Summer and winter sports

Summer and winter sports

People all over the world are very fond of sports and games. That is one of the things in which people of every nationality and class are united. The most popular outdoor winter sports are shooting, hunting, hockey and, in the countries where the weather is frosty and there is much snow - skating, skiing and tobogganing. Summer affords excellent opportunities for swimming, boating, yachting, cycling, gliding and many others sports. Among outdoor games football takes place in public interests; this game is played in all the countries of the world. The other games in different countries are cricket, volley-ball, basket-ball, and so on. Badminton is also popular both with young and old. Over the last few years aerobics has become popular with young girls and women. Aerobics helps them to be slim, healthy and strong.

Kazakhstanis consistently perform well in Olympic competitions, especially in boxing. This has brought some attention to the Central Asian nation, and increased awareness of its existence in the Western world.

Kazakh boxers are generally well known in the world. In last 3 Olympic games their performance was assessed as one of the best and they had more medals than any countries in the world except Cuba and Russia (in all three games). In 1996 and 2004 two Kazakh boxers (Vasiliy Jirov in 1996 and Bakhtiyar Artayev in 2004) were recognized as the best boxers for their techniques with the Val Barker trophy, awarded to the best boxer of the tournament.

Kazakh boxers performed well in the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia. Two boxers, Bekzat Sattarkhanov and Yermakhan Ibraimov, earned gold medals. Another two boxers, Bulat Jumadilov and Mukhtarkhan Dildabekov, earned silver medals.

It should also be noted that Oleg Maskaev, born in Zhambyl, representing Russia, was the WBC Heavyweight Champion after knocking out Hasim Rahman on August 12, 2006.

Cross-country skiing

The skier Vladimir Smirnov won seven medals in total in the 1988, 1994 and 1998 Winter Olympics, including a gold in the 50 km competition in 1994. He also won 11 medals in total in World Championships from 1987 to 1995, including four gold medals. During the first part of his active career he represented the Soviet Union, in the later part Kazakhstan.

Auxiliary verb

In linguistics, an auxiliary (also called helping verb , helper verb , auxiliary verb , or verbal auxiliary ) is a verb functioning to give further semantic or syntactic information about the main or full verb following it. In English, the extra meaning an auxiliary verb imparts alters the basic form of the main verb to have one or more of the following functions: passive , progressive , perfect , modal , or dummy .

In English, every clause has a finite verb which consists of a full verb (a non-auxiliary verb) and optionally one or more auxiliary verbs, each of which is a separate word. Examples of finite verbs include write (no auxiliary verb), have written (one auxiliary verb), and have been written (two auxiliary verbs).

There is a syntactic difference between an auxiliary verb and a full verb; that is, each has a different grammatical function within the sentence. In English, and in many other languages, there are some verbs that can act either as auxiliary or as full verbs, such as be ("I am writing a letter" vs "I am a postman") and have ("I have written a letter" vs "I have a letter"). In the case of be , it is sometimes ambiguous whether it is auxiliary or not; for example, "The ice cream was melted " could mean either "Someone/something melted the ice cream " (in which case melt would be the main verb) or "the ice cream was mostly liquid " (in which case be would be the main verb).

There are many auxiliary verbs in English, the primary auxiliary verbs are to be and to have , other major auxiliarys are shall, will, may and can, there are also numerous other lesser used verbs such as, do, must, ought, used and dare.[1] [2] Auxiliary words are formed by conjugation into the different forms: am, is, are, shall, should, be, being, been, was, were, will, would, has, have, having, had, do, does, did, can, could, may, might, must, ought(to), get, got, gotten.

Modal Verbs

We find the following modal verbs in English: can, may, must, ought, shall, should, will, need and dare . Besides, to have and to be in some of their uses are also classed among modal verbs. A modal verb in combination with the infinitive forms a modal compound predicate .

Modal verbs are defective verbs since they lack many forms characteristic of regular verbs: they have no -s in the third person singular in the present tense and no verbal, so they have no analytical forms; some of them lack the form of the past tense.

Modal verbs have the following peculiarities:

they are followed by the infinitive without the particle to (with the exception of ought, to have and to be );

their interrogative and negative forms are built up without the auxiliary do.

Most of the verbs have more than one meaning. Each of their meanings is characterized by a specific usage.

Some of the meanings may be found in all kinds of sentences; others occur only in affirmative of interrogative or negative sentences;

Different meanings may be associated with different forms of the infinitive - simple and perfect (both in the active and passive forms), continuous and perfect continuous;

If the modal verbs have more than one form (can - could, may - might, will - would, also the verbs to have and to be ), their different meanings are not necessarily found in all those forms.

The use of modal verbs is in most cases independent of the structure of the sentence: the use of this of that modal verb is determined by the attitude of the speaker towards the facts contained in the sentence. In this case we may speak of the free or independent use of modal verbs.


In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun (or noun phrase) with or without a determiner, such as you and they in English. The replaced phrase is called the antecedent of the pronoun. A pronoun used for the item questioned in a question is called an interrogative pronoun, such as who .

For example, consider the sentence "Lisa gave the coat to Phil." All three nouns in the sentence can be replaced by pronouns: "She gave it to him." If the coat, Lisa, and Phil have been previously mentioned, the listener can deduce what the pronouns she , it and him refer to and therefore understand the meaning of the sentence. However, if the sentence "She gave it to him" is the first presentation of the idea, none of the pronouns have antecedents and each pronoun is therefore ambiguous. Pronouns without antecedents also called unprecursed pronouns.


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