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Tele Education Essay Research Paper 10 INTRODUCTION (стр. 1 из 4)

Tele Education Essay, Research Paper

1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of Tele-education Tele-education has a long

history beginning with systems like that for teaching children in Australian

Outback, the British Open University and other such organizations. These built

on the idea of correspondence courses where course materials are sent

periodically by post and augmented the experience with broadcasts either on

radio or on TV. The problem of student isolation was addressed partially through

techniques such as telephone access or two-way radio links with teachers. At the

end of 1980s, the vest majority of distance education throughout the worlds was

still primarily print-based. Technologies used for distance education are

evolving from primarily ?one-way? technologies and applications such as

computer aided learning, computer based training and computer aided instruction,

to more ?two-way? technologies and applications such as computer mediated

communications and computer conferencing systems for education. The significance

of ?two-way? technologies is that they allow foe interaction between

participant and tutors, and perhaps even more significantly amongst participant

themselves. This development has allowed and in some senses force researches to

look more closely at the impact of educational environment, on the students

learning experience. In the future, it is expected that the

telecommunications-based technologies to become the primary means of delivery of

distance teaching. The reasons for this are as follows: · a much wider

range of technologies are becoming more accessible to potential distance

education participants · the costs of technological delivery are dropping

dramatically · the technology is becoming easier to use for both tutors

and learners · the technology is becoming more powerful pedagogically

· education centers will find it increasingly difficult to resist the

political and social pressures of the technological imperatives. 1.2 The

Emergence of Tele-education Radical changes in the computing infrastructure,

spurred by multimedia computing and communication, will do more than extend the

educational system, that is revolutionize it. Technological advances will make

classrooms mush more accessible and effective. Today, classroom education

dominates instruction from elementary school to graduate school. This method has

remained popular for a very long time and will probably persist as the most

common mode of education. However, classroom education has its problems, that is

the effectiveness decline with increase in the number of students per class.

Other pressures affect the instructors, many of whom are not experts in the

material they must teach, are not good ?performers? in class, or simply are

not interested in teaching. The biggest limitation of the classroom instruction

is that a class meets at a particular time in a particular place. This

essentially requires all students and the instructors to collect in one spot for

their specified period. But with the emerging technology, these problems can be

overcome. 1.3 Reasons for studying Tele-education The current Tele-education

systems that have been applied in some countries are generally of multipoint

transmission technique. It is found that, this kind of transmission technique

having several problems or defects. Mostly, problems raised during the

application of the system. One of the significant problems raised is that, for

the multipoint transmission, the signals or information transmitted by the

sender do not completely received by the receiver. This problem is might be due

to error that occurs during the transmission of the signals or information.

Another problem is lag of transmission. For this case, the signals or

information transmitted do not arrive at all the receiver at the same time, for

example, the question raised by the lecturer might not received by the students

at the same time and this is not a good environment for Tele-education system.

Some receiver receives the signals earlier than the others and some later or

even not receives at all. Therefore, it is important to study the Tele-education

technology from time to time to overcome these problems so that the

Tele-education system could provide a more effective way of learning

environment. In order to have a lecture from, for example, a very famous

professor from other country would require him to come at our place. But the

amount of money spent for paying him to give lecture would be very expensive and

this also would cause troublesome for him. However, this problem can be solved

with Tele-education system in which the professor does not need to go anywhere

else to give his lecture. This would save a lot of expenses and time. Another

reason is that, in normal classes the learning process would not be very

effective if the number of students in a class is very big. This is because the

lecturer alone can not coordinate such a large class. With Tele-education

system, one lecturer could deliver his lecture to as many students as possible

effectively in a way that a large number of students from different sites having

the same lecture at once. 1.4 Purpose of Research The purpose of this research

is to study the current Tele-education system that has been applied in some

countries. This study covers the background of Tele-education; that is its

definition, the publications of Tele-education; that is any papers that discuss

about Tele-education as a whole, the performance of applied Tele-education, and

also the technology of Tele-education; that is its network architecture. But the

main purpose of this study is to understand the Tele-education system that have

been applied in another country and try to implement it in our country. 1.5

Acronyms ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode CCITT Committee Consultatif

International Telegraphique et Telephonique CPE Customer Premises Equipment IP

Internet Protocol ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network ISO International

Standard Organization JAMES Joint ATM Experiment on European Services LAN Local

Area Network MAC Medium Access Control Mbone Multicast Backbone PC Personal

Computer POP Point-of-Presence PVC Permanent Virtual Channel QoS Quality of

Service RAT Robust Audio Tool SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol TCP-IP

Transmission Control Protocol – Internet Protocol TES Tele-Educational Service

UI User Interface VIC Video Conferencing Tool VP Virtual Path VPN Virtual

Private Network VSD Virtual Student Desktop WAN Wide Area Network WWW World Wide

Web XC Cross Connect 2.0 METHOD OF INVESTIGATION Since Tele-education is a very

new technology that is popularly discussed today, it is quite difficult for me

to find any books that discuss about Tele-education from the library. Therefore,

the easiest and the fastest way to gather information relating this project is

via the Internet. I have surfed and found many interesting sites that discuss

about Tele-education. Besides surfing, I also have contacted several people who

are involved in this area, Tele-education, by e-mail . But unluckily, this does

not really help because most of them did not reply. Besides using the Internet,

I also get the information for this project from the IEEE Database at the

library of Universiti Telekom. 3.0 BACKGROUND STUDY 3.1 Definition of

Tele-education What is Tele-education? Before discussing about what

Tele-education means, lets look at what distance learning is. This is because

Tele-education and distance learning are very related to each other. Distance

learning is the acquisition of skills and knowledge through electronic

communications that allow student and instructor to be separate in either in

time or space. The to distance learning is ?asynchronous learning? which can

be defined loosely as learning at different time. It is a highly flexible method

of training because the sender and receiver do not need to be synchronized in

space or time. But Tele-education is more than that of distance learning. In

Tele-education, not only asynchronous but synchronous learning is also made

possible. In other words, Tele-education is the evolution of distance learning.

As stated before, asynchronous learning environment is not real-time

environment. It is a self-study-based application and is accessed via the

Internet to a server. The requirement to the student is only an ordinary PC with

standard software and Internet access. This application is applicable for a

large amount of users who can access the course independent of each other. The

combination of the lecture-part, group-work-part, and self-study-part is another

type of Tele-education learning environment, which is synchronous learning. It

is a real-time environment. In this environment, students and lecturers can

interact with each other simultaneously. Tele-education use the technology of

video teleconferencing that allows two or more parties at different geographical

area to interact with each other or to have learning process together. But

people usually get confused whether video teleconferencing can be considered as

Tele-education as well. Tele-education is actually different with video

teleconferencing in a way that Tele-education usually involve a large number of

people as compared to video teleconferencing, that is, it is in video

teleconferencing many people use a single monitor to see other people at other

area but in Tele-education, students have their own monitor that can be used not

only to see their lecturer and colleagues but also to send and receive

educational materials. 3.2 Publications of Tele-education There are many papers

discussing about Tele-education. Most of these papers cover only the general or

overall scope of Tele-education. The area of discussion on Tele-education can be

summarized as the following: · Tele-education service · Content of

Tele-education · Network architecture · performance of

Tele-education · operation and management of Tele-education For

Tele-education service, it describes about what multimedia tele-service and

hyper media service is, and how it can be integrated into Tele-education

service. It also describes about what Tele-education service facilitate. Content

of Tele-education describes about the style or mode of Tele-education system,

that is, what kind of education style used, and how the lecture notes or any

materials delivered to all the students. For network architecture, it describes

about the protocol used for the Tele-education system and its network

infrastructure. Performance of Tele-education covers the performance of service

of Tele-education and also the network performance. The description of these

performances is from the customer point of view. For the operation and

management of Tele-education, it describes about what should be taken into

consideration in order to provide a well managed Tele-education service. 3.3

Examples of Systems From the study of materials gathered, there are generally

three examples of Tele-education system that have been applied in the Europe and

Canada. Those examples are: · Tele-education NB · Delta ’s Virtual

College · ACTS Project AC052 (RACE Project Report) The purpose of looking

into these examples is to try to understand what kind of Tele-education system

is implemented, how Tele-education can be implemented, to know what are the

requirements to implement it, and what considerations should be taken into

consideration for implementing it. 3.3.1 Tele-education NB Tele-education NB is

implemented at the University of New Brunswick, Canada. The present physical

network consists of three independent networks that operate on telephone lines;

· Voice · SMART 2000 computer teleconferencing · Computer

Mediated Communications using NBNet The SMART 2000 bridge for computer software

sharing and audiographic teleconferencing is owned and operated by the

Tele-education NB. This is accessed by simple dial connections using ordinary

telephone lines. This allows for the computer monitor at each site to show

images created by users at the other sites. The software can be used like an

elaborate electronic blackboard, overhead projector, or slide projector. In

addition, it is being used for software sharing at multiple locations. Data

communications are transmitted over NBNet using a SLIP server which resides in a

user friendly simple menu front-end created by Tel-education NB to permit easy

access to NBNet and to facilities available. Students and teachers can access

NBNet for uploading and downloading assignments and other course materials. A

CD-ROM server is being set up at the central site and at the University of New

Brunswick library for permitting access to different databases. Tele-education

NB also supports an on-line learning center with a file server located at Mount

Allison University. Information of relevance distance education and the network

in particular can be accessed there. In Tele-education NB, a special listserv is

created for internal communications among different sites. As an integral part

of the province’s electronic information highway, Tele-education NB is

supporting the development of an open, distributed network, taking advantage of

media available. The most widely used delivery modes are audio teleconferencing

with SMART 2000, as well as videoconferencing. However, it is not limiting the

network to any one technology, or suite of technologies. It is actively

promoting experimentation and cooperation in the reception and delivery of

courses using other software and media. Tele-education NB placed routers in the

Community College Campus in each region, and other sites in regions that do not

have a college. Initially it operates using 56K connections and will move T1.

SMART 2000 runs not only on regular telephone lines but also on LANs and WANs

using Novell, TCP-IP and other telecommunication protocols. Tele-education NB

are now experimenting with synchronous transmissions using the TCP-IP protocol

on NBNet. The Picturetel videoconferencing units existing in province all are

CCITT compatible. Tele-education NB has provided the guidelines for selecting

appropriate technology for its network as follows: · The network shall

experiment with different technologies and endeavor not to rely on any one

technology or any supplier. · Existing equipment and distance education

sites in the province shall be integrated into the network wherever possible.

· The network shall establish computer teleconferencing and computer

conferencing links among the sites, including access to electronic information

highway and the Internet. · Satellite delivery and reception capabilities

and upgrading of sites to PC-based videoconferencing will be investigated for

implementation in future. · Other optional equipment may be placed in

sites at the request of users and institutions such as MACs and CD-ROMs.

· The network should be compatible as much as possible with other

provinces and regions. 3.3.2 DELTA’s Virtual College Delta’s Virtual College is

implemented in Denmark (Europe). It offers the opportunity for students to

participate in desktop Tele-education from their homes or offices. This concept

means that individual students participate in Tele-educational courses using a

desktop computer online connected to a course provider. The user interface is a

common Web browser, that is, Netscape Web-browser, extended with loosely

integrated audio and video tools. The educational environment applies the

metaphor of a virtual college. The idea is that students access DELTA’s virtual

college server when participating in a course. The user interface looks like the

plan of a college. From the college hallway, the student can enter different

rooms with different functions. Those rooms are: · classrooms where

on-line lectures and presentation take place, · group rooms where on-line

cooperative work takes place, · studies where off-line study such as

self-study material, exercises, slides from previous lectures, supplementary

material and links to other sites on the Web take place, · teacher

offices where it is furnished with course administration tools, · tea

room where it is used for informal chat and social contact with fellow students

during break. The following figure, the "floor plan", illustrates

those rooms: Figure 1 : The floor plan The goal of this virtual college is to

integrate different modes of teaching and learning. This includes synchronous

mode like on-line lectures and group exercises as well as asynchronous mode like