Economics Of India Essay, Research Paper
In every region of the world there are culture and social differences that set countries apart. Each with an economic, social and political outlooks on the future that determine the way people live. These endless arrays, even occur in different parts of a particular of every country including one of the worlds most diverse, India.
India is separated into 25 states and 7 territories which create 16 major languages and 1,000 minor languages and dialects. This diversity in language creates somewhat of a barrier for India to become one of the foremost leaders in world because of the lack of unity. Although, in the past, the India government has taken steps to correct this matter with promoting Hindi as the national language. However, Indians who cannot speak Hindi frowned upon this notion. They believed the best jobs would go to Indians who spoke Hindi and with their pride of their regional languages kept them from accepting this unity, thus government decided against this idea. Now, the India government recognizes 13 regional languages as official languages. Children in schools learn Hindi as their second language, with English being used primary in higher education.
Education has become the most recognizable forms of advancing one?s country, India has exploded in schools and enrollment in these schools. As we can see by page 2, both chart?s, the difference in a little more then 10 years is considerable. Both school enrollment and the number of educational institutions have increased by an average of 63%, however do not get fooled by these numbers. The Indian?s school system are extremely overcrowded and many children drop out to get a job to help support their families.
This problem with India?s educational system falls in two parts, the first being that children who do drop out to find a job, is part of the social problem that India has been trying to correct. The Indian government started this quest to eliminate child labor in 1986 with a whole section in the United Nations? convention on the Rights of the Child. Additionally, in 1986 they passed the Child Labor Act that intended to ban the employment of children in occupations that are considered hazardous and to regulate conditions of work for children employed in occupations where child labor is not actually banned. However, as we can see by the summery of this act it does not make the necessary changes to the social conditions in which children have to work to ensure that the family has money.
The second problem with the educational system in India is the overcrowding. However this occurrence has more to do with the situation of population increasing steadily over the past 20 years. As we can see by the 1st page the population will enter into the billions by the year 2001, which will also have a direct impact on the density of India. If the figures for the year 2001 are correct the density per sq. km should be around 422 which close to twice as crowed in 1991. This in turn again will have a direct effect on the overcrowding of schools unless the Indian government starts to build more schools.
As we can see the educational system has its flaws not to mention the fact that most of the population lives in the rural area of India, which we can see on page 1, where modern development like schools are very few in number in the urban area. These alterations of the system must come from the top i.e. the government, however, they have gone through many changes themselves. In the past year the Indian government elected their new prime minister H.D. Deve Gowda. One of the main goals of prime minister Gowda is to carry on the economic reforms and increasing social spending to the lower and middle class. This would included India becoming more open to global investment and building up relations with almost all countries especially their neighbors Pakistan and China. Additionally, this would included more government allocation of funds including medical care, and other social reforms.
As we just illustrated the Indian government is in directed command of India?s future in turns of economic development since all new reforms come from the prime minister Gowda. Another step within the government that has aided India in becoming an economic power is the time period which it takes to create new regulations and laws. In the past it was a few years now it is a few weeks. As we can see by page 3, these reforms by the government has been taking its effect because of the increase trend of these numbers.
The difference from 1981 to 1991 is staggering which is especially shown in both charts. In these past ten years all aspects of the Indian economy has nearly tripled in number and size. This is in part again from the government forcing economic changes but also in part from the expanding wealth of India. The problem of India is that the poverty is a high factor however this country has a large GNP. Although this value can not be compared to America since because if its large population they have one of the lowest per capita GNP?s. This low ranking is strictly why the India is still a developing country.
The India economy is split up into nine basic parts with the four on page three being the main ingredients. The main one is considered to be agriculture since it provides the nation with the third of its income. This economy also has been increasing and less imports are coming into India because of improved farming techniques, with in turn has enlarged the economy. Service is another economic activity however, because of huge rural population this less important in India. Although, due to the expanding population all over India this has become more important in the past 10 years as seen in the charts on page 3.
Manufacturing also has become a leader in expansion in India. This is in part from the gaining of Independence in which India received from Britain in the 1950?s. Thus India became more free to pursue, and have control their own manufacturing which in turn gain them their own economy.
India?s economic success as a country is strictly from gaining independence India. However, just like ever developing country India has had trouble in the social aspect. In the upcoming years this corrections will have to be addressed since the India economy is expanding at an idea rate however, the social conditions are staying somewhat behind of other countries.