River Essay, Research Paper
Introduction This investigation will be based upon what characteristics
affect a river. In this piece I will investigate how the stream characteristics
change as you go downstream. A specific area has been chosen to study, which is
Loughton. In this chosen site is a tributary, which is also part of the Epping
Forrest Field Centre (EFFC). Epping Forest is a
woodland area of mainly highland between the two rivers; River Lea and the
River Roding. The Loughton Brook is a tributary that flows off this ridge and
on to the River Roding.My hypothesis is that as
you go downstream the pebble size tend to be smaller and also more rounder in
shape. Furthermore the river channel widens and also deepens; hence an increase
in the cross sectional area. The further downstream you go, the less the
gradient, i.e. the flatter the land. Also the further downstream you go, the
more the number of meanders will be found, as the land is flatter. A further hypothesis
would be to say that the more downstream you move the more discharge (amount of
water in river). Therefore increases as you go downstream.We studied three sites; Site 1: upstream Site 2: midstream and Site 3: downstream These site can be compared and an accurate analysis of the
river can be found and show how and why the characteristics change downstream.
To improve the accuracy of my results, I took three measurements at each site.
The average of the three will then be taken.?
If I only took one measurement than the accuracy will not be as good as
then I will not know what the river really looks like.On are arrival to Epping
we first studied the soil. A sample of the soil, not only from the top layer,
but layers underneath as well was taken. We took soil from three different
places. The first place had organic soil, which was very moist, and it was
yellow towards the deeper end of the soil most likely from acid, which took the
colour out of it when passing through as infiltration. The soil tended to be
sandier as you go deeper into the ground. We then put the soil back in the
order it was, hence not disturbing the natural vegetation. The soil was very
deep and there were many layers, therefore it must have been very old.
Furthermore, we found that near the tributary, the soil was mostly organic with
lots of leaves and as you go downhill there was more moisture in the soil.
Towards the bottom layers of the ground there was lots of silt and clay, I
could tell this because I could mould it into different shapes. As we dug it up
just as we did the others.Processes like erosion
made the channel to widen and deepen and this will investigated. The meanders,
which are large bends developed over flat land caused by erosion on one side,
where the river flows the fastest and deposition on the other where the river
flows slower, were formed and this will also be investigated. Another landform
found at the Loughton Brook was the interlocking spurs. These are also caused
by erosion. Both landforms were formed by erosion of the river, mainly by the
sheer hydraulic action of the water or by abrasion of the river bank.In this coursework I will prove the formation of
these landforms were caused by erosion. How I obtained my results will also be
shown. Working out such as cross sectional area, surface velocity, averages,
channel width and discharge. All this information will be presented in a table.
Graphs will also be drawn and finally a conclusion to my investigation will be
drawn and a comparison with my hypotheses with my actual results will be drawn.
I will also draw a table for pebble analysis e.g. the shape and size of the
pebbles.Lots of pictures showing the sites will also be
drawn up or put into this piece. Maps of the area will also be included.