The language of advertising


1.4 The language of advertising

People feel differently about advertising. People who are against it often argue that it is immoral. They say advertisements are full of tricks. They also say they contain mistakes in grammar. They argue advertisers will do just about anything to sell their product. Other people say advertisers have a right to free speech. They point out that people do not have to view the advertisements.

We are living in an era of information explosion in which advertising seems to be an indispensable building block of the media. Radio, television, and the press are, to a great extent, financially motivated to present advertisements. Seen in a sociological perspective, advertising will only flourish in a community where individuals live above subsistence level and where technological advancement makes mass-production possible (see Vestergaard & Schroder 1985). Over-production and under-demand often lead to a competitive market where advertising is justified. Now advertising is an integral part of our social and economic system. Every day we are exposed to so much advertising. Just as Blake Clark said: “...the average man lives with the advertising man’s work more hours a day than with his family, and is certainly more familiar with advertising slogans than with the proverbs in his bible” (Blake Clark, The Advertising Smokescreen, 1998). We are so heavily and continuously barraged by advertising in modern life. Of all business activities, probably none is better known, more widely discussed, or more highly criticized by the public than advertising. One reason for this is that advertising has become the spokesman for business. As a form of mass communication closely linked with the world of commerce and marketing, advertising is a powerful tool for the flow of information from the seller to the buyer. It influences and persuades people to act or believe. It is also something which affects most of us in a number of different spheres of our lives. It not only influences any human society but also reflects certain aspects of that society’s values and structure. There are many special and specific reasons for using advertising in its several forms. Announcing a new product or service, expanding the market to new buyers, announcing a modification or a price change, educating customers, challenging competition, recruiting of staff and attracting investors are a few of such reasons. In the process of creating advertisements for all these reasons, language, i.e., choice of expression is of crucial importance. What kinds of choices make an advertisement highly effective is something worthy to be studied from a linguistic perspective. As a form of mediums, advertising owns its distinctive linguistic characteristics which are generalized from the abundant examples presented in this thesis.

Advertising is a form of communication intended to persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to purchase or take some action upon products, ideas, or services. It includes the name of a product or service and how that product or service could benefit the consumer, to persuade a target market to purchase or to consume that particular brand. These messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed via various media. Advertising can also serve to communicate an idea to a large number of people in an attempt to convince them to take a certain action.

Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding, which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate related qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Non-commercial advertisers who spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Nonprofit organizations may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as a public service announcement.

Modern advertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Mass media can be defined as any media meant to reach a mass amount of people. Different types of media can be used to deliver these messages, including traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, outdoor or direct mail; or new media such as websites and text messages.

The study of language of advertising from a linguistic perspective has been attempted by several scholars (Leech 1966; Geis 1982; Vestergaard and Schrodder 1985; Mencher 1990, etc.). Leech (1966), in his pioneering and comprehensive study on English in advertising, has analyzed in detail different aspects pertaining to grammar, vocabulary, discourse and rhyme and rhetoric of advertising with special reference to television. He has effectively related these aspects with the functional factors such as attention value, listenability/readability, memorability and selling power. Illustration, display typography, vocal emphasis, prompt spelling, grammatical solecism, metaphor and paradox are some of the aspects linked with attention value. Simple and colloquial style and familiar vocabulary are connected with readability. Phonological regularities such as alliteration, rhythm, rhyme and jingle are related to memorability. Frequent use of imperatives and superlatives are connected with selling power. The distinctive property of advertising language has been closely identified with the use of clauses, phrases and words as minor sentences, which constitute a different kind of grammar called as disjunctive grammar. Geis (1982) has made an attempt to describe how language is used in American advertising, especially television advertising. He has focused on certain linguistic devices that figure most prominently in advertising. According to him, the advertising claims employing the word ‘help’ as in phrases like ‘helps to achieve’ and comparative phrases like ‘more or less’ are impressive because they are indistinguishable from the law like generic claims of scientists. He has concluded that advertisers in general tend to prefer vague language rather than language with explicit empirical consequences and to prefer subjective claims to objective claims. Vestergaard and Schroder (1985) have studied the language use in commercial press advertising in relationship with communicative functions of language such as expressive, directive, informational, contextual and poetic etc. They have also identified the importance of imperatives and directive speech acts in encouraging the audience to buy the products. Mencher (1990) has looked into the aspect of vocabulary in advertising and identified ten words as the most personal and persuasive. They are: “new”, “save”, “safety”, “proven”, “love”, “discover”, “guarantee”, “results”, “you” and “health”. The psychological impact of these words on the consumers has also been discussed.

The advertisements can be classified into non-commercials and commercials on the basis of the object and purpose involved in advertising. In non-commercial advertisements, selling and buying are not involved and certain ideas, morals or appeals are communicated to the common public from government agencies or various associations and societies. The purpose may be related to charity, political propaganda, or different social welfare measures. Commercial advertisements are sub-classified into commercial consumer advertisements and prestige advertisements. The commercial consumer advertisements involve consumer goods such as cosmetics, medicines etc., while the prestige advertisements include services like banking, insurance etc. Of the different classes of advertisements, the commercial consumer advertisements are the most prominent in terms of both quality and quantity. A successful advertisement is expected to accomplish five functions namely 1.attracting attention

2.commanding interest

3. creating desire

4. inspiring conviction and

5.provoking action (Vestergaard and Shrodder, 1985).

All these five functions are inter-related and in concert serve to promote the selling power of the product advertised. In achieving these functions in the production of an advertising copy, an effective use of language becomes all the more important. Commenting on the extreme care that one should take with regard to the use of language in advertisements, Ranade (1998) states: “Incredible, the amount of damage one may cause with a slight play on words here and there, or a twist in the title, or even by the willful omission of a single comma”.

According to Leech’s (1966:27) (Jefkins Frank,Advertising, 1985) classic treatise, the language of advertising is characterized by a number of preferred linguistic patterns and techniques:

1.Unorthodoxies of spelling and syntax, and semantic oddities are common to attract attention.

2.Simple, personal, and colloquial style and a familiar vocabulary are employed to sustain attention.

3. Phonological devices of rhyme and alliteration and sheer repetition are utilized to enhance memorability and amusement. Repetition is usually of two types: intra-textual and inter-textual. In the former, the product’s name and certain highlighted features are repeated several times. In the latter, a single slogan is consistently used in different ads for a single product or manufacturer.

4. An intimate, interactive addressing of the audience and a conversational mode is employed.

5. Abundant use is made of superlatives and hyperbole in characterizing the product, with often indirect reference to rival products.

The first rule of parity involves the Alice in Wonderland use of the words “better” and “best.” In parity claims, “better” means “best” and “best” means “equal to.” If all the brands are identical, they must all be equally good, the legal minds have decided. So “best” means that the product is as good as the other superior products in its category. When Bing Crosby declares Minute Maid Orange Juice “the best there is” he means it is as good as the other orange juices you can buy. The word “better” has been legally interpreted to be a comparative and therefore becomes a clear claim of superiority. Bing could not have said that Minute Maid is “better than any other orange juice.” “Better” is a claim of superiority. The only time “better” can be used is when a product does indeed have superiority over other products in its category or when the better is used to compare the product with something other than competing brands. An orange juice could therefore claim to be “better than a vitamin pill,” or even “the better breakfast drink.” The second rule of advertising claims is simply that if any product is truly superior, the advertisement will say so very clearly and will offer some kind of convincing evidence of the superiority. If an advertisement hedges the least bit about a product’s advantage over the competition you can strongly suspect it is not superior – may be equal to but not better. You will never hear a gasoline company say “we will give you four miles per gallon more in your care than any other brand.” They would love to make such a claim, but it would not be true. Gasoline is a parity product, and, in spite of some very clever and deceptive advertisements of a few years ago, no one has yet claimed one brand of gasoline better than any other brand. To create the necessary illusion of superiority, advertisers usually resort to one or more of the following ten basic techniques. Each is common and easy to identify.

In the world of advertising, slogans play a very significant role and therefore manufacturers spend millions of dollars in creating them. These short phrases are quite effective when it comes to drawing people's attention. Basically, a slogan has to highlight some aspects of the product. For instance, the famous ad slogan for Nokia - Connecting people suits it very well because it highlights the fact that it is a slogan for a communication device. Over the time, people get so used to these famous advertising slogans, that they invariably become a part of their general vocabulary.
Advertising slogans are short, often memorable phrases used in advertising campaigns. They are claimed to be the most effective means of drawing attention to one or more aspects of a product. A strapline is a British term used as a secondary sentence attached to a brand name. Its purpose is to emphasize a phrase that the company wishes to be remembered by, particularly for marketing a specific corporate image or connection to a product or consumer base. Some slogans are created just for specific campaigns for a limited time; some are intended as corporate slogans, to be used for an extended period; some slogans start out as the former, and find themselves converted to the latter because they take hold with the public, and some are memorable many years after their use is discontinued.

- Gives a credible impression of a brand or product

- Makes the consumer feel "hot" or...

- Makes the consumer feel a desire or need

- Is hard to forget - it adheres to one's memory (whether one likes it or not), especially if it is accompanied by mnemonic devices, such asjingles, ditties, pictures or film

Top 10 slogans of the century

1. Diamonds are forever (debeers)

2. Just do it (Nike)

3. The pause that refreshes (Coca-Cola)

4. Tastes great, less filling (Miller Lite)

5. We try harder (Avis)

6. Good to the last drop (Maxwell House)

7. Breakfast of champions (Wheaties)

8. Does she ... Or doesn't she? (Clairol)

9. When it rains it pours (Morton Salt)

10. Where's the beef? (Wendy's)

Elements of a good advertisement

Writing advertisement is an art. Writing an advertisement is based on AIDA theory.

In the clamor and clutter of sight and sound, and the competition for the reader’s eye, ear, and heart, it’s imperative that you compete successfully for attention. There should be some element in the advertising- whether it’s the headline or the illustration or the layout - that attracts the eye or ear and arouses sufficient interest to warrant attention to the message. And the copy itself must sustain that attention.
Once he/she has captured the reader’s attention he/she has got to say or show something to sustain interest, or the message will not be heard.
The advertisement must generate a desire to accept what he/she has to say about what he/she has to offer; to want to do business with him/her.
The ultimate aim of an advertising is to generate action on the part of the reader or listener; to cause the reader to want to do something that you want him or her to do, such as buy your service, or, in the case of professional services marketing, it might be to either generate an inquiry or accept a selling situation. On the other hand, just getting a reader to think about you in a specific way is an action, too. That’s what institutional advertising is about.
Promise of Benefit
Something in the advertisement should promise the reader or the listener some benefit that will accrue from accepting the advertisement’s premises.

The premises of the advertising must be believable.
The advertising should be persuasive.
It should sell or generate the need for the service he/she offers, and project his/her service as superior [16].

The language of claims

1.The weasel claim

A weasel word is a modifier that practically negates the claim that follows. The expression “weasel word” is aptly named after the egg-eating habits of weasels. A weasel will suck out the inside of an egg, leaving it appear intact to the casual observer. Upon examination, the egg is discovered to be hollow. Words or claims that appear substantial upon first look but disintegrate into hollow meaninglessness on analysis are weasels. Commonly used weasel words include “helps” (the champion weasel); “like” (used in a comparative sense); “virtual” or “virtually”; “acts” or “works”; “can be”; “up to”; “as much as”; “refreshes”; “comforts”; “tackles”; “fights”; “come on”; “the feel of”; “the look of”; “looks like”; “fortified”; “enriched”; and “strengthened.”

Samples of Weasel Claims

“Helps control dandruff symptoms with regular use.” The weasels include “helps control,” and possibly even “symptoms” and “regular use.” The claim is not “stops dandruff.”

“Leaves dishes virtually spotless.” We have seen so many ad claims that we have learned to tune out weasels. You are supposed to think “spotless,” rather than “virtually” spotless.

“Only half the price of many color sets.” “Many” is the weasel. The claim is supposed to give the impression that the set is inexpensive.

“Tests confirm one mouthwash best against mouth odor.”

“Hot Nestlés cocoa is the very best.” Remember the “best” and “better” routine.

“Listerine fights bad breath.” “Fights,” not “stops.”

“Lots of things have changed, but Hershey’s goodness has not.” This claim does not say that Hershey’s chocolate has not changed.

“Bacos, the crispy garnish that tastes just like its name.”

2. The unfinished claim

The unfinished claim is one in which the advertisement claims the product is better, or has more of something, but does not finish the comparison.

Samples of Unfinished Claims

“Magnavox gives you more.” More what?

“Anacin: Twice as much of the pain reliever doctors recommend most.” This claim fits in a number of categories but it does not say twice as much of what pain reliever.

“Supergloss does it with more color, more shine, more sizzle, more!”

“Coffee-mate gives coffee more body, more flavor.” Also note that “body” and “flavor” are weasels.

“You can be sure if it is Westinghouse.” Sure of what?

“Scott makes it better for you.”

“Ford LTD--700% quieter.”

When the FTC asked Ford to substantiate this claim, Ford revealed that they meant the inside of the Ford was 700% quieter than the outside.

3. The “we are different and unique” claim

This kind of claim states that there is nothing else quite like the product being advertised. For example, if Schlitz would add pink food coloring to its beer they could say, “There is nothing like new pink Schlitz.” The uniqueness claim is supposed to be interpreted by readers as a claim to superiority.

Samples of the “We are Different and Unique” Claim

“There is no other mascara like it.”

“Only Doral has this unique filter system.”

“Cougar is like nobody else’s car.”

“Either way, liquid or spray, there is nothing else like it.”

“If it does not say Goodyear, it cannot be polyglas.” “Polyglas” is a trade name copyrighted by Goodyear. Goodrich or Firestone could make a tire exactly identical to the Goodyear one and yet could not call it “polyglas”-a name for fiberglass belts.

“Only Zenith has chromacolor.” Same as the “polyglas” gambit. Admiral has solarcolor and RCA has accucolor.

4. The “water is wet” claim

“Water is wet” claims say something about the product that is true for any brand in that product category, (for example, “Schrank’s water is really wet.”) The claim is usually a statement of fact, but not a real advantage over the competition.

Samples of the “Water is Wet” Claim

“Mobil: the Detergent Gasoline.” Any gasoline acts as a cleaning agent.

“Great Lash greatly increases the diameter of every lash.”

“Rheingold, the natural beer.” Made from grains and water as are other beers.

“SKIN smells differently on everyone.” As do many perfumes.

5. The “so what” claim

This is the kind of claim to which the careful reader will react by saying “So What?” A claim is made which is true but which gives no real advantage to the product. This is similar to the “water is wet” claim except that it claims an advantage which is not shared by most of the other brands in the product category.

Samples of the “So What” Claim

“Geritol has more than twice the iron of ordinary supplements.” But is twice as much beneficial to the body?

“Campbell’s gives you tasty pieces of chicken and not one but two chicken stocks.” Does the presence of two stocks improve the taste?

“Strong enough for a man but made for a woman.” This deodorant claims says only that the product is aimed at the female market.

6. The vague claim

The vague claim is simply not clear. This category often overlaps with others. The key to the vague claim is the use of words that are colorful but meaningless, as well as the use of subjective and emotional opinions that defy verification. Most contain weasels.

Samples of the Vague Claim

“Lips have never looked so luscious.” Can you imagine trying to either prove or disprove such a claim?

“Lip savers are fun-they taste good, smell good and feel good.”

“Its deep rich lather makes hair feel good again.”

“For skin like peaches and cream.”

“The end of meatloaf boredom.”

“Take a bite and you will think you are eating on the Champs Elysées.”

“Winston tastes good like a cigarette should.”

“The perfect little portable for all around viewing with all the features of higher priced sets.”

“Fleishman’s makes sensible eating delicious.”

7. The endorsement or testimonial

A celebrity or authority appears in an advertising to lend his or her stellar qualities to the product. Sometimes the people will actually claim to use the product, but very often they do not. There are agencies surviving on providing products with testimonials.

Samples of Endorsements or Testimonials

“Joan Fontaine throws a shot-in-the-dark party and her friends learn a thing or two.”

“Darling, have you discovered Masterpiece? The most exciting men I know are smoking it.” (Eva Gabor)

“Vega is the best handling car in the U.S.” This claim was challenged by the FTC, but GM answered that the claim is only a direct quote from Road and Track magazine.

8. The scientific or statistical claim

This kind of ad uses some sort of scientific proof or experiment, very specific numbers, or an impressive sounding mystery ingredient.

Samples of Scientific or Statistical Claims

“Wonder Break helps build strong bodies 12 ways.” Even the weasel “helps” did not prevent the FTC from demanding this advertising be withdrawn. But note that the use of the number 12 makes the claim far more believable than if it were taken out.

“Easy-Off has 33% more cleaning power than another popular brand.”
“Another popular brand” often translates as some other kind of oven cleaner sold somewhere. Also the claim does not say Easy-Off works 33% better.

“Special Morning-33% more nutrition.” Also an unfinished claim.

“Certs contains a sparkling drop of Retsyn.”

“ESSO with HTA.”

“Sinarest. Created by a research scientist who actually gets sinus headaches.”

9. The “compliment the consumer” claim

This kind of claim butters up the consumer by some form of flattery.

Samples of the “Compliment the Consumer” Claim

“We think a cigar smoker is someone special.”

“If what you do is right for you, no matter what others do, then RC Cola is right for you.”

“You pride yourself on your good home cooking....”

“The lady has taste.”

“You’ve come a long way, baby.”

10. The rhetorical question

This technique demands a response from the audience. A question is asked and the viewer or listener is supposed to answer in such a way as to affirm the product’s goodness.

Samples of the Rhetorical Question

“Plymouth-isn’t that the kind of car America wants?”

“Shouldn't your family be drinking Hawaiian Punch?”

“What do you want most from coffee? That’s what you get most from Hills.”

“Touch of Sweden: could your hands use a small miracle?” [17, 86].

Use of first and second personal pronouns

Pronouns of the first and second person: “we”, “i” and “you” outnumber the other pronouns in advertisements. It is because that “you”, “we” and “i” help create a friend-like intimate atmosphere to move and persuade the audience. Advertisements with lots of pronouns of the first and second person are called gossip advertisements. Here, gossip has not the least derogative meaning. It originates from old English god sib, meaning friendly chats between women. Advertisements that go like talking with friends closely link the advertisement and the audience. The audience will easily accept a product, a service or an idea as if a good friend recommended them. The use of second person addressee “you” tends to shorten the distance between the product or the producer and consumers, as if the producer or the ad is speaking to you face to face, making sincere promises, honest recommendations. In so doing, the advertisement slogans stand a better chance to move the receiver or customers to action, because the receiver feels that he is being thought of and taken care of and he is the center point of the producers.

For example:

(1) ford: the choice is yours. The honor is ours.

This headline is from the ford motor, where the manufacturer put itself in a very humble position therefore it makes the readers feel they are respectable and higher in status.

(2) hyundai: always there for you.

(3) nestle milo: bring out the champion in you.

The use of first person addresser “we” and “us” is the most direct way to tell the receiver what the sponsor of an advertisement slogan stands for, his idea, his view, and his credit. It is a little bit like a self-introduction to the potential customers to let them know you, recognize you, believe you and trust you. For example,

(4) avis rent a car: we try harder.

(5) fed ex: we live to deliver.

(6) yamaha: every time we race, you win.

It is for yamaha electronic organ. It implies no matter how fierce the competition is, the customer is always getting benefits.

(7) prime cuts hair saloon: we will give you a permanent without making waves in your budget.

This is the advertisement of prime cuts hair salon, which shows the service there is satisfactory and not expensive.

Use of Emotive or Evaluative Adjectives or Adjectival Phrases

Such words can stimulate envy, dreams and desires by evoking looks, touch, taste, smell, and sounds without actually misrepresenting a product. Among the adjectives, “new” is probably the favorite one. According to the research of choice of words in advertising by linguist G. N. Leech, the most frequently used 20 words are:


















Among these words, “new” is the most common one, which shows people’s desire for original idea and fresh concept. An American advertising expert once said, “The most powerful words you can use in a headline are free and new.”

For example:

(1) Introducing New Sure Roll-on with the most effective anti-perspirant formula you can buy. Nothing will keep you drier. (Anti-perspirant lotion)

(2)Make money on no money... With Jacobsen’s new dealer plan.

(3)With the new Snapper “high vacuum” rider, I can really mow down the competition.

(4) New! Glamorwear catalogue!

(5) We would never say the new Audi 100 is the best in its class. We do not have to.

(6) Beautiful writing instruments that are the epitome of elegance. Peerless accessories for the innate sophisticate. Each pen and pencil is an original work of art. Innovative designs presented exclusively for those who appreciate only the very best [19].

Use of Technical Terms and Scientific Sounding Words

In the advertisements of electrical appliances, especially exquisite instruments, such as photocopiers, digital videos, digital televisions, we can see lots of technical terms we have not even heard of. Using of these words helps to leave an impression of professional and advanced in the technical field. For example:

This is the advertisement of Minolta color copier, in which LIMOS (Laser Intensity Modulation System) is the technical term and sounds very professional. People may not know the exact meaning of it, but they may consider it scientific and trustworthy. See another example:

2. Just as there is a multitude of ways to see the world around us, there is one camera that puts all the possibilities within our reach. The Olympus IS-1000.

Its sleek, revolutionary All-In-One design. The built-in 35 mm-135mm 4x power zoom lens equipped with ED (Extraordinary Dispersion) glass. A powerful built-in flash system rated at GN20 and a spectrum of features so extensive photographic creativity is at your command.

Use of Negative Words

Admen often use negative words such as no, none, nothing, never, etc. to show the uniqueness and unparalleled quality of the product. For example:

(1) Opium: Never has a perfume provoked such emotion.

(2) Purina Dog Meal: No other dog food, dry or canned, gives your dog the muscle and bone building nutrition plus, the extra feeling----fit portion protein of Purina High Protein Dog Meal.

(3) Diamond: A diamond engagement ring shows your love as nothing else can.

Use of Inclusive Words

Apart from negative words, the admen are also fond of the inclusive words such as all, every, always, etc. to indicate that the reference is universal. For example,

(1) Coca-Cola: Always Coca-Cola.

(2) Pantene Styler: And they’ve got everything you need: Normal and Extra Firm Hold Mousses and Hairsprays, and a terrific Gel.

Use of Compound Words

Compound words can be seen almost anywhere in advertisement. A compound word can be composed of all parts of speech and the arranging of words is very flexible, therefore admen can fully take the advantage of it and make the ad copy more creative. A compound word in ad can be a. + n.; adv. + n.; v + ing + a; n + v + ed; adv + v. + ing.

For example,

a. + n. first class

adv. + n. up-to-the-minute cycling

v + ing + a shining-clean

piping-hot coffee

n + v + ed home-made

honey-coated sugar puffs

chocolate-flavored cereal

adv + v. + ing fast-foaming new S.P

(1) It’s an easy-to-load, drop-in correction tape you can insert in mere seconds.

(2) Beautiful wash-in-wash-out color that is hypoallergenic.

Use of Coined Words

Coined words are both new and memorable. Coined words are kind of smart words that have special meaning in the specified context. They can raise the interests of the ad headline receivers, make them ponder upon the meaning and marvel at the smart idea of the admen. By so doing, they recognize the brand.

For example:

(1) Hotel: TWOGETHER. The ultimate all inclusive one price sunkissed holiday.

(2) Food: What could be dilisher than fisher?

(3) Louis Vuitton: Epileather.

(4) Burton Menswear: Everywear.

(5) Gordon’s & Tonic: Innervigoration.

(6) Cosmopolitan: Be Cointreauversial [20].

In the words of the renowned advertising pioneer, William Bernbach, “The truth is not the truth until people believe you, and they cannot believe you if they do not know what you are saying, and they cannot know what you are saying if they do not listen to you, and they would not listen to you if you are not interesting unless you say things imaginatively, originally, freshly”. Therefore the novelty and freshness of advertising language is justified for the purpose of attracting people’s attention, winning their trust and swaying their thinking. In this thesis, there is a presentation of abundant excellent advertising examples from the corpus, including business advertisements, institutional advertisements, corporate identity advertisement etc. After studying all the examples and consulting the previous study of many linguists from home and abroad, the writer wrote this thesis of the advertising language, in the hope of presenting the linguistic features and artful devices from both macro- and micro-scopic aspects. Prior to the discussion of the linguistic features of each parts of advertisement, this thesis has been dedicated to the detailed treatment of the study background and a survey of previous studies on advertising language, as well as the overview about the advertisement knowledge. In the following parts, the thesis presents the features about advertising claims from a macroscopic view, and the rhetorical features in advertising language.

Several limitations of this thesis should be pointed out. Firstly, advertising language is such a science which has extensive knowledge and profound scholarship, and it is far beyond my ability to make much contribution to the study of it. All the discussions here are just an attempt to explore the elegant mystery of language. Secondly, in the discussion of the lexical, syntactic and rhetoric features of advertising language, there are doubtlessly more points deserving presentation and the author might not be diametrically perfect and comprehensive, which invite insightful correction from professors.

Thus advertising is not, as might superficially be supposed, a single language in the sense that a language has particular identifiable constituent parts and its words are predetermined. The components of advertisements are variable and not necessarily all part of one language or social discourse. Advertisements rather provide a structure which is capable of transforming the language of objects to that of people, and vice versa [1, 168].


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