регистрация / вход

Cyprus Essay Research Paper Billy TourtoulisBeth Hadrell

Cyprus Essay, Research Paper Billy Tourtoulis Beth Hadrell Eng. 120 Sec. 003 The two political sides of the Cyprus Problem. Since 1974, when Turkey invaded the island of Cyprus thus establishing a fake “Turkish Nation” as it is called by the Turkish press, the two countries, Turkey and Greece have been at odds with each other.

Cyprus Essay, Research Paper

Billy Tourtoulis

Beth Hadrell

Eng. 120 Sec. 003

The two political sides of the Cyprus Problem.

Since 1974, when Turkey invaded the island of Cyprus thus establishing a fake “Turkish Nation” as it is called by the Turkish press, the two countries, Turkey and Greece have been at odds with each other. Turkey claims part of the island of Cyprus as well as part of Greece; Greece is always at the U.N. seeking justice.

The problem in Cyprus has been one of the major concerns for the United Nation for the past thirty years. Foreign countries, members of the U.N. have tried repeatedly to ease or solve the problem that exists since 1973. Greece, Turkey, and Great Britain have all been involved. One must look at Cyprus’s past to understand how this problem came about.

Many of the events in Cypriot history have occurred because of its location. It is in the middle of the meeting point between Asia, Europe, and Africa. “In the 13th century BC the Mycenean Greeks settled on the island and introduced the Greek language and culture.”(The Cyprus Problem 4) In the centuries that followed it was under the control of Alexander the Great, the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, King Richard Couer de Lion, Venice, and finally the Ottoman Empire.(Paidoussi)

At the end of the Ottoman Empire’s control of Cyprus is where the problem begins. Greece gained its independence from the Ottoman empire on March 25, 1821. By 1830 there were talks to annex Cyprus with Greece, but “Cyprus remained under Ottoman rule until 1878.”(The Cyprus Problem 5) Turkey fearing an expanding Tsarist Russia surrendered Cyprus to Great Britain with the understanding that if Russia their Empire the British would help Turkey. This agreement was made without even thinking of what the people of Cyprus wanted.

“At the outbreak of the first World War, Cyprus was annexed to the British Empire, and in 1925 it was formally declared a British Crown Colony. By that time Turkey had, under the Treaty of Lausanne of 1923, Article 16, renounced all claim to Cyprus and by Article 27 of the same Treaty divested itself of the exercise of any power or jurisdiction in political, legislative, or administrative matters over the nationals of Cyprus. When Cyprus was declared a British Crown Colony, the Turkish population of the island – descendants of members of the Turkish occupation force and expatriates from Turkey – were invited to choose between repatriation to Turkey or permanent settlement in Cyprus, and a number of them chose to remain in Cyprus. At that time it had never been intended or expected that the Turkish minority would become the arbiters of the country’s destiny. From 1878 when Cyprus was handed over to Britain, until April 1955, when struggle for liberation from British rule was started by the Greek Cypriots, the Turks in Cyprus intermingled with the Greek people and lived in peace and harmony.”(The Cyprus Problem 5)

By 1955 Cyprians had enough of British rule; they were not getting anywhere with peaceful ways to gain independence. Passive resistance became an armed conflict. “Boycotts, explosions that cost many lives on both sides and reprisals became a daily affair.”(Paidoussi) Britain had a plan to put down this revolt and that is basically why the Greek and Turkish communities began to fight. Britain threatened the people of Cyprus that independence would mean partition of the island because the Turkish Cypriots would be offered separate independence. It was this political trick that became the Turkish incentive to demand the partition of the island. The Turkish Cypriots then insisted on either British rule or partition. “Turkish forces then began a small scale war within the island.”(Paidoussi) The U.N., after deliberation with Greece, Turkey and Britain decided to leave the matter to the three countries and thus, the countries involved met in Zurich on February 11, 1959 to settle the dispute.

The two agreements they decided, the “Treaty of Guarantee” between Cyprus on the on the one hand and Greece, Britain and Turkey on the other, gave the three powers the right of joint or even unilateral action for the purpose of re-establishing the State of Affairs as decided, and the “Treaty of Alliance” which allowed Cyprus, Greece and Turkey to station contingents of their own forces on the island.(The Cyprus Problem) These two treaties brought about the drafting of a constitution. According to that constitution, Cyprus was proclaimed an independent state on August 16, 1960.

Historically, it has been proven that the Greek Cypriots signed those agreements fearing partition of their island, perhaps losing their independence for good. The constitution called for the island to be separated into two states; the president was to be Greek Cypriot, and elected by Greek Cypriots. The Vice-President was to be Turkish Cypriot and elected by Turkish Cypriots. Among the powers given to the Vice-President was the authority of a final veto on any laws passed by the House of Representatives. In the House itself any law dealing with municipal issues or fiscal law needed a majority from both the Greek and Turkish Cypriot sides. In practice eight Turkish Cypriot members could kill a bill approved by seven other Turkish Cypriots and thirty-five other Greek Cypriots.

People were tried in court only by judges of their own ethnicity. If there was a case where a Greek and Turkish Cypriot were involved, a judge from each side was involved. Government agencies dealing with religion, education, culture, sports, and charity were also separate. This setup became inoperable. In November 1963 President Archbishop Makarios suggested thirteen amendments to the constitution to alleviate tension and animosity between the Greek and Turkish Cypriots. The amendments were submitted to the leaders of the Turkish Cypriot minority but Turkey refused them point blank.

In December 1963, Turkey showed openly that they wanted partition of Cyprus. T.M.T., the Turkish terrorist organization in Cyprus, began a rebellion against the government.(The Cyprus Problem 10) Turkey itself threatened invasion. To justify these actions, Turkey claimed that the suggested amendments of Archbishop Makarios were threatening to the Turkish Cypriot minority. That same month all of the Turkish Cypriot members of the government stepped down and proclaimed the constitution dead. Immediately the Turkish troops that were stationed in Cyprus according to the treaty began to move the Turkish Cypriot population with force.(Paidoussi) They claimed that it was done because the government of Cyprus was going to destroy them. All it did was geographically separate the populations so the plan for partition could proceed.

In January 1964, the British called for a conference in London to try to bring a solution to this new violence. The conference appeared to be a smoke screen for Turkey’s plan with the help of British power. There were two issues being forced on the government of Cyprus. First they had to allow troop from various countries to maintain law and order on the island and the establishment of an intergovernmental committee to control the troops.(The Cyprus Problem 11) The Greek Cypriots opposed all plans and brought the issue to the U.N. Turkey not wishing U.N. interference, used the threat of invasion thus hoping to keep discussing the issue in London. In August, 1964 one hundred Greek Cypriots were killed after bombing by Turkish jets.(Paidoussi ) “The Turkish Cypriots held 30% of the posts in the Civil Service and compromised 40% of the police force and army.”(The Cyprus Problem 7)

In March, 1964 the U.N. passed Security Council passed Security Council resolution 186 that sent a peace keeping force to the island.(The Cyprus Problem 12) Another resolution was passed in December 1965 that said that all other countries respect and recognize Cyprus’s independence and it continued the previous resolution to keep the peace troops on the island of Cyprus. After that talks were recommended by the UN Secretary General. The talks lasted 10 years and it looked as if Turkey could finally give in and agree with a single state of Cyprus.(Paidoussi) By 1974, though all those plans were dead. After the election in Turkey that year, Premier Bulent Ecevit signed a policy that only federation in Cyprus could be accepted.(The Cyprus Problem 15) Turkey now publicly showed they wanted the island to be separated. They were just waiting for their chance.

On July 15 1974 the top generals on the Greek Cypriot side overthrew their own government at the request of a military Junta in Athens (1967-1974) and President Makarios went into exile.(Paidoussi) Five days later 40,000 Turkish troops landed on the island against the constitution and the UN resolutions. A second invasion by Turkey followed on the 14th of August. The final result was that about 40% of the island came under Turkish control.(The Cyprus Problem 15) Prior to this the two populations lived together and were not polarized. Thousands of Greek Cypriots including civilians were killed or tortured and a lot more disappeared and are still missing because to this day Turkey refuses to acknowledge the problem.(Paidoussi)

In November that year the UN passed another resolution asking again respect for the independence of Cyprus and for the removal of all foreign troops, the end of all foreign interference and the return of all the refugees. Turkey voted for this resolution because otherwise Turkey would have been the only member of the Security Council to vote negative. However they refused to follow any of its resolutions. On February 10, 1975 the Greek Cypriot side made a proposal to Turkey based on the newest resolution. The plan called for the island of Cyprus united without any artificial division. Three days later Turkey responded by establishing the “Turkish Federated State of Cyprus.”(The Cyprus Problem 16) More resolutions were passed but Turkey ignored them all, much to the despair of all other nations.

All solutions to the problem in Cyprus have failed. Turkey has not been pressured enough to leave. To this day Turkey shoves and pushes the remaining Greek Cypriots from villages and home and settling Turks from the mainland. Since 1974 in the occupied area about 85,000 settlers from Turkey have made their home while the Greek Cypriot population has fallen 99% while the Turkish population has increased 150%.(The Refugees of Cyprus 5) The mainland of Turkey considers the occupied territory as part of Turkey.

It is amazing how a foreign policy can distort and misrepresent historical facts.

To name a few: There are hundreds of UN resolutions concerning the Israeli-Arab bloody 50 years since the establishment of the State of Israel. Israel has not complied and the U.S. has either vetoed said resolutions, or turned the other way. In Cyprus, the resolutions go unobserved by the Turkish government and the U.S. turns a deaf ear. However when Kuwait shouted help in 1990, and the UN ordered troops, the whole world listened and obeyed; one of the first on the scene with the billion dollar stealth bombers was the United States. Yet, Kuwait was once part of Iraq and the same foreign policy of the British separated it into another country.(Paidoussi) Kuwait holds the key: profit! Oil! Neither Israel nor Cyprus has anything to offer.

Today, while American ambassadors are doing everything possible to pacify the two countries, Turkey claims that parts of Greece on the north should be Turkish. They believe that the island of Cyprus should be equally divided. At the end of 1992 Cyprus’s population was 718,000 of these 81.7% were Greek Cypriots and 18.3% were Turkish Cypriots.(The Cyprus Problem 4)

Works Cited

The Cyprus Problem. Nicosia-Cyprus, Press and Information Office, Republic of Cyprus, 1995

Paidoussi, Helen. Personal Interview. 3 December, 1997

The Refugees of Cyprus. Nicosia-Cyprus, Press and Information Office, Republic of Cyprus, 1996

Billy Tourtoulis

Beth Hadrell

Eng. 120 Sec. 003

The two political sides of the Cyprus Problem.

Since 1974, when Turkey invaded the island of Cyprus thus establishing a fake “Turkish Nation” as it is called by the Turkish press, the two countries, Turkey and Greece have been at odds with each other. Turkey claims part of the island of Cyprus as well as part of Greece; Greece is always at the U.N. seeking justice.

The problem in Cyprus has been one of the major concerns for the United Nation for the past thirty years. Foreign countries, members of the U.N. have tried repeatedly to ease or solve the problem that exists since 1973. Greece, Turkey, and Great Britain have all been involved. One must look at Cyprus’s past to understand how this problem came about.

Many of the events in Cypriot history have occurred because of its location. It is in the middle of the meeting point between Asia, Europe, and Africa. “In the 13th century BC the Mycenean Greeks settled on the island and introduced the Greek language and culture.”(The Cyprus Problem 4) In the centuries that followed it was under the control of Alexander the Great, the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, King Richard Couer de Lion, Venice, and finally the Ottoman Empire.(Paidoussi)

At the end of the Ottoman Empire’s control of Cyprus is where the problem begins. Greece gained its independence from the Ottoman empire on March 25, 1821. By 1830 there were talks to annex Cyprus with Greece, but “Cyprus remained under Ottoman rule until 1878.”(The Cyprus Problem 5) Turkey fearing an expanding Tsarist Russia surrendered Cyprus to Great Britain with the understanding that if Russia their Empire the British would help Turkey. This agreement was made without even thinking of what the people of Cyprus wanted.

“At the outbreak of the first World War, Cyprus was annexed to the British Empire, and in 1925 it was formally declared a British Crown Colony. By that time Turkey had, under the Treaty of Lausanne of 1923, Article 16, renounced all claim to Cyprus and by Article 27 of the same Treaty divested itself of the exercise of any power or jurisdiction in political, legislative, or administrative matters over the nationals of Cyprus. When Cyprus was declared a British Crown Colony, the Turkish population of the island – descendants of members of the Turkish occupation force and expatriates from Turkey – were invited to choose between repatriation to Turkey or permanent settlement in Cyprus, and a number of them chose to remain in Cyprus. At that time it had never been intended or expected that the Turkish minority would become the arbiters of the country’s destiny. From 1878 when Cyprus was handed over to Britain, until April 1955, when struggle for liberation from British rule was started by the Greek Cypriots, the Turks in Cyprus intermingled with the Greek people and lived in peace and harmony.”(The Cyprus Problem 5)

By 1955 Cyprians had enough of British rule; they were not getting anywhere with peaceful ways to gain independence. Passive resistance became an armed conflict. “Boycotts, explosions that cost many lives on both sides and reprisals became a daily affair.”(Paidoussi) Britain had a plan to put down this revolt and that is basically why the Greek and Turkish communities began to fight. Britain threatened the people of Cyprus that independence would mean partition of the island because the Turkish Cypriots would be offered separate independence. It was this political trick that became the Turkish incentive to demand the partition of the island. The Turkish Cypriots then insisted on either British rule or partition. “Turkish forces then began a small scale war within the island.”(Paidoussi) The U.N., after deliberation with Greece, Turkey and Britain decided to leave the matter to the three countries and thus, the countries involved met in Zurich on February 11, 1959 to settle the dispute.

The two agreements they decided, the “Treaty of Guarantee” between Cyprus on the on the one hand and Greece, Britain and Turkey on the other, gave the three powers the right of joint or even unilateral action for the purpose of re-establishing the State of Affairs as decided, and the “Treaty of Alliance” which allowed Cyprus, Greece and Turkey to station contingents of their own forces on the island.(The Cyprus Problem) These two treaties brought about the drafting of a constitution. According to that constitution, Cyprus was proclaimed an independent state on August 16, 1960.

Historically, it has been proven that the Greek Cypriots signed those agreements fearing partition of their island, perhaps losing their independence for good. The constitution called for the island to be separated into two states; the president was to be Greek Cypriot, and elected by Greek Cypriots. The Vice-President was to be Turkish Cypriot and elected by Turkish Cypriots. Among the powers given to the Vice-President was the authority of a final veto on any laws passed by the House of Representatives. In the House itself any law dealing with municipal issues or fiscal law needed a majority from both the Greek and Turkish Cypriot sides. In practice eight Turkish Cypriot members could kill a bill approved by seven other Turkish Cypriots and thirty-five other Greek Cypriots.

People were tried in court only by judges of their own ethnicity. If there was a case where a Greek and Turkish Cypriot were involved, a judge from each side was involved. Government agencies dealing with religion, education, culture, sports, and charity were also separate. This setup became inoperable. In November 1963 President Archbishop Makarios suggested thirteen amendments to the constitution to alleviate tension and animosity between the Greek and Turkish Cypriots. The amendments were submitted to the leaders of the Turkish Cypriot minority but Turkey refused them point blank.

In December 1963, Turkey showed openly that they wanted partition of Cyprus. T.M.T., the Turkish terrorist organization in Cyprus, began a rebellion against the government.(The Cyprus Problem 10) Turkey itself threatened invasion. To justify these actions, Turkey claimed that the suggested amendments of Archbishop Makarios were threatening to the Turkish Cypriot minority. That same month all of the Turkish Cypriot members of the government stepped down and proclaimed the constitution dead. Immediately the Turkish troops that were stationed in Cyprus according to the treaty began to move the Turkish Cypriot population with force.(Paidoussi) They claimed that it was done because the government of Cyprus was going to destroy them. All it did was geographically separate the populations so the plan for partition could proceed.

In January 1964, the British called for a conference in London to try to bring a solution to this new violence. The conference appeared to be a smoke screen for Turkey’s plan with the help of British power. There were two issues being forced on the government of Cyprus. First they had to allow troop from various countries to maintain law and order on the island and the establishment of an intergovernmental committee to control the troops.(The Cyprus Problem 11) The Greek Cypriots opposed all plans and brought the issue to the U.N. Turkey not wishing U.N. interference, used the threat of invasion thus hoping to keep discussing the issue in London. In August, 1964 one hundred Greek Cypriots were killed after bombing by Turkish jets.(Paidoussi ) “The Turkish Cypriots held 30% of the posts in the Civil Service and compromised 40% of the police force and army.”(The Cyprus Problem 7)

In March, 1964 the U.N. passed Security Council passed Security Council resolution 186 that sent a peace keeping force to the island.(The Cyprus Problem 12) Another resolution was passed in December 1965 that said that all other countries respect and recognize Cyprus’s independence and it continued the previous resolution to keep the peace troops on the island of Cyprus. After that talks were recommended by the UN Secretary General. The talks lasted 10 years and it looked as if Turkey could finally give in and agree with a single state of Cyprus.(Paidoussi) By 1974, though all those plans were dead. After the election in Turkey that year, Premier Bulent Ecevit signed a policy that only federation in Cyprus could be accepted.(The Cyprus Problem 15) Turkey now publicly showed they wanted the island to be separated. They were just waiting for their chance.

On July 15 1974 the top generals on the Greek Cypriot side overthrew their own government at the request of a military Junta in Athens (1967-1974) and President Makarios went into exile.(Paidoussi) Five days later 40,000 Turkish troops landed on the island against the constitution and the UN resolutions. A second invasion by Turkey followed on the 14th of August. The final result was that about 40% of the island came under Turkish control.(The Cyprus Problem 15) Prior to this the two populations lived together and were not polarized. Thousands of Greek Cypriots including civilians were killed or tortured and a lot more disappeared and are still missing because to this day Turkey refuses to acknowledge the problem.(Paidoussi)

In November that year the UN passed another resolution asking again respect for the independence of Cyprus and for the removal of all foreign troops, the end of all foreign interference and the return of all the refugees. Turkey voted for this resolution because otherwise Turkey would have been the only member of the Security Council to vote negative. However they refused to follow any of its resolutions. On February 10, 1975 the Greek Cypriot side made a proposal to Turkey based on the newest resolution. The plan called for the island of Cyprus united without any artificial division. Three days later Turkey responded by establishing the “Turkish Federated State of Cyprus.”(The Cyprus Problem 16) More resolutions were passed but Turkey ignored them all, much to the despair of all other nations.

All solutions to the problem in Cyprus have failed. Turkey has not been pressured enough to leave. To this day Turkey shoves and pushes the remaining Greek Cypriots from villages and home and settling Turks from the mainland. Since 1974 in the occupied area about 85,000 settlers from Turkey have made their home while the Greek Cypriot population has fallen 99% while the Turkish population has increased 150%.(The Refugees of Cyprus 5) The mainland of Turkey considers the occupied territory as part of Turkey.

It is amazing how a foreign policy can distort and misrepresent historical facts.

To name a few: There are hundreds of UN resolutions concerning the Israeli-Arab bloody 50 years since the establishment of the State of Israel. Israel has not complied and the U.S. has either vetoed said resolutions, or turned the other way. In Cyprus, the resolutions go unobserved by the Turkish government and the U.S. turns a deaf ear. However when Kuwait shouted help in 1990, and the UN ordered troops, the whole world listened and obeyed; one of the first on the scene with the billion dollar stealth bombers was the United States. Yet, Kuwait was once part of Iraq and the same foreign policy of the British separated it into another country.(Paidoussi) Kuwait holds the key: profit! Oil! Neither Israel nor Cyprus has anything to offer.

Today, while American ambassadors are doing everything possible to pacify the two countries, Turkey claims that parts of Greece on the north should be Turkish. They believe that the island of Cyprus should be equally divided. At the end of 1992 Cyprus’s population was 718,000 of these 81.7% were Greek Cypriots and 18.3% were Turkish Cypriots.(The Cyprus Problem 4)

The Cyprus Problem. Nicosia-Cyprus, Press and Information Office, Republic of Cyprus, 1995

Paidoussi, Helen. Personal Interview. 3 December, 1997

The Refugees of Cyprus. Nicosia-Cyprus, Press and Information Office, Republic of Cyprus, 1996

ОТКРЫТЬ САМ ДОКУМЕНТ В НОВОМ ОКНЕ

ДОБАВИТЬ КОММЕНТАРИЙ  [можно без регистрации]

Ваше имя:

Комментарий

Другие видео на эту тему