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Governmental Actions To End Discrimination Since The

1950′S (Outline) Essay, Research Paper

Slow Improvement, but substantial gains

Judicial Actions

1954- Brown v. Board of Ed.- ends segregation

1962- Baker v. Carr- “one man, one vote”; redistricts congressional districts to be more representative of minorities.

1964- Heart of Atlanta Motel v. U.S.- uses interstate commerce clause to ban segregated motels, hotels and restaurants.

1966- S.C. v. Katzenbach- enforces 15th amendment’s policy of ending voting discrimination

1968- Jones v. Mayer- racial discrimination in sale or rental of housing is illegal.

1971- Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg County- bussing can be used as a means of combating state enforced segregation.

1979- United Steel Workers v. Weber- upholds affirmative action for the purpose of remedying past injustices.

1983- Dayton Board of Ed. v. Brinkman- upholds bussing as remedy for de facto segregation.

Legislative Actions-

1964- Civil Rights Act- Title II- forbids discrimination in public accommodations

Title III & IV- forbids discrimination by public schools

Title VII- forbids discrimination by employers

1964- 24th Amendment- ends poll tax

1965- Voting Rights Act-prohibited state gov’t from using procedures that discriminated against a certain race.

-E.E.O.C. formed to enforce these laws.

-Affirmative Action- companies with federal contracts and federally funded universities must abide by a rule, which help, or increase the chances of blacks and minorities receiving favorable positions.

1982- Voting Rights Amendment- creates minority-majority districts, so the likelihood of electing minorities increases.

1988- Congress revises the Civil Rights Act to invalidate the anti-affirmative action decision in Grove City College v. Bell.

Successfully ends, for the most part, de juro segregation and discrimination, however de facto segregation still largely exists today. Social and political factors hindering substantial integration:

White backlash:

-Affirmative action hated by most whites (Bakke v. Cal [78] limits affirmative action’s power)

-Racial gerrymandering seen as ridiculous, and then even unconstitutional (Shaw v. Reno ['93] & Miller v Johnson ['95])

-These public sentiments backed up by the Conservative swing of the Reagan appointed, Rhenquist court.

-de facto segregation. Not caused by any government wrong in particular, but the tendency of minority groups to stay living areas of their own minority group make true integration an almost unattainable goal.

-bryant gumbell…. ‘nuf said

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