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Unite 3 Basic Economic Terms

Контрольная работа по дисциплине «Иностранный язык профессионально-коммуникативный» Unite Basic Economic Terms 1. Study the following vocabulary before reading.

Контрольная работа по дисциплине

«Иностранный язык профессионально-коммуникативный»

Unite 3 – Basic Economic Terms

1. Study the following vocabulary before reading.

aggregate demand совокупныйдоход

chargeable taxes взимаемыеналоги

collect taxes взиматьналоги

direct taxes прямыеналоги

econometrics экономика

equilibrium равновесие

exact a tax взыскатьналог

externalities внешние

factorsofproduction факторы производства

fixedtax фиксированный налог

grossnationalproduct (GNP) валовой национальный продукт

imposeatax вводить налог

incometax подоходный налог

indirecttax косвенный налог

macroeconomics макроэкономика

microeconomics микроэкономика

paytaxes платить налоги

progressivetax прогрессивный налог

specialtax специальный налог

surtax дополнительный налог

taxableobject объект налога

taxpayer субъект налога

taxdeclaration налоговая декларация

taxlaws налоговое законодательство

turnovertax налог с оборота

Reading

2. Read the sentences “Basic Economic Terms”.

1. Factors of production (or inputs) are resources used by firms in their production process, namely land and the natural resources in it, labor, capital, and (in recent definitions) information.

2. Externalities (or spillovers) are costs imposed on others without their receiving compensation, or benefits received by others without their paying the proper costs.

3. Microeconomics concerns the economic factors affecting individual consumers and companies.

4. Equilibrium is a state of balance, for example, when supply meets demand.

5. Econometrics is the application of mathematical and statistical models to economic theories and problems.

6. Macroeconomics is the study and analysis of the economy as a whole.

7. Aggregate demand is the total amount spent in a country by consumers, companies, and the government.

8. Gross national product (GNP) is the total wealth earned or created in a country in a year.

9. Endogenous means coming from or controlled from within, e.g. variables that are totally under the control of a company, a government, etc.

10. Exogenous means coming from or controlled from or without; uncontrollable variables.

Language development

3. Which twelve terms in the box are defined in the sentences below?

aggregate supply balance of payments capital

cost of living economic economical

economize economy fiscal

free enterprise fluctuate inflation

inputs market monetarism

protectionism scarcity standard of living

1………………………..

Adjective meaning of or relating to an economy or economics.

2………………………...

Adjective meaning related to public (i.e. government) finances (taxation, expenditure, etc.).

3………………………...

Adjective meaning using a minimum of resources; or cheap.

4………………………..

A rise in the general level of prices, and an increase in the money supply.

5………………………..

A shortage of sometimes; insufficient supply to meet demand.

6…………………….….

The accumulated stock of goods used for the production of further goods (and the money required to purchase them)

7………………………..

A measure of the amount of money that has to be paid for essentials such as food, accommodation, heating, clothing, etc.

8………………………..

A measure of the amount of disposable income that people have to spend on both necessities and luxuries.

9………………………..

The difference between what a country pays for its imports and receives for its exports.

10………………………

The practice of restricting imports in order to increase the sales of domestic products .

11………………………

To change constantly, to show irregular variation.

12………………………

To save money, to reduce an amount normally used.

4. Here are the words and phrases you need to talk about trends using graphs. Make sure you can translate these “Describing Graphs” into your own language.

UP - verbs

go up take off shoot up soar jump

increase rise grow improve rocket

UP – nouns

an increase a rise a growth an improvement

an upturn a surge an upsurge an upward trend

DOWN – verbs

go /come down fall fall off drop slump

decline decrease slip plummet shrink

DOWN – nouns

a fall a decrease a decline a drop

a downturn a downward trend

NO CHANGE – verbs

remain stable level off stay at same level

remain constant stagnate stabilize

AT THE TOP – verbs

reach a peak peak top out

AT THE BOTTOM – verbs

reach a low point bottom out recover

DEGREES OF CHANGE

Adjectives: dramatic, considerable, sharp, significant, substantial, moderate,

slightly;

Adverbs: dramatically, considerably, sharply, significantly, substantially,

moderately, slightly;

SPEED OF CHANGE

abrupt sudden rapid quick steady gradual slow

PREPOSITIONS

a rise from ₤1m to ₤2m to increase by 50%

to fall by 30% an increase of 7.5 per cent over last year

5. What are “The Three Sectors of the Economy”? Match the following questions and answers;

1. What do we mean by the primary sector of the economy?

2. What happens to the food extracted in the primary?

3. So what’s the secondary sector?

4. How do people in the secondary sector make things?

5. And the tertiary sector?

6. Why is the number of people working in the primary sector regularly declining?

7. And why is the secondary sector getting smaller in many of these countries?

8. But not tertiary services?

a. Because agricultural methods are always becoming more efficient. Western Europe and the USA already produce too much food with only 3% of the population working on the land.

b. Because much manufacturing can be carried out more cheaply in low-wage economies, for example in East and South-East Asian countries like China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, Malaya and Vietnam.

c. Agriculture and the extraction of raw materials from the earth or the sea.

d. It includes the commercial services that enable industry to produce and distribute goods to their final consumes (trade, banking, warehousing, transport, communications, and so on) , as well as activities like education, heals care and tourism.

e. It involves the transformation of raw materials into finished products.

f. Not if the activities require a lot of training, education, know-how and technology.

g. Only some of them. Manufacturing companies also employ finance and marketing managers, administrative staff, maintenance staff, and so on.

h. Some of it, such as fresh fruit or fish, is consumed almost immediately after extraction; the rest serves as raw material for the secondary sector.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Grammar

6. Add verbs in the correct form to the following sentences.

1. Raw materials are . . . .from the ground and then either . . . . , or . . . . into finished goods.

2. Before finished goods are sold they often have to be . . . . , . . . . , . . . . , etc.

7. Match up the phrasal verbs on the left with the verbs that have a similar meaning on the right:

1. bottom out a. accept ( job, responsibility, etc.)

2. bring out b. continue

3. carry on c. decline

4. carry out d. dismiss

5. close down e. establish

6. count on f. have confidence in

7. cut back on g. increase

8. fall off h. introduce something new

9. lay off i. postpone, delay

10. level off j. reach the lowest point

11. look through k. read quickly

12. look for l. reduce

13. mark up m. reduce in size

14. pull out of n. shut

15. put off o. stabilize

16. scale down p. try to find

17. set up q. do or undertake

18. take on r. withdraw from

1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 -

10 - 11- 12- 13- 14- 15- 16- 17- 18-

8. Use each of the phrasal verbs above once to complete the text. You may need to use the past tense, the past participle or the present continuous form.

After three years of rapid grown, sales began to (1). . . . . Then, with the recession, they (2). . . .dramatically. We had to (3). . . .the factory in Ireland, and (4). . . . sixty people. That left a lot of machine workers (5) . . . . a job in one small town. They (6) . . . . the newspapers every day, but there weren’t many job vacancies.

The unemployed had to (7) . . . . any kind of casual work they could find. We also had to (8) . . . . staff in the London office, and reconsider the whole British operation that we’d (9) . . . . only five years before. Some of the American managers wanted to (10) . . . . the British market entirely, and to (11) . . . . our whole European business. Instead we have (12) . . . . a restructuring, and (13) . . . . all our plans for expansion, and for (14) . . . .new products. We’re trying to (15) . . . .as best we can. We might even have to (16) . . . . our prices a little, hoping we can (17) . . . . . our customers’ brand loyalty. At least there are some signs that the recession has (18) . . . . .

9. Use the correct form of these verbs in the following sentences:

avoid be liable deduct evade

levy lower pay raise

1. If you inherit a lot of money, you …. for capital transfer tax.

2. In some countries, employers have to …. tax from your pay and ….it direct to the tax authorities, so employees have no possibility of ….income tax.

3. Some people hire expensive accountants to tell them how to ….taxes – legally, of course!

4. The government always tries to ….taxes in the year before elections.

5. The government has a huge deficit and is going to ….either the rate of VAT or income tax.

6. The government ….special taxes on petrol, alcohol and tobacco.

Listening & speaking

10. Listen to the text “Inflation”:

Inflation is a rise in the general level of prices. It is caused by an excess of demand over supply, and is related to an increase in the money supply. Single-digit inflation is usually described by economists as a moderate inflation. Double or triple-digit inflation, which some countries have survived for quite long periods, is known as galloping inflation. Inflation of four or more digits, as in Germany in the early 1920s, and Argentina in the early 1980s, is known as hyperinflation.

Prices in general tend to remain at the same anticipated level unless there are

demand-pull or cost-push shocks. If aggregate demand exceeds what a country can produce at full employment, prices will rise (including wages, the price of labor): this is demand-pull inflation. But, for the last fifty years, costs have pushed up prices and wages, even in recessions and periods of high unemployment: this is cost-push inflation. Cost-push inflation is caused, for example, when unions demand wages that employers cannot afford or when oil producers are able to raise their prices.

The opposite of inflation, when prices fall (generally for short periods), is deflation. Government policies can be inflationary (often by accident), disinflationary or reflationary. Disinflationary policies might be aimed at slowing down price inflation or at reducing imports, they involve reducing demand by raising taxation and / or cutting government spending. Reflationary policies, on the contrary, involve revitalizing a sluggish economy by increasing consumer demand, either by cutting taxes or raising benefits, or relaxing monetary and credit restrictions.

Inflation is measured by the retail price index (RPI) in Britain and the consumer price index (CPI) in the US. These measure the cost of a ‘basket’ of goods and services, including food, clothing, housing, fuel, transport and medical care. The individual items in price indices are weighted, meaning that allowance is made for their relative importance in people’s spending.

Unless inflation is both balanced (affecting all prices and costs equally) and anticipated, it distorts relative prices, tax rates and real interest rates. Unexpected inflation tends to benefit people with fixed nominal interest rate debts, and so disadvantage creditors and people with fixed nominal interest rate assets or non-index-linked pensions.

11. Make up the discussion with your partner. Use words and questions given below:

assets consumer debts deflation

excess employment hyperinflation interest

producers restrictions spending supply

unemployment weighted

1. What is the inflation rate in your country at present?

2. Can you give current examples of double and triple-digit inflation?

3. What is your government’s policy at the moment? Does it seem to be more concerned with price stability or with reducing unemployment?

Revision box

12. Use sentences 1 to 10 to make up a short text about “Government Spending”. Complete each sentence, by taking a middle part from the second box and from the third box:

1. If tax revenues are higher

2. If, on the contrary, government expenditures exceed

3. A structural surplus or deficit

4. A cyclical surplus or deficit, on the other hand,

5. Budget deficits have to be funded by the sale of government bonds,

6. The higher the amount of government bonds sold in a country,

7. Neo – classical economists

8. On the other hand, if the money supply is expanded,

9. The is partly due to the acceleration principle,

10. But of course everybody knows

________________________________________________________________

a. called gilt - edged securities in Britain

b . call this “crowding out”,

c. increased government spending

d . is result of government policies such as

e . is the result of the business cycle:

f. money collected by taxes,

g . than government spending,

h . that increasing the money supply

i. the less capital is available

j. which is that increased demand for consumer goods

__________________________________________________________________k. a country has a budget deficit.

l. a country has a budget surplus.

m . almost inevitably leads to inflation.

n. and Treasury bonds in the USA.

o . and use it as an argument against Keynesian fiscal policies.

p. can raise output and investment, at least in the short term.

q. changes in spending or revenues caused by a boom or a slump.

r. for private sector investment.

s. produces a greater increased demand for capital goods.

t . tax rates, welfare and defense spending, and so on.

­­­­­­ Beginning 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Middle
Ending

13. Match the following terms with the definitions below, and then use them to label the situations:

classical unemployment seasonal unemployment

cyclical unemployment structural unemployment

frictional unemployment voluntary unemployment

1. . . . . exists in trades or occupations where work fluctuates according to the time of year.

2. . . . . exists when people choose not to work, often because they cannot find jobs that pay enough money (e.g. more than social security benefits).

3. . . . . is temporary unemployment that arises when people voluntarily leave a job to look for another one.

4. . . . . is the loss of jobs caused when wages are too high

5. . . . . occurs during recessions, when the overall demand for labor declines.

6. . . . . occurs when the skills of available workers do not match the jobs vacant.

I lost my job with It’s crazy – the only

4,000 other people jobs available round

when they closed here pay less than I get

down the coal mine. from Social Security.

1._________________ 4. ____________________

I work with a traveling I’m a skilled electrician,

circus in the summer, but there’s such a slump

but it’s just closed for in the construction

the winter. industry right now that

I’m out of work.

2.__________________

5.____________________

The union went on I left my job last week

strike for 8% pay after an argument with

rise. They got it, but my boss. I’m sure I can

the company laid off find something better.

ten of us.

3. __________________ 6.____________________

14. Choose the correct words to complete each sentence:

1. The tax on wages and salaries (and business profits in the US) is called . . . . . In Britain the tax on business profits is called corporation tax.

a. direct tax b. income tax c. wealth tax

2. A tax that is levied at a higher rate on higher incomes is called a . . . . tax.

a. progressive b. regressive c. value-added

3. Property taxes, sales taxes, customs duties on imports, and excise duties on tobacco, alcoholic drinks, petrol, etc. are . . . .taxes.

a. direct b. indirect c. value-added

4. Most sales taxes are slightly. . . .because poorer people need to spend a larger proportion of their income on consumption than the rich.

a. progressive b. regressive c. repressive

5. A sales tax collected at each stage of production, excluding the already-taxed costs from previous stages, is called a . . . . .

a. sales tax b. value-added tax c. added-value tax

6. Profits made from the sale of assets are liable to a . . . . tax.

a. capital gains b. capital transfer c. wealth

7. Gifts and inheritances are usually liable to . . . . tax.

a. capital gains b. capital transfer c. wealth

8. Reducing the amount of tax you pay to a legal minimum is called . . . . .

a. fiscal policy b. tax avoidance c. tax evasion

9. Making false declarations is called . . . . and is obviously illegal.

a. creative accounting b. tax avoidance c. tax evasion

10. Bringing forward capital expenditure (on new factories, machines, and so on) so that at the end of the year all the profits have been used up is known as making a

. . . . .

a. mistake b. tax haven c. tax loss

11. Multinational companies often set up their head offices in low-tax countries such as Liechtenstein, Monaco, the Cayman Islands, and the Bahamas, known as

. . . . .

a. tax havens b. tax heavens c. tax shelters

12. Criminal multinationals such as the Mafia tend to pass money through a series of companies in very complicated transactions in order to disguise its origin from tax inspectors and the police; this is known as . . . . money.

a. cleaning b. laundering c. washing

15. Translate the text into English:

Два главных компонента деятельности по управлению налогами - это налоговые отчеты, согласование и налоговое планирование.

Первый из них включает подготовку отчетов, надлежащее указание текущих и отсроченных налоговых расходов и задолженностей по налоговым платежам в финансовых отчетах, а также контакты с налоговыми органами по проверке правильности начисления налогов.

Налоговое планирование – это непрерывный процесс наблюдения, предвидения и установления связей между развитием бизнеса и развитием налогового законодательства для достижения оптимальных долгосрочных экономических преимуществ для корпорации.

16. All the words below can be combined with tax or taxation in a two - word partnership (e.g. tax accounting, progressive taxation). Add tax and /or taxation before or after the following words:

1. ……..accounting…… 14. …….inspector…….

2. ……..allowance……. 15. …….loophole…….

3. ……..authority…….. 16. …….loss………….

4. ……..avoidance…… 17. …….payer………..

5. ……..consultant…… 18. …….progressive…

6. ……..corporation…. 19. …….rates…………

7. ……..deductible…... 20. …….rebate……….

8. ……..direct……….. 21. …….regressive…..

9. ……..evasion……… 22. …….retune………

10. ……..free………….. 23. …….sales………

11. ……..haven………… 24. …….shelter……..

12. ……..income………. 25. …….withholding...

13. ……..indirect……… 26. …….year…………

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