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Bill Gates Essay, Research Paper Bird Bill Gates Type ALT+F+X to exit Edit What’s New for the Windows 98 Startup Disk? The Startup Disk has changed significantly for Windows 98. The following

Bill Gates Essay, Research Paper


Bill Gates

Type ALT+F+X to exit Edit

What’s New for the Windows 98 Startup Disk?

The Startup Disk has changed significantly for Windows 98. The following

items are new for Windows 98.









If you boot your computer using the new Windows 98 Startup Disk, a boot menu

appears allowing you the option to load drivers for the most common CD-Rom

drives or perform a normal clean boot.

After you make your selection, the Config.sys file loads the appropriate

CD-ROM driver (if selected) and then loads a 2MB RAMDrive. The RAMDrive is

used to store all the diagnostic tools necessary to troubleshoot the most

common problems.

NOTE: The RAMdrive may cause your CD-Rom to pushed back 1 drive letter. If your

CD-Rom is usually drive D:, it will now be Drive E:.



The Windows 98 Statup Disk includes generic ATAPI IDE & SCSI CD-ROM drivers

that allow your CD-ROM to function at Dos when the Windows 98 GUI is not


NOTE: Not all CD-Rom drives are supported. If your CD-Rom drive does not

function with these drivers, you must use the drivers that came with your

CD-Rom drive.



The Ebd.cab file is a compressed file whose contents are extracted to the

Ramdrive during the startup process. The table below identifies the files

in the Ebd.cab file.

File Function

Attrib.exe Add or remove file attributes

Chkdsk.exe A simpler and smaller disk status tool

Debug.exe Debugging utility

Edit.com Real-mode emergency text editor

Ext.exe New, simple file extract utility

Format.com Disk format tool

Mscdex.exe Microsoft CD-ROM file extension for MS-DOS

Scandisk.exe Disk status tool

Scandisk.ini Disk status tool configuration file

Sys.com Transfers system files and make disk bootable

Uninstal.exe A tool to remove Windows 98 from the system and return the

system to its previous state



The RAMDrive is created during the processing of the Config.sys file and is

2MB in size. The Ramdrive is created using system RAM to emulate a physical

Hard Disk. Without creating the RAMdrive, we would not have enough space on

a single 1.44 meg floppy disk to contain all the diagnostic tools as well

as the CD-Rom drivers.

WARNING: Since the RAMDrive is created during the processing of the Config.sys file

and uses System RAM, it is only temporary. It will disappear if you restart

your computer normally.



The following table describes the function of each file copied to the EBD.

File Function

Aspi2dos.sys Real-Mode Adaptec CD-ROM driver

Aspi4dos.sys Real-Mode Adaptec CD-ROM driver

Aspi8dos.sys Real-Mode Adaptec CD-ROM driver

Aspi8u2.sys Real-Mode Adaptec CD-ROM driver

Aspicd.sys Real-Mode Adaptec CD-ROM driver

Autoexec.bat Startup batch file

Btcdrom.sys Mylex/BusLogic CD-ROM driver

Btdosm.sys Mylex/BusLogic CD-ROM driver

Command.com Command interpreter

Config.sys Loads the device drivers

Drvspace.bin Microsoft DriveSpace compression driver

Ebd.cab Cab file containing extract utilities

Ebd.sys File identifying the ESD

Extract.exe File to expand the Ebd.cab file

Fdisk.exe Disk partition tool

Findramd.exe Utility to find the RAMDrive during startup

Flashpt.sys Mylex/BusLogic CD-ROM driver

Himem.sys XMS Memory Manager

Io.sys System boot file

Msdos.sys Boot option information (paths, multiboot, and so on)

Oakcdrom.sys Generic device driver for ATAPI CD-ROM drives

Ramdrive.sys Creates a Ramdrive during startup

Setramd.bat Searches for first available drive to be a Ramdrive



This section includes some common troubleshooting steps that can be used

when it’s necessary to use the Windows 98 Startup Disk. These steps are

designed to get the user at least into Safe-Mode where you have access

to Windows 98 extensive HELP system to further troubleshoot any issues.

Starting Your Computer in Safe Mode


There are several reasons why Windows 98 may fail

to start properly. The first step in troubleshooting

is to try starting your computer in Safe Mode. If

Safe Mode works, you can then use the extensive Help

system and troubleshooters located in the Start

menu/Help option.

***To start your computer in Safe Mode:

1. Remove the Startup Disk and restart your computer.

After the computer restarts but before Windows begins

to load, hold down the CTRL key until the Microsoft

Windows 98 Startup Menu appears. (If you are running

Windows 95, press the F8 key at the “Starting

Windows 95″ prompt.)

2. From the Startup menu, select Safe Mode.

If you can start your computer in Safe Mode, use

Windows 98 Help to resolve your original issue.

Setup Fails and the Computer Will Not Start


There are a few common reasons why Windows 98 Setup

may fail to complete successfully. The following

section explains what you can do to recover from

these situations. For more information on other

Setup problems, see the Setup.txt file in the

Win98 folder of your Windows 98 CD or Setup Disk #1.

If you encounter any of these error messages while

running Setup:

* Invalid System Disk

* Incorrect MS-DOS Version

* Missing or Corrupted Command.com

* Compression Driver errors

It is likely that your computer’s startup drive may

need updated system files. You can use the SYS command

to copy the needed files to your computer.

NOTE: If you are currently loading compression software,

you will need to know your host drive letter. This is

typically H. If you are not loading any compression

software, then you will need to SYS your C drive.

***To use the SYS command to copy system files to your


1. Restart your computer using the Windows 98 Startup

Disk, select option 2 on the Startup menu, and then

press ENTER.

2. At the A:\ prompt, type: SYS X: (where X is your

Host or Startup drive).

3. If the procedure is successful, a “System transferred”

message appears. If it is not successful, check to be

sure you are typing the correct drive letter for your

Host Drive.

IMPORTANT: If you have installed software that came with

your hard drive, be sure to read the documentation that

describes how to start your computer using a floppy disk.

Antivirus Software


If antivirus programs are left running during Setup,

they may prevent Setup from properly updating the system

files. If this occurs, disable or uninstall the antivirus

program, and then run Setup again.

NOTE: Some computers have built-in antivirus software.

This built-in software should also be disabled before

running Setup. If the software is left enabled, you

may receive a warning message informing you that the

Master Boot Record has changed. If you see such a

message, you MUST accept these changes or Setup may

stop responding.

Setup Stops Responding During Hardware Detection


If Setup stops responding while it is detecting the

hardware in your computer, turn your computer off and

wait a few seconds, then turn it back on. You may need

to do this several times, because Setup could stop

responding during several different detection modules.

NOTE: Use the power switch to turn your computer completely

off. Do not use the reset button or press CTRL+ALT+DELETE

to restart your computer.

If Setup still fails to complete successfully, it may be

necessary to start your computer in Safe Mode so that

you can view the Help topics associated with hardware


Compressed Drives Not Mounted


There are several reasons why compressed drives may

not be accessible. If your Windows directory is on a

compressed drive that is not mounted, you will not be

able to start Windows. If you suspect problems with your

compressed drives, try using Scandisk to fix them.

From the A:\ prompt, type:

Scandisk /Mount X:

where X is the drive letter of the compressed drive.

ScanDisk will then attempt to repair any errors and

mount the drive.

If there is not enough memory to check your compressed

drives, see “Installing Windows 98 from MS-DOS,” in

the Setup.txt file on Setup Disk 1 or the Windows 98 CD.



This section decribes how to use some of the utilities

included with the Windows 98 Startup Disk. To run each

program you should do the following:

1. Put the Windows 98 Startup Disk in the floppy disk

drive, and then restart your computer.

2. At the Startup menu, select option 1 or 2

(depending upon whether you need CD-ROM access),

and then press ENTER.

3. At the MS-DOS command prompt (A:\), type the name

of the utility you wish to run, and then press ENTER.



These two programs are useful for checking your hard

disk for errors. If you suspect there may be file

corruption or other problems with your hard disk(s),

run ScanDisk to check for and repair errors.

To check all your hard disks for errors, type:

Scandisk /all

To perform a full surface scan of your hard disk(s) for

maximum protection against data loss, type:

Scandisk /all /Surface

NOTE: You may receive errors about Long File Names. The MS-DOS

version of ScanDisk can only detect problems with long

file names, it cannot fix them. To correct these types of

errors, you must run ScanDisk from within Windows 98.

NOTE: If you have any compressed drives, you may receive an

error message stating that there is not enough memory

to check your compressed drives. To solve this problem,

try starting your computer with the Windows 98 Startup

Disk, as described in Step 1, earlier in this section.

Select option 2. This may allow ScanDisk enough memory to

check your compressed drives.

If ScanDisk is unable to check your drives, try using

CHKDSK.EXE instead. CHKDSK will check for cross-linked

files and lost allocation units.



The SYS command is used to copy system files from one

disk to another. Your computer needs these system files

to start.

***To SYS your C drive, type:


and then press ENTER. After a few seconds, a

“System Transferred” message appears.

The following files are copied to your hard disk during

the SYS procedure:




If the SYS C: command does not work and you have a

compressed drive, you may need to type the drive letter

of your host drive. With the DblSpace or DrvSpace programs,

the host drive is typically designated drive H. If you are

not sure of the drive letter, run ScanDisk and see if it

prompts you about your compressed drive.



FDISK and FORMAT are utilities necessary for installing

a new hard disk in your computer or for starting over

fresh with a clean disk. FDISK is used first to create

a partition and then FORMAT is used to make the partition

available for use.

WARNING: Using FDISK incorrectly can destroy all data

on your hard disk. If you are unsure of how to use FDISK,

consult your computer documentation.

You can use the Windows 98 version of FDISK to create

FAT32 partitions on drives over 512 megabytes in size.

FAT32 reduces the cluster size for large drives and allows

you to create single partitions on drives over 2 GB.

To view your current drive status, type FDISK /STATUS

at the MS-DOS command prompt.

After you have partitioned a drive using FDISK, you will

need to use the FORMAT command. To format a newly

partitioned drive, type:


Where X represents the letter of the drive that you

want to format.

If you want to format drive C, you need to make this

disk a system disk so that your computer can start. To

do this, type /s at the end of the FORMAT command. For



System Startup files will be automatically copied after

your drive is formatted.

CD-ROM Drivers


The Windows 98 Startup Disk includes a set of generic

CD-ROM drivers. These drivers work with most IDE ATAPI

and SCSI CD-ROM models.

If your particular CD-ROM drive does not work with

these drivers, you will need to use the drivers that

came with your CD-ROM drive.

Following are some known issues about the CD-ROM drivers:

1. CD-ROM drives connected to sound cards may not work


2. Early proprietary CD-ROM drives (for example, Mitsumi,

Panasonic, Sony) may not work with these drivers. Some

older IDE controllers may fail as well.

3. The SCSI drivers on the Startup Disk support most

Adaptec, Buslogic, and Mylex adapters. Some other

SCSI CD-ROM drives may not work with the drivers on

the Startup Disk.

4. If your SCSI controller is configured for a non-default

I/O range, the drivers may not detect your SCSI card.

Consult your SCSI driver documentation for the default

I/O ranges for your card.

5. Drivers are not included for any PC Card (PCMCIA)

CD-ROM drives.



If you need to remove Windows 98 from your system, you

can use the real-mode uninstall utility included on the

Windows 98 Startup Disk.

IMPORTANT: If you did not choose the option to “Save

System Files” during Setup, then you will be unable to

use this utility.

***To use the uninstall utility, perform the following


1. Restart your computer with the Windows 98 Startup Disk,

select option 2, and then press ENTER.

2. At the MS-DOS command prompt, type UNINSTAL, and then

press ENTER.

NOTE: If you see the message “WINUNDO.DAT is missing or

corrupt,” you cannot uninstall this version of Windows 98.



The EXT command is used in conjunction with the Extract.exe

utility to make it easier to extract Windows 98 files to

your hard disk. You can use this to replace missing or

damaged files.

This utility is extremely useful if you are receiving errors

during startup about missing files, or execution errors such

as General Protection Faults or invalid page faults.

***To use Ext.exe to extract a file, perform the following


1. Use the Startup Disk to start your computer. Select

option 1, and then press ENTER.

2. Make sure the Windows 98 CD is inserted in the drive.

3. Type EXT at the MS-DOS command prompt, and then

press ENTER.

4. Follow the prompts to indicate the location of the

Windows 98 Setup files, the files you wish to extract,

and the location in which you want to place the extracted


NOTE: If your CD-ROM drive letter is E, then type the location

to the Setup files as E:\WIN98.

NOTE: If you wish to extract more than one file at a time, you

can use wild card characters.


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