Doryphorus Of Polyclitus Essay, Research Paper
FA 48 ART OF THE WESTERN WORLD ESSAY QUESTIONS 1 THROUGH 4Michael J. Wiggin 6/8/98Program One: CLASSICAL IDEALQuestion number oneArchaic example: KOUROS c. 540 BC (page 12 of text)Classical example: THE DORYPHORUS OF POLYCLITUS c. 440 BC (page 13 of text) The archaic piece is stiff, formal and yet, faintly smiling, giving the viewer a sense of joy in life and of triumph. These were modeled after Egyptian sculptures and followed an established canon. One foot in front of the other, arms at the sides, head upright and facing forward, the broad square shoulders, and in the rigidly symmetrical organization. The piece represents sculpture based on received knowledge rather than an intense visual analysis. The piece has the appearance of being a representation of a generic youth rather than representing a particular person. The name of the artist is not known. The classical piece shows that the artist was now more concerned with the visual representation of the natural male form. Though still commemorative, as the kouroi had been, the sculptures reflected individuals. Although they were less generalized, they were still controlled by an established canon of geometric order. The weight is shifted to one leg. The figure turns, head tilts to one side, the arms are held away from the body, and the symmetry of the archaic period is all but gone. The face is an expression of severity, melancholy, and thought. The name of the artist is known.Question number two The concept and use of the arch was not new to the Romans. Concrete was not new to the Romans. It was the Romans that put the two building materials together. Key to this union was the discovery of adding of a volcanic sand called Potsolla(?). The addition of this sand to the composition of the concrete slowed the curing. The advantages of the slower drying mixture are increased strength, and the ability to formed into shapes. Allowing the builder to fuse the entire structure from bottom to top. With this new and revolutionary building material, the Romans were able to incorporate the arch in ways that transformed the building of large structures. This was to become known as vaulted architecture. The arch can support more weight and span greater space than the Greek post and lentil. With formed concrete the Romans could construct, using the basic arch, structures such as barrel vaults, groin vaults, and domes. Combining these construction techniques the result were the large structures we know today. The Pantheon?s place in the history of Roman architecture is that it is the clearest statement of the principles through which Roman architecture enclosed space and created its own interior universe. It was the largest domed structure for nearly 18 centuries. Dimensionally its height and diameter are equal at 142 ft. which implies that the space created is enclosing a sphere. The emphasis was on the interior space of the building instead of the exterior form. It?s design can still be seen today. Take a trip to the Vanderbilt Museum and examine the exterior structure of the Planetarium. Program two: THE WHITE GARMENT OF CHURCHESQuestion number three The two key reasons are pilgrimage and monasticism.During the eleventh and twelfth centuries the cult of saints came to be an important spiritual force in western Europe. These resulted in hundreds of thousands of people making pilgrimages to holy religious shrines. These churches were constructed to not only house the shrine, but also to accommodate the large number people that would visit. The more cherished the relic enclosed in these shrines the more people that would visit and make monetary donations. The monastic movement spurred the growth of large monasteries. These structures were the key to the self-contained, self-sufficient communities that cut themselves off from the outside world. The most successful of these monastic orders would receive large donations of land and money from the more affluent citizens as a way to guaranteed salvation.Question number four For the Romanesque churches the answer is yes. Builders of the Romanesque churches were faced with three major problems: obtaining adequate space and circulation; building solid, fireproof structures; and admitting the light of day to the interiors. The Romanesque style of construction satisfies these requirements. With their high vaulted ceilings and vast interior space they could accommodate the large crowds that would converge on the church. The vaulted construction allowed the use of fireproof stone enclosures instead of the roof made of timber. The high walls were broken up into galleries to handle the overflow of people and into windows. The primary function was to facilitate the viewing of holy relics. A classic example of the arrangement of the interior space is ST. SERNIN, Toulouse. The congregation enters though a porch at the open end of the vault. They are guided along a sacred way of arches, the nave, that leads to a distant and luminous choir and high alter where the holy relic is housed. To manage the traffic of the hundreds of noisy pilgrims, an ambulatory was formed around the high alter. The vaulted design also offers very good acoustics. Even the sculptures that adorn the exterior of the structure serve a purpose. The general population was still very illiterate and by using sculpture the church was able to convey its message. For example the LAST JUDGEMENT at Saint-Lazare Cathedral. For the Gothic style the answer is also yes. By the end of the twelfth century Europe?s population had almost tripled. The church had moved from a destination for a pilgrimage to a focus of civic pride. The rituals of peoples lives now were focused in the church. In order to accommodate the larger congregations the churches had to built even larger than the Romanesque buildings. With the incorporation of the flying buttress, the buildings could now be wider and taller. With their slender support columns, divisions are played down. With their pointed arches and ribbed vaults, open space is even more pronounced. This new style allowed the thick heavy walls of the Romanesque church to be replaced with walls of beautifully decorated stained glass windows. A splendid example is the CHARTRES CATHEDRAL. The visionary for this dramatic change is Abbot Suger. He believed that the light now becomes a divine light, a revelation of the spirit. The light creates a strange region, suspended between earth and the heavenly universe. The sculpture of the Gothic churches also usher in a new relationship between sculpture and architecture. The images, like the ones found at the west portal of the CHARTRES CATHEDRAL, although dictated by the architecture, are no longer remote. They now appear very human and convey the promise of salvation which is the embodiment of the twelfth century?s humanism.