestic work работа по дому
do a big wash устраивать/делать большую стирку
do one's laundry ['lþndrI] do smth. about the house стирать делать что-либо по дому
do the dishes мыть посуду
do the ironing do the mending гладить чинить белье
do the repairs do the room делать ремонт делать уборку комнаты
do the work of a flat делать работу по дому
drip drudgery ['drö³@rI] капать тяжёлая, неприятная работа
dry (up) plates, dishes вытирать посуду
dust (the furniture, a room) вытирать пыль (с мебели/в комнате)
dustbin мусорное ведро
duster тряпка (для пыли)
dustpan electrical appliances совок электроприборы
filthy ['fIlTI] грязный
floor-cloth половая тряпка
floor-polisher полотёр
food processor кухонный комбайн
get out of order выйти из строя, сломаться,
get smth. adjusted [@'³östId] налаживать что-либо, чинить
get the dirt into a dustpan смести мусор в совок
glaze the window вставить стекло
go and empty the dustbin выносить ведро
go wrong портиться (о механизмах)
grimy ['graImI] грязный, запачканный сажей, углём
grubby грязный, чумазый, неопрятный
handy ловкий, искусный
hang (out) one's washing вешать, развешивать бельё
hang stockings up by the heels вешать чулки пятками вверх
help smb. in/about the home(house) помогать кому-либо по дому
hideous ['hIdI@s] mess страшный беспорядок
household refuse ['refjüs] отходы
househusband муж, выполняющий домашнюю работу
housekeeping домашнее хозяйство
housework работа по дому
iron [aI@n]

n. — утюг

v. — гладить

ironing board гладильная доска
keep house вести домашнее хозяйство
knit [nIt] вязать
labour-saving devices приборы, облегчающие домашний труд
laundry прачечная
laundry soap хозяйственное мыло
leave smth. till tomorrow откладывать что-либо до завтра
leave things around разбрасывать вещи
lights (n., pi.) светлое бельё (собир. сущ.)
(bed) linen ['lInIn] (постельное) бельё
litter

n. — мусор, сор

v. — сорить, разбрасывать

Liver-in/live-in help домработница, живущая в доме
load (the dirty dishes) into ... загружать (грязную посуду) в ...
look spick and span выглядеть безукоризненно чистым
make a mark посадить пятно
mark (finger ~) пятно (пятно от пальца)
mark the linen/do the marking метить бельё
mend штопать, чинить, ремонтировать
mess in/up производить беспорядок
messy job грязная работа
mop швабра
old hand at smth. опытный в чём-либо
peel off сходить, лупиться (о краске)
polish the furniture/the floor полировать мебель/натирать пол мастикой
put smth. in its place класть, ставить что-либо на место
put up the curtains вешать занавески
remove (a stain/a spot) удалять, выводить (пятно)
rinse [rIns] полоскать
roll [r@Ul] up one's sleeves засучить рукава
mb at smth. with a cloth тереть что-либо тряпкой
rob over протирать (мебель)
ruin one's hands портить руки (домашней работой)
run the house вести домашнее хозяйство
save time and effort экономить время и силы
scorch [skþ¶l опалять, прожечь(во время глажения)
scrape [skreIp] отскабливать
scrub [skröb] the floor тереть, чистить щёткой пол
set things right ремонтировать
sew [s@U] шить
smudge [smö³] сажать пятно
soap suds [södz] мыльная пена или вода
sort out things сортировать, разбирать что-либо
spill 1) проливать(-ся), разливать(-ся) 2) рассыпать(-ся)
squeeze [skwÖz] жать, отжимать
stain (make a ~) пятно (пачкать)
starch [st¸¶] крахмалить
start a machine включать машину
sweep (up) the floor, the dirt, etc. мести, подметать, чистить, очищать
take down the curtains снимать занавески
take the dirt out to the dustbin высыпать мусор в ведро
thorough cleaning (do a ~ ) генеральная уборка(делать генеральную уборку)
tidy up прибирать
tidy out/(do) the tidying out разбирать вещи с целью выбросить что-либо
tuck [tök] things away прятать (убирать) вещи
tumble-dryer ['tömbl,draI@] электросушилка (для белья)
turn a blind eye to smth. закрывать глаза на что-либо
turn out (a room, etc.) делать уборку (комнаты и пр.)
vacuum ['v{kjU@m] пылесосить
vacuum cleaner пылесос
washing

1) бельё, предназначенное для стирки

2) стирка

wash, do the/one's washing стирать
wash by hand стирать вручную
washable нелиняющий, стирающийся
wash-board стиральная доска
wash tub бак стиральной машины
wash up мыть посуду
washing line верёвка бельевая
washing soda ['s@Ud@] стиральный порошок
washing up мытьё посуды
whites (л., pi.) белое бельё (собир. сущ.)
wipe one's hands on smth. вытирать руки о что-либо
wring выжимать (бельё)

Conversational Formulas:

Give me a hand!

He has a wonderful pair of hands.

He worked like a horse/slave.

I'm dog-tired.

I worked my fingers to the bones.

Tired Tim.

Wipe the feet on the doormat!

Помоги мне!

У него золотые руки.

Он работал как вол/лошадь.

Я устал(а) как собака.

Я замучил(а) себя-работой.

Неисправимый лодырь.

Вытри ноги о половик!

Shopping for Food

add up prices складывать стоимость
almond [¸m@nd] миндаль
apple яблоко
apricot ['eIprIkÁt] абрикос
afford smth. позволить себе что-либо
bacon ['beIk@n] бекон
baker's булочная
banana [b@'n¸n@] банан
bargain ['b¸gIn] 1) сделка 2) дёшево купленная вещь
bargain bins корзины с уценённым товаром
bar-code штрих-код
basket (wire ~, shopping ~) корзинка
bass [b{s] окунь
be laid out иметь планировку, быть оборудованным (об интерьере магазина)
beans бобы
beef говядина
beer пиво
beet (beetroot) свёкла
brandy бренди
bread roll батон
brown/white bread чёрный/белый хлеб
bunch пучок
Buigundy [bÆ:g(@)ndI] красное бургундское вино
butcher's мясной магазин
butter масло
buyer покупатель
cabbage капуста
cauliflower ['kÁlI"flaU@] цветная капуста
carrot морковь
cucumber ['kjükömb@] огурец
carrier bag

1) хозяйственная сумка

2) бумажная или полиэтиленовая сумка(выдаётся в магазине вместе с покупкой)

cart тележка
carton ['k¸tn] картонная коробка
cash (pay in ~) деньги (платить наличными)
cash register ['re³Ist@] кассовый аппарат
cashier [k{'SI@] кассир
cereals ['sI@rI@lz] (и., pi.) крупяные изделия
champagne [S{m'peIn] шампанское
change

1) сдача

2) мелкие деньги

check-out point касса на выходе
cheese сыр
chicken цыплёнок (в кулинарии — кура)
chocolates (n., pi.) шоколадные конфеты
cod треска
cognac ['kÁnj{k] коньяк
collect smth. from the racks брать что-либо с полок
conveyor [k@n'veI@] belt лента конвейера
counter (sell below the ~) прилавок (продавать из-под ~)
cream сливки
customer покупатель
cut in front of smb. влезть в очередь перед кем-либо
dairy ['de@rI] shop молочный магазин
display располагать, раскладывать
dried сушёный
dmm баночка (о бытовой химии, специях)
duck утка
egg яйцо
ends of cuts обрезки
expire [Ik'spaI@] истекать (о сроке хранения)
expiry [Ik'spaI@rI] date срок хранения
family pack большая упаковка
family-size большой, на всю семью
fishmonger's ['fIS"möÎg@z] рыбный магазин
flour ['flaU@] мука
food store гастроном
foodstuffs (n., pi.) продукты питания
frozen замороженный
grape-fruit ['greIpfrüt] грейпфрут
grapes (n., pi.) виноград
greens (n., pi.) зелень
greengrocer's магазин «Овощи—фрукты»
grocer's бакалея
ham ветчина
have cash on smb. иметь с собой деньги
herring сельдь, селедка
honey мёд
item покупка
lemon ['lem@n] лимон
lettuce ['letIs] салат
lobster омар; большой речной рак
make out a bill/cheque [¶ek] выписать счёт/чек
mai-garine ["m¸³@'rÖn] маргарин
marked prices наклеенные ценники
Martini [m¸'tÖnI] мартини
mayonnaise ["me(I)@'neIz] майонез
melon дыня
mushroom гриб
mutton баранина
net bag сеточка (для продуктов)
nut орех
oatmeal овсяные хлопья
onion['önI@n] лук
orange апельсин
pack упаковывать
packet пакет
pasta ['p¸st@] макаронные изделия
patisserie [p@'tÖs@rI] кондитерские изделия
pear [pe@] груша
peach персик
peas (pi.) горох
per kilo за килограмм
pick up from the rack взять с полки
pile up заполнить до верха
pineapple ['paIn{pl] ананас
plum слива
pork свинина
potato картофель
poultry ['p@UltrI] птица (собир. сущ.)
prepackaged/prepacked расфасованный
pre-planned goods товары, которые кто-либо собирался купить
pre-prepared goods полуфабрикаты
purchase ['pÆ:¶@s]

n. — покупка

v. — покупать

queue [kju:] (jump the ~) очередь (пройти без очереди)
quick till экспресс-касса
rack полка (в магазине)
radish редис
raisins [reIznz] (и., pi.) изюм
rice рис
salami [s@'l¸mI] салями
salesgirl продавщица
salmon ['s{m@n] лосось (мн. ч. без им.)
sausage ['sÁsI³] 1) колбаса, 2) сосиска
scales [skeIlz] весы
Scotch шотландское виски
sherry херес
shop assistant продавец
shopper покупатель
shopping list список покупок
shopping load гора покупок
shopping trip/expedition поход по магазинам
shrimps (n., pi.) креветки
skimmed milk обезжиренное молоко
sole камбала; палтус
sort one's change out набрать мелочь
sour ['saU@] cream сметана
spaghetti [sp@'getI] спагетти
speciaroffer товар со скидкой
spinach ['spInI³] шпинат
strawberry клубника
sugar сахар
supermarket супермаркет
sweet леденец, конфета
till касса
tin консервная банка
tinned консервированный
tobacconist's магазин «Сигареты-Табак»
toffee [tÁfI] конфета типа ириса, сливочной тянучки
tomato помидор
total up подсчитать
transparent [tr{n'sp{r@nt] прозрачные упаковки
wrappings
trolley [trÁlI] тележка
tub

1) бочонок

2) баночка

tuna ['tjün@] тунец
underweight недовес
veal телятина
vodka водка
water-melon арбуз
weigh [weI] взвешивать
wheel the trolley катить тележку
wine вино
wrap [r{p] (up) заворачивать
yog(h)urt ['jÁgýt] йогурт
Conversational Formulas:
Can I help you? Вам помочь?
Here's your change. Вот Ваша сдача.
Here's your change from your ... Вот Ваша сдача
pounds/dollars ... note. с ... фунтов/долларов.
How much do I owe you? Сколько я Вам должен?
How much does it come to? Сколько всего?
How much is it? Сколько с меня?
I'll save smth. for you. Я вам оставлю.
That's a bargain. Это очень дёшево.
That's expensive. Это дорого.
We've sold out at the moment. Сейчас всё распродано.
What can I get for you? Чего желаете?
What does it cost? Сколько это стоит?
Will that be all? Это всё?
Will this do? Это годится?

Shopping for Consumer Goods

accessories [{k'ses@rIz] аксессуары
advertise ['{dv@taIz] рекламировать
afford позволить себе (купить)
antique [{n'tÖk] shop магазин антиквариата
art shop художественная лавка
article предмет продажи; товар
bargain-hunter завсегдатай распродаж
be good on smb. хорошо сидеть на ком-либо
be loose on smb. сидеть свободно (об одежке)
be of service быть полезным
be on offer быть в продаже
be two sizes too large (small) 1. быть на два размера , больше (меньше)
bookshop книжный магазин
boutique [bü'tÖk] небольшой магазин женской одежды, модная лавка
browse [braUz] through рассматривать (товар)
changing room примерочная
check-out till касса
choice of goods выбор товаров
client ['klaI@nt] клиент
come off отрываться (о пуговице, ярлыке и пр.)
come undone расходиться (о шве, молнии и пр.)
come unstuck отклеиваться
cost the earth стоить бешеные деньги
costly дорогой
courteous ['kÆ:tI@s] вежливый, обходительный
customer постоянный покупатель
dear дорогой (о цене)
department store универмаг
discount ['dIskaUnt] скидка
display витрина
display goods выставлять товар на витрине
drapery department/draper's ['dreIp@z] отдел/магазин тканей
exchange обменивать
extravagant [Ik'str{v@g@nt] , расточительный
faulty ['fþltI] goods товары с дефектами
festive [festIv] праздничный
fit быть впору
florist's/flower shop цветочный магазин
furniture shop мебельный магазин
gift shop магазин подарков
give (about things) растягиваться (о вещах)
give a discount предоставлять скидку
glace ['gl{seI] лаковый
go cheap дешеветь
go sky-high повышаться (о ценах)
go well with smth. подходить, гармонировать
haberdashery ['h{b@d{S@rI] галантерея
hi-fi store ['haIfaI 'stþ] магазин аудио-видеотехники
hosiery ['h@UzI@rI] department отдел чулочных изделий
instep подъём (о ступне)
ironmonger's [aI@nmöÎg@z] магазин скобяных изделий
jeweller's ['³ü@l@z] ювелирный магазин
kiosk ['kÖÁsk] киоск
knitwear трикотаж, вязаные вещи
leather [leD@] кожа, кожаный
leisurewear одежда для отдыха и туризма
lingerie ['l{nZ@rÖ] department отдел дамского белья
loafers уличные туфли, ботинки
look around рассматривать товар
mall торговый центр
manageress заведующая
mannequin ['m{nIkIn] манекен
match подходить (по цвету, стилю)
measure ['meZ@] измерять
merchandise ['mÆ:¶@ndaIz] товары
millinery ['mIlInrI] department отдел дамских шляп
money spinner прибыльное дело
nightwear ночное белье
optician's [Áp'tIS@nz] оптика
order заказывать
overheads (я., pi.) накладные расходы
pet shop зоомагазин
photographic shop магазин фототоваров
pinch жать (об обуви)
purchase ['pÆ:¶@s] покупка
purchaser покупатель
price (cut/reduce ~) цена (снижать ~)
(increase/raise ~) (поднимать ~)
queue [kju:]/line (Am.)

п. — очередь

v . — стоять в очереди

rack полка
radio ['reIdI@U] shop магазин радиотоваров
range of goods ассортимент товаров
record ['rekþd] shop магазин грампластинок
retail ['rÖteIl]

n. — розница

v. — продавать в розницу

receipt [rI'sÖt] чек
refund

n. — ['rÖfönd] возмещение расходов

v. – [rI'fönd] возмещать расходы

run линять (о цвете, краске)
run out of smth. кончаться, распродавать
sale (be on ~) распродажа (быть в продаже)
sell out распродавать
shop around присматриваться к ценам, качеству; подбирать подходящий товар
shopper покупатель
devoted shopper любитедь(ница) покупок
shopping centre/precinct ['prÖsIÎkt] торговый центр
shop counter прилавок
shrink садиться (об одежде)
size размер
spend money тратить деньги
spendthrift/big spender транжир(ка)
sports shop магазин спорттоваров
stall [stþl] ларёк, киоск
stationer's ['steIS@n@z] магазин канцтоваров
stiletto [stI'let@U] shoes туфли на шпильках
stock

п. — ассортимент товаров

v. — иметь в продаже

stretch растягиваться
substandard ["söb'st{nd@d] некондиционный
suede [sweId] замша
suit [s(j)u:t] быть к лицу
super buy отличная покупка
tight [taIt] тесный
toy shop магазин игрушек
trendy модный
try smth. on примерять
value for money выгодная покупка
vendor[vend@] торговец
wait on smb. обслуживать
waste money тратить деньги
wholesale вести оптовую торговлю
window shopping (go ~) разглядывание витрин(разглядывать витрины, ничего не покупая)
Conversational Formulas:
Are you in the queue/line? Вы стоите?
Are you the last in the queue/line? Вы последний?
It's not my size. Это не мой размер.
What do you have in size 7? Какие у вас есть седьмого размера?
This colour shoe does not match my dress. Эти туфли по цвету не подходят к платью.
I'll pay in cash/by card/by cheque. Я заплачу наличными/магнитной картой/чеком.

Meals and Coo king

aperitif [¸"perI'tÖf| аперитив
appetite ['{pItaIt] аппетит
bake печь
baking pan форма для выпечки
be overweight иметь лишний вес
be ready for dinner ... быть готовым пообедать
be seated at the table сидеть за столом
beat отбивать; взбивать
beverage [bev@rI³] напиток
biscuit [bIskIt] печенье
boil варить, кипятить
bolt [b@Ult] заглатывать
book the table заказать столик
borsch [bþS] борщ
breadcrumbs панировочные сухари
breakfast завтрак
bring to the boil довести до кипения
broil жарить на открытом огне
buffet ['bUfeI] буфет
bun булочка
cafe ['k{feI] кафе
cafeteria ["k{f@'tI@rI@] кафетерий
cake пирожное, кекс
calorie/caloly [k{l@rI] калория
canteen [k{n'tÖn] столовая (фабричная, заводская)
casserole ['k{s@r@Ul] запеканка
champ чавкать, жевать
chew жевать
choke on smth. подавиться чем-либо
chicken Kiev котлеты по-киевски
chop

п. — отбивная котлета

v. — 1) рубить, нарезать, шинковать; 2) пропустить через мясорубку

cocoa ['k@Uk@U] какао
coffee кофе
condiment ['kÁndIm@nt] приправа
continental breakfast континентальный завтрак
cook готовить
corn flakes кукурузные хлопья
cmnch грызть с хрустом, хрустеть
crust корка (хлеба), корочка (пирога)
cuisine [kwI'zÖn] кухня, кулинарное искусство
cutlet отбивная котлета
delicious вкусный
dessert [dI'zÆ:t] десерт
devour [dI'vaU@] есть жадно, поглощать, пожирать
drink to smth. пить за что-либо
double Martini двойная порция мартини
dough [d@U] тесто
doughnut ['d@Unöt] пончик, пышка
dumpling клецка
eat out есть в ресторане, кафе и пр.
eat with a fork/fingers есть вилкой/руками
eclair [eI'kle@] эклер
fast food restaurant ресторан быстрого обслуживания
fattening products продукты, от которых полнеют
fillet ['fIlIt] филе
fish and chips рыба с жареным картофелем
fried eggs яичница
fry жарить
frying pan сковорода
garnish ['g¸nIS] гарнир
glutton обжора
gnaw [nþ] грызть, глодать
gobble есть быстро, жадно и шумно, пожирать
gourmand ['gU@m@nd] лакомка, гурман
gravy ['greIvI] мясной соус, подлива
groan with food ломиться от еды
grill жарить на гриле
gulp глотать с жадностью или поспешностью
hard-boiled/soft-boiled eggs яйца, сваренные вкрутую/всмятку
have a sweet tooth быть сладкоежкой
have breakfast/dinner завтракать/обедать
have meals есть, принимать пищу
healthy food здоровая пища
heat подогревать
hog пожирать, заглатывать
home-made preserves домашние консервы
hot

1) горячий

2) острый, пряный, перченый

hot drink горячительный напиток
inedible [In'ed@bl] несъедобный
jam варенье
jelly желе
juice [³üs] сок
keep the diet соблюдать диету
lard жир (кулинарный)
lay the table for two накрыть стол на двоих
lose weight худеть
lunch ланч, второй завтрак
luncheon официальный завтрак
macaroni ["m{k@'r@UnI] макароны
marmalade ['m¸m@leId] апельсиновый джем
meat balls тефтели
meat/fish/sweet course мясное/рыбное/сладкое блюдо
melt растопить
meringue [m@'r{Î] меренга, безе
mince

1) крошить, рубить

2) пропускать через мясорубку

minced meat фарш
mix смешивать
muffin ['möfIn]

1) горячая булочка

2) оладья

3) кекс (амер.)

munch жевать (беззубым ртом), чавкать
mustard горчица
nibble

1) грызть, глодать

2) - at smth.— покусывать что-либо

orange juice апельсиновый сок
oven ['övn] духовка
overdone пережаренный
pan кастрюля
pancake блин
paste [peIst] паста; паштет
pasta ['p¸st@]

1) макаронные изделия

2) итальянские блюда из макарон

pastry ['peIstrI] кондитерские изделия
pickles [pIklz] соленья, маринады
pie пирог
pizzeria ["pÖts@'rI(:)@] пиццерия
porridge жидкая овсяная каша
portion порция
powdered sugar сахарная пудра
pub паб
puff pastry слоёное тесто
raise a glass поднять бокал
ravioli ["r{vI'@UlI] равиоли; пельмени
recipe ['resIpI] рецепт
refectory [rI'fekt@rI] столовая (в колледже, университете)
restaurant ['rest(@)rÁnt] ресторан
rich сдобный (о тесте, изделиях из теста)
rind [raInd] кожица, кожура плода
roast жарить,запекать
roll булочка
roll out раскатать
rub smth. into smth. растереть что-либо с чем-ли(
rusk сухарь
Russian beet salad винегрет
salad салат
sandwich бутерброд
sauce [sþs] соус
saucepan ['sþsp@n] кастрюля
say/pronounce a toast сказать/произнести тост
seafood restaurant рыбный ресторан
shortcrust песочное тесто
shrimp креветка
simmer кипеть на медленном огне, закипать
sizzle шипеть (при жарений)
slim худеть
snack bar закусочная
soak замачивать, пропитывать
soft drink безалкогольный напиток
souffle ['su:fleI] суфле
spaghetti [sp@'getI] спагетти
specialty ['speS@ltI] фирменное блюдо
spicy ['spaIsI] острый, приправленный специями
squeeze out отжать
starter закуска
steak бифштекс
stick to a diet соблюдать диету
stir [stз:] мешать, помешивать
strain процеживать
stuff начинять, фаршировать
substantial плотный (о завтраке, обеде)
swallow глотать
take milk in one's coffee/tea пить кофе/чай с молоком
takeaway ['teIk@,weI] food блюдо, отпускаемое на вынос
taste smth. попробовать что-либо
tea чай
toast

1) тост, ломтик подрумяненного хлеба

2) тост, застольная речь

underdone недожаренный
vermicelli ["vз:mI'selI] вермишель
waffle [wÁfl] вафля
wait on smb. обслуживать кого-либо
waiter официант
whipped cream взбитые сливки
whisk сбивать (белки и т. п.)
whistling kettle чайник со свистком
Conversational formulas:
I'm thirsty. Я хочу пить.
I'm hungry. Я хочу есть.
I'm starving. Я очень хочу есть(умираю от голода).
Thank you, I've had enough. Спасибо, я сыт.
The potatoes (the spaghetti) need some salt. Картофель (спагетти) недосолен(ы).
Would you like some more? Хотите ещё?
No, not for me, thanks. Нет, мне не надо, спасибо.
Could you pass me the salt? Не могли бы вы передать соль?
It is just the kind my mother makes. Моя мама готовит точно так же.

College Life

analytical reading аналитическое чтение
applicant ['{plIk@nt] абитуриент
assignment [@'saInm@nt] задание
assistant professor и.о. доцента
associate professor доцент

Bachelor's degree

['b{tS@l@z dIg'rÖ]

степень бакалавра
be absorbed быть поглощённым, увлечённым
be bored скучать
be good at smth. хорошо уметь делать что-либо
be used to smth. привыкнуть к чему-либо
be on идти (о лекции, занятии)
be smth. by training быть кем-либо по специальности
campus ['k{mp@s] кампус, территория университета, колледжа или школы
carry on scientific/research work вести научно- исследовательскую работу
catch up (with) навёрстывать упущенное,
догонять
certificate [s@'tIfIk@t] свидетельство (об окончании среднего учебного заведения, и пр.)
cheat пользоваться шпаргалкой
check up проверять
coach обучать (одного или группу)
coach smb. for an exam готовить кого-либо к экзамену
college; университетский колледж университет; специальное высшее учебное заведение (педагогическое, военное и т. п.); средняя школа с интернатом
college work учёба в колледже
come down to a choice встать перед выбором
composition сочинение
conversation устная практика, разговор (аспект преподавания иностранного языка)
cram наспех зазубривать
crib

n . — шпаргалка;

v . — списывать тайком

curriculum [k@'rIkjUl@m] учебная программа
deal with smb. иметь дело с кем-либо
dean декан
dean's office кабинет декана
degree (to take one's ~) ученая степень, звание (получить ~)
department отделение
devote much time to studies посвящать, уделять много времени учёбе
diploma [dI'pl@Um@] диплом, свидетельство
disrupt classes срывать занятия
dissertation ["dIs@'teISn] диссертация, трактат
distraction [dI'str{kS@n] то, что отвлекает внимание
do postgraduate work учиться в аспирантуре
do well справляться, успевать, хорошо учиться
educate ['e³UkeIt] давать образование, воспитывать
education ['e³U'keISn] (primaiy/secondary/higher ~) образование, обучение (начальное/среднее/ высшее ~)
educational system система образования
enter a university поступить в университет
examine экзаменовать, принимать экзамен
examination (exam) экзамен
examination period (exams) экзаменационная сессия
examination question (paper) экзаменационный билет
essay ['eseI] сочинение, эссе
faculty факультет
faculty office деканат
fail an examination in smth. провалиться на экзамене
failure ['feIlj@] провал, неудача
fall (lag) behind отставать
final exams (finals) выпускные экзамены
freshman (Am.) первокурсник (амер.)
full-time student студент дневного отделения
get down to work приниматься за работу
get on well (in/at smth.) хорошо успевать (по какому-либо предмету)
give a pass поставить зачет
give up оставить, отказаться (от работы, учёбы)
go to lectures ходить на лекции
go up to university поступать в университет
grammar грамматика
grammatical theory теоретическая грамматика
grade (Am.) оценка (амер.)
graduate ['gr{³UeIt] from a university окончить университет
graduate ['gr{³UIt] выпускник
graduation dissertation дипломная работа
grant [gr¸nt] стипендия
grind [graInd] away (for, at) зубрить
have a lecture проводить лекцию
have classes in smth. проводить занятия-по какому-либо предмету
have a good command [k@'m¸nd] of smth. хорошо владеть чем-либо; хорошо уметь делать что-либо
head of department зав. кафедрой
hold examinations проводить экзамены
holidays (vacation) каникулы
home-reading домашнее чтение
homework домашнее задание
hostel ['hÁstl] общежитие
improve совершенствовать(ся)
instruct обучать (чаще практическим навыкам)
junior ['³ünI@] студент младших курсов
keep up (with smb.) не отставать, держаться наравне с кем-либо
keep in one's head держать в голове
lack (smth.) не хватать (о чём-либо)
learn изучать, учить, учиться
learn smth. by heart учить наизусть
lecture лекция
lecturer преподаватель, лектор
library card читательский билет
live in a hall of residence жить в общежитии
major ['meI³@] in smth. (Am.) специализироваться по какому-либо предмету (в колледже и т. п.)
make progress (in smth.) делать успехи (в чём-либо)
Master's degree степень магистра
master владеть, овладевать (языком и т. п.)
memorize ['mem@raIz] заучивать наизусть

miss classes

(~ on a plausible ['plþz@bl]excuse, for a good reason)

пропускать занятия

(~ по уважительной причине)

neglect пропускать, забрасывать
oral ['þr@l] защита диссертации
paper доклад
pass an examination сдать экзамен
pass in smth. выдержать экзамен
part-time student студент вечернего отделения
period [pI@rI@d] урок, учебный час
Philology филология
phonetics [f@'netIks] фонетика
pick up (разг.) нахвататься (обрывков знаний), научиться, не обучаясь специально, между делом
pick up a foreign language нахвататься фраз на иностранном языке
play truant ['tru: @nt] прогуливать уроки
post-graduate ["p@Ust'gr{djUIt]student аспирант
professor профессор
put off откладывать
read up for exams готовиться к экзаменам
reader преподаватель (университета), лектор

record book

(students' record book)

зачётная книжка
rector ректор
scholarship ['skÁl@SIp] стипендия
(apply for a ~) подавать документы на получение стипендии
(get/receive/win a~) получать стипендию
semester (Am.) [sI'mest@] семестр
senior ['si:nI@] студент старшего курса
senior lecturer старший преподаватель
session [seS@n] сессия
students' membership card студенческий билет
subdean зам. декана
specialize in smth. специализироваться в чём-либо
students' council студенческий совет
students' society студенческое общество
study заниматься, изучать (какой-либо предмет)
synopsis [sI'nÁpsIs], pl. -es [i:z] конспект(ы)
take a degree получить учёную степень
take an examination держать, сдавать экзамен
take notes делать записи, пометки
talk беседа, лекция, сообщение
(give a ~ on smth.) сделать сообщение на тему/о ...
teach (English) преподавать (английский язык)
teacher (a history teacher) учитель, преподаватель (учитель истории)
teacher training подготовка к преподавательской деятельности
teacher's certificate диплом учителя
teacher's training college педагогический институт
teaching profession профессия педагога
teaching staff [st¸f] преподавательский состав
test period зачётная сессия
thesis ['TÖs@s], pi. -es [i:z] диссертация(и)
train обучать, обучаться, учить (профессии, мастерству)
translation перевод
tuition [tjir'ifan] обучение
pay tuition fee оплачивать обучение
free (half) tuition бесплатное обучение (половина платы)
tutor ['tju:t@]

п. — руководитель группы студентов

v . — давать частные уроки; руководить работой студентов

(~ smb in Latin) учить кого-либо латинскому языку
tutorial [tjü'tþrI@l]

1) занятие,

2) консультация

undergraduate ['önd@"gr{³UIt] студент
university университет
vice-rector проректор
written composition письменная практика
written reproduction изложение
yearly ['jI@lI] essay курсовая работа
Conversational formulas:
I have passed. Я сдал.
I have failed. Я не сдал.
То get smth. down pat. Вызубрить так, чтоб от зубов отскакивало.
Crammer/tool/mug. Зубрилка.
It goes in one ear and out the other. В одно ухо влетает, в другое вылетает.
He crammed the pupil for an examination. Он натаскивал ученика к экзамену.

Character and Appearance

absent-minded рассеянный, невнимательный
add to one's attraction делать более привлекательным
appeal to smb. привлекать
aquiline ['{kwIlaIn] орлиный (о носе)
attractive привлекательный
bald [bþld] лысый; плешивый
bear no resemblance to smb. быть непохожим на кого-либо
be characteristic of smb. быть характерным для кого-либо
be dressed in smth. быть одетым во что-либо
be dressed up быть разодетым
be in the habit of doing smth. иметь привычку что-либо делать
be in one's mid/late thirties, быть в возрасте за 30, 40
forties, etc. и т.д.
be the perfect type of smb. быть воплощением/ превосходным образцом кого-либо
be very much the same in appearance быть очень похожим внешне
beauty красавица
broad-shouldered широкоплечий
calm спокойный
capable способный
charming очаровательный
close-set близко поставленные (о глазах)
clumsy неуклюжий
coarse [kþs] грубый
comb back зачёсывать назад
complexion цвет лица
conduct ['kÁndökt] поведение
considerate отзывчивый, чуткий
constitution ["kÁnstI'tjüSn] сложение
cordial ['kþdI@l] сердечный, радушный
courage ['körI³] храбрость, отвага, смелость, мужество, бодрость духа
curious ['kjU@rI@s]

1) любознательный

2) любопытный

3) возбуждающий любопытство

curly кудрявый, вьющийся (о волосах)
dark-skinned смуглый, темнокожий
deep-set глубоко посаженные (о глазах)
delicately built хрупкого телосложения
determined решительный, твёрдый
dimpled с ямочками (о щеках)
done in a knot [nÁt] собранные в узел (о волосах)
dreamy мечтательный
dress tastily/cleanly/smartly одеваться со вкусом/аккуратно/ модно, элегантно
enjoy good health обладать отменным здоровьем
envious завистливый
even-tempered уравновешенный
extravagant [Ik'str{v@g@nt]

1) сумасбродный, нелепый

2) расточительный

fair-haired светловолосый
fat толстый, полный
finely-curved с красивым изгибом
firmness

1) твёрдость

2) неизменность, постояноство, непоколебимость

frank откровенный
freckled ['frekld] - веснушчатый
fussy суетливый, беспокойный
generosity

1) великодушие, благородство

2) щедрость

generous

1) великодушный, благородный

2) щедрый

gentle

1) мягкий, добрый, кроткий

2) нежный, ласковый

gesture ['³estS@] жест
gloomy

1) мрачный

2) угрюмый, подавленный

3) хмурый, унылый

go back on one's words нарушать слово, отказываться от своих слов
good-looking красивый, интересный, хорошенький
good looks хорошие внешние данные, красота, миловидность
good mixer общительный человек
handsome ['h{ns@m] красивый
have a high opinion of oneself быть о себе высокого мнения
have a way with smb. быть обаятельным, располагать к себе
have smth. one's own way поступать по-своему
hazel ['heIz@l] карий (о глазах)
honesty ['ÁnIstI] честность, правдивость, прямота
hooked [hUkt] крючковатый (о носе)
hot-tempered вспыльчивый
humility смирение, покорность, кротость
hypocritical ["hIp@'krItIkl] лицемерный
ignoramus ["ign@'reIm@s] невежда
ill-bred плохо воспитанный
ill-mannered с плохими манерами
ill-tempered с плохим характером
the very image of smb. точная копия кого-либо
industrious [In'döstrI@s] трудолюбивый, усердный, прилежный
inquiring [In'kwaI@rIÎ] любознательный
inquisitive [In'kwIzItIv] любознательный, пытливый
intellect ['int@lekt] интеллект
intellectual ["Int@'lektSU@l] интеллектуальный, умный
intelligence ум, смышлёность
intelligent умный
jealous ['³el@s] ревнивый
listless равнодушный, безразличный, апатичный
long-armed с длинными руками
long-legged длинноногий
look like smb. быть похожим на кого-либо
look one's age выглядеть на свои годы
look old/young for one's age выглядеть старым/молодо
mediocrity ["mÖdI'ÁkrItI] посредственность
(of) medium height среднего роста
mild тихий, мягкий
modest скромный
narrow-minded ограниченный, недалекий, с предрассудками
narrow-shouldered узкоплечий
naughty ['nþtI] непослушный, шаловливый
nervous

1) нервный

2) нервирующий

3) взволнованный

nosy любопытный, сующий всюду свой нос
(dis)obedient (не)послушный, (не)покорный
obstinate ['ÁbstInIt] упрямый, упорный
open-handed щедрый
parted on the right/left side/in the middle с пробором справа/ слева/ посередине
patience терпение
patient терпеливый
pensive ['pensIv] задумчивый, мечтательный
plait [pl{t] коса
ins заплетённый в косы
plump полный, толстый, пухлый
pointed острый (о подбородке)
(im)polite (не)вежливый
pragmatic прагматичный, практичный
precocious [prI'k@US@s] развитый не по годам (часто с отрицательной коннотацией)
quarrelsome ['kwÁr@ls@m] вздорный, драчливый, задиристый
resemble smb. походить на кого-либо
reserved сдержанный, замкнутый, необщительный
responsible ответственный, разумный
responsive отзывчивый, чувствительный
mde грубый
scrooge [skrü³] скряга
self-assured самоуверенный
selfish эгоистичный
sense of humour чувство юмора
sensible разумный
sensitive

1) чувствительный, восприимчивый

2) обидчивый

serious ['sI@rI@s] серьезный
silky шелковистый (о волосах)
sincere [sIn'sI@] искренний
sincerity [sIn'serItI] искренность
shoulder length длиной до плеч (о волосах)
shrewd [Srüd]

1) проницательный, тонкий (об уме)

2) хитрый, злобный

shy робкий
skinny тощий
slanting ['sl¸ntIÎ] раскосый
slender стройный
slim

1) тонкий, изящный, стройный

2) хрупкий (о телосложении)

(unsociable (не)общительный
solidly-built крепкого телосложения
spendthrift ['spend"TrIft] мот, транжира
steep крутой (о лбе)
stingy [stIn³I] скупой, жадный
straight [streIt] прямой
stubborn упрямый, упорный
sympathetic сочувственный, сочувствующий
take after smb. походить на кого-либо, быть похожим
thrifty экономный, бережливый
thoughtful [Tþtfl]

1) думающий, мыслящий

2) заботливый, внимательный

timid скромный, робкий
tolerance терпимость
tolerant терпимый
ugly уродливый
up-turned вздёрнутый (о носе)
wavy волнистый (о волосах)
weak-willed слабовольный
well-bred хорошо воспитанный
well-brought up хорошо воспитанный
wicked ['wIkId]

1) злой, злобный

2) безнравственный, порочный, грязный

wise [waIz] мудрый
witty остроумный
wrinkled ['rIÎk(@)ld] морщинистый
Conversational Formulas:
He is always the heart and soul of the company. Он всегда — душа компании.
She has lost her good looks. Она подурнела.
She is the picture of health. Она — кровь с молоком.
They arc as like as two peas. Они похожи как две капли воды.
They get along well with each other. Они хорошо ладят друг с другом.

Weather

be cast with clouds быть затянутым облаками
be caught in a storm быть застигнутым бурей
be subject to changes быть переменчивым (о погоде)
beastly [bÖstlI] мерзкий (о погоде)
bedew [bI'djü] оросить, увлажнить
blast/gust of wind порыв ветра
blizzard ['blIz@d] метель, вьюга
blow дуть
break наступить (об утре, дне)
breeze легкий ветер, бриз
bright ясный, яркий
brighten up проясняться
brisk свежий (о ветре)
cast [k¸st] отбрасывать (тень)
change for the better улучшиться
chill холодный, студёный
chilly холодный
clean чистый
clear чистый, без облаков
clear up проясняться
cool прохладный
damp влажный (холодный и влажный)
die down/away - утихнуть (о ветре)
downpour ['daUnpþ] ливень
drench проливной дождь
draught [dr¸ft]

1) глоток

2) поток

3) сквозняк

drizzle n . — мелкий дождь, изморось v. — моросить
drought [draUt] засуха
drip капать
drop капля
dry сухой (о погоде, климате)
dull пасмурный
fall выпадать (о дожде)
flash вспышка
flood [flöd] наводнение
fog туман
freeze морозить
fresh свежий
frost мороз
gale сильный ветер, шторм
get cold холодать, становиться холодно
get stiff/numb with cold окоченеть от холода
get under the rain попасть под дождь
glazed frost гололёд
greenhouse effect парниковый эффект
ground frost заморозок
grow hot/warm/cold становиться жарко/тепло/ холодно
hail град
have a frost-bitten nose отморозить нос
haze легкий туман, дымка, мгла
heat

n . — жара

v . — согревать, греть

heavy сильный (о дожде)
hoarfrost ['hþfrÁst] иней, изморозь
humid ['hjümId] влажный (тёплый и влажный)
hurricane ['hörIk@n] ураган
Ice Age ледниковый период
ice drift ледоход
icicle ['aIsIkl] сосулька
icing ['aIsIÎ] гололедица, обледенение
Indian summer бабье лето
intermittent временами (о погоде)
lightning ['laItnIÎ] молния
loom маячить
mackerel ['m{krel] sky небо с барашками облаков
melt таять
meteorologist ["mÖtI@'rÁl@³Ist] метеоролог
mist лёгкий туман, дымка
moderate ['mÁd@r@t] умеренный
moist [mOIst] влага
mount [maUnt] подняться, всходить
nasty ['n¸stI] отвратительный, мерзкий, скверный
overcast затянутый тучами
patchy местами
pool лужа
pour [pþ] лить (о дожде)
puddle ['pödl] маленькая грязная лужица
rain curtain завеса дождя
rainbow ['reInb@U] радуга
rainfall дождь, выпадение осадков
rainstorm ливень с ураганом
roll of thunder раскат грома
rumble [römbl] грохотать
shadow тень
shower ливень
shred обрывок, полоса
slacken ['sl{kn] ослабевать, стихать
slant скользить (о луче солнца)
sleet дождь со снегом, мокрый снег
slush талый снег, слякоть
smite (smote, smitten) ударять (о молнии)
smoke куриться
snowdrift сугроб, занос
snowflake снежинка
snowstonn снежная буря
spell период
squall [skwþl] шквал
steam up париться, подниматься (о паре)
strand полоса
stream

n . — поток

v . — литься потоком

sun tan солнечный загар
sunshine солнце, солнечный свет
swirl [swÆ:l] кружиться в водовороте, нестись вихрем
tatters (n., pi.) [t{t@z] клочья
thaw [Tþ] таять, оттаивать
thunder гром
torrents (n., pi.) ['tÁr@nts] ливень
turn bad испортиться (о погоде)
veil завеса, пелена
weather forecast ['weD@ 'fþk¸st] прогноз погоды
weather lore ['weD@ "lþ] наука/знания о природе, народные приметы
weather sign ['weD@ "saIn] примета погоды
weatherman метеоролог
whirlwind вихрь
windy ветренный
wretched [retSId] мерзкий (о погоде)
Conversational Formulas:
A change is coming in the weather. Погода меняется.
I am chilled to the bone. Я продрог до костей.
I am drenched through. Я вымок до нитки.
I am freezing. Мне холодно.
I am soaked to the skin; Я промок до нитки.
I feel hot. Мне жарко.
It'll change for the better. Погода переменится к лучшему.
It's getting/growing warm/cold. Становится тепло/холодно.
It's pouring! Льёт как из ведра!
The weather is fine/nice/awful. Погода прекрасная/ хорошая/ ужасная.
The weather keeps nice. Стоит хорошая погода.
We are in for a spell of good weather. Ожидается хорошая погода.

Меркулова Е. М., Филимонова О. Е., Костыгина С. И., Иванова Ю. А., Папанова Л. В.

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ УНИВЕРСИТЕТОВ

ЧТЕНИЕ, ПИСЬМЕННАЯ И УСТНАЯ ПРАКТИКА

Редактор Нейтан Франклин Лонган, профессор кафедры

современных языков и литератур, Оклендский университет

Редактор, корректор Юлия Леонидовна Шишова

Художник Екатерина Львовна Янина

Компьютерная верстка Елена Леонидовна Яшенкова

ЛР № 000373 от 30.12.99 г.

Подписано в печать 10.03.2000 г. Формат 84х1081 /32 .

Гарнитура «Ньютон». Печ. л. 12.

Печать офсетная. Бумага типографская.

Тираж 10 000 экз. Заказ № 312,

«Издательство Союз»

198095, Санкт-Петербург, ул. Шкапина, д. 23, литера А.

Отпечатано с готовых диапозитивов

в ГИПК «Ленизцат» (типография им. Володарского)

Министерства Российской Федерации по делам печати,

телерадиовещания и средств массовых коммуникаций.

191023, Санкт-Петербург, ваб. р. Фонтанки, 59.

ОТКРЫТЬ САМ ДОКУМЕНТ В НОВОМ ОКНЕ

ДОБАВИТЬ КОММЕНТАРИЙ [можно без регистрации]

Ваше имя:

Комментарий