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Aids And Std Education Essay Research Paper

Aids And Std Education Essay, Research Paper Adults (over the age of 18) from the _ company and other peope who I know were randomly assigned to receive the survey. The

Aids And Std Education Essay, Research Paper

Adults (over the age of 18) from the _________ company and other

peope who I know were randomly assigned to receive the survey. The

group includes married males and females as well as single male and

females. There are 19 female and 31 male subjects.

A survey consisting of twenty statements concerning sexually

transmitted disease and HIV infection. The survey was designed by

myself . The purpose of the survey is to measure participants

awareness of AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases. I am trying to

show that people are not well informed about subjects such as condom

use, condom use and alcohol, transmission of sexual diseases, and the

magnitude of the AIDS problem. Subjects are asked to choose the level

with which they agree or disagree with each statement. There are two

levels of agreement and two levels of disagreement. See appendix A. A

consent form was signed by all participants. See appendix B.

Results

t-test*: t (48) = -2.2185, p * .0313

| | |

df cv pv

Variable N Mean Std Dev.

Minimum Maximum

Q1 50 1.420 0 .810

1.00 4.00

Q10 49 1.408 0.810

1.00 4.00

Q15 50 1.320 0 .621

1.00 4.00

Q3 48 3.396 0.869

1.00 4.00

Q9 50 3.240 0.822

1.00 4.00

Q6 50 3.220 0.834

1.00 4.00

Q16 50 3.100 0.621

1.00 4.00

Methods

Subjects

Adults (over the age of 18) from the company and other

people who I know were randomly assigned to receive the survey. The

group includes married males and females as well as single male and

females. There are 19 female and 21 male subjects. Ages ranged from

late teens to early fifties, with the majority being in their twenties.

Independent variable

Questions 6, 9, 13, and 16 on the survey.

I would be comfortable eating lunch with someone with HIV or AIDS.

I would be comfortable shaking hands with someone who has AIDS.

I am very well informed about HIV, AIDS and other sexually transmitted

diseases.

I would not have unprotected sex with someone unless they got tested

first.

Dependent Variable.

Awareness and education of AIDS and sexually transmitted disease.

Operational Definition

Awareness and education of AIDS and sexually transmitted disease equals

a total score of 12 or higher on questions 6, 9, 13, and 16 of the

survey.

Procedures

A survey consisting of twenty statements concerning sexually

transmitted disease and AIDS was given to fifty subjects. A t test was

performed on the results as well as a comparison of male vs. Female

scores on the Awareness and Education variable.

DiscussionResults of the survey have shown a need for additional education of males concerning AIDS awareness and education. Females, (89%) did verywell on the variable which was measured for satisfactory knowledge andawareness of AIDS and sexually transmitted disease. Males, (65%) didalso score well on this variable. This leaves us with 35% of the malesneeding more education and 11% of the females needing to increase thereawareness and education. The rather large number of males needingfurther education tend to support my hypotheses that yes more educationis necessary. I was pleased to see that on the whole, people are betterinformed than I had originally hypothesized as demonstrated by thescores reported for specific question. The lowest score or strongestdisagreement was on the statement that AIDS was no longer a big issue. People also realize that just having one sex partner at a time is notenough to protect you from AIDS as demonstrated by their response tonumber 10. The strongest agreement with statements on the surveyconcerned worrying about children’s future.This being the case, why is it that behavior as is described in myresearch does not reflect this knowledge? People know what they need todo to reduce their chances of exposure to AIDS and sexually transmitteddisease but they fail to do it. The research concentrated on studentswho are exposed to much more information about AIDS than adults who areout of the educational system. Further education about the dangers ofunprotected sex is needed as the study suggest, but we also need tounderstand why education is not enough. We desperately need to develop behaviors which will protect us from sexually transmitted disease andAIDS. Education Needed forAIDS, HIV and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Sexually transmitted diseases are a major health concern for ourcountry. With the spread of AIDS among so many people, both gay and heterosexual, it isimportant that we understand how these diseases spread and what we can do to preventthem. Continuing efforts to educate college students about the dangers of unprotected sex have resulted in little evidence of positive change in sexual behavior (Saywer & Moss,93).

During the 1980s, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, thecause of AIDS, emerged as a leading cause of death in the United.States). In 1993, HIV infection became the most common cause of death among persons aged 25-44 years.(Center for Disease Control) Because of the long latency period for HIV a large number ofthese people may have become infected during the ages of 18 to 24 the ages of mostcollege students. One of the national health objectives for the year 2000 for thecollege age population is a reduction in unintended pregnancy and transmission of SexuallyTransmitted Diseases, including and HIV /AIDS.. Studies have shown a need for educationalinterventions and future in-depth studies of college students. An example is a studywhich showed that a group of college males who had a history of sexually transmitteddiseases, high numbers of sexual partners and inconsistent condom use still perceived their riskof HIV/AIDS infection as very low.(Sawyer and Moss, 93). College students are thought to be at high risk for SexuallyTransmitted Diseases because of their high level of sexual activity and their potential formultiple sex partnersStudies have shown that even students who consider themselves in long term relationships often experience casual sex with another partner ( Sawyer and Moss,93). Multiple partners seem to be the norm rather than the exception. Sawyer and Moss (1993),reported that 21% of the men sampled have had 2 to 3 sexual partners,33% 4 to 6 partnersand 39% 7 or more sexual partners. Another study reported an average of 6 differentlifetime partners among female college students. ( Kusseling, Wenger and Shapiro 95 ) It becomes very obvious that with this type of activity occurring,the need for protection from STD is very important. The most obvious and easiest course ofaction would be for college students to abstain from sex, have a monogamous relationshipwith someone who is not infected, or reduce the risk of infection by using condoms, but this is not happening as the following studies have shown. Nicholas D. Ritchie, PhD, andAdelaide Getty, RN, BHS, CHES (1994). Francoise S. Kusseling, MOB; Neil S. Wenger, MD, MPH; andMartin F. Shapiro, MD, PhD. (1995). Barbara A De Buono,M.D., M.P.H., Stephen HZinner, M.D., Maxim Daamen, M.D., and William M. McCormack, M.D. (1989). Anita Raj,M.S., and Robert H Pollack, PhD., (1995). Tina M. Brien,MSEd; Dennis L. Thombs,PhD; Colleen A. Mahoney,PhD; and Larry Wallnau, PhD. (1993) Robin G Sawyer,Phd, andDonald J. Moss, MD. (1993) Condom use by female college students was reported to be 23%initially and 27% after a six month follow up, in a study of women attending a health clinic ( Kusseling, Wenger and Shapiro 95 ) Another study designed to compare college women’s sexualactivity before and after the start of the current HIV and genital herpes virus epidemic,concluded that there had been little change is sexual practices with the exception of increaseduse of condoms which still had not reached the 50% point (DeBuno, Zinner, Daamen, McCormack90). Another study of college females done in 95 showed that 64% did not regularlyuse condoms ( Raj and Pollack ,95 ). In one study done by Sawyer and Moss,(1993 ) ofcollege men reporting to a clinic for treatment of an Sexually Transmitted Diseases 75% of thesubjects reported never or only occasionally using condoms.

One of the reasons that students do not use condoms is becausethey consume alcohol before they engage in sex. The alcohol acts as a disinhibitor effecting the students judgment to have sex and whether or not to use condoms for protection. In onestudy of 243 college students 81% of students over 21 said that they had at least once hadsex because of intoxication. ( Butcher,Manning,O’Neal, 91have sex due to intoxication.Over 18% of students in another study said that they had abandoned safe sextechniques due to alcohol (Meilmand, (1993). The dangerous interaction between alcohol use andhigh risk sexual activities suggested that college HIV prevention efforts should make the connection between the two risk factors explicit. ( Butcher,Manning,O’Neal, 91). Other reasons for the lack of condom use among college students are their lack of confidence in discussing and using condoms. Some of the lack of confidence in discussing condom use is that many students are afraid that their partner willthink that either they have a disease or that they are afraid of catching one from them . Either waythey feel there is a very high chance of rejection if the topic of condoms were brought up.Communication self-efficacy was the best discriminator between those who initiatediscussion about condom use and those who don’t. They felt confident in their ability to insist oncondom use and to handle any arguments that might come up.(Brien, Thombs, Mahoney, and Wallnau. 1993). It is important that we recognize the need for education aboutAIDS and sexually transmitted diseases . This study will investigate peoples understanding of AIDS, HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. It will show that more education is necessary to help control the spreadof these diseases . Students have been given the most education aboutAIDS and sexually transmitted diseases yet they do not have an accurateunderstanding of their chances of getting AIDS. The general populationdoesn’t have exposure to all of the AIDS awareness training that thestudents do so I feel that they will know even less. The hypothesis forthis research is the following. People do not have an accurateunderstanding of AIDS, HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. More education is needed for the general population.

Education Needed forAIDS, HIV and Sexually Transmitted Diseases _____________________Sexually transmitted diseases are a major health concern for ourcountry. With the spread of AIDS among so many people, both gay and heterosexual, it isimportant that we understand how these diseases spread and what we can do to preventthem.During the 1980s, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, thecause of AIDS, emerged as a leading cause of death in the United.States). In 1993, HIVinfection became the most common cause of death among persons aged 25-44 years.(Center for Disease Control)Studies have shown a need for educational interventions and futurein-depth studies of college students. An example is a study whichshowed that a group of college males who had a history of sexuallytransmitted diseases, high numbers of sexual partners and inconsistentcondom use still perceived their risk of HIV/AIDS infection as verylow.(Sawyer and Moss, 93).This study will investigate peoples understanding of AIDS, HIV andsexually transmitted diseases. It will show that more education isnecessary to help control the spread of these diseases .The hypothesisfor this research is the following. People do not have an accurate understanding of AIDS, HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. Moreeducation is needed for the general population.

Sexually transmitted diseases are a major health concern for ourcountry. With the spread of AIDS among so many people, both gay and heterosexual, it is important that we understand how these diseases spread and what we can do to preventthem.During the 1980s, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the cause of AIDS, emerged as a leading cause of death in the United.States). In 1993, HIVinfection became the most common cause of death among persons aged 25-44 years.(Center for Disease Control)Studies have shown a need for educational interventions and futurein-depth studies of college students. An example is a study whichshowed that a group of college males who had a history of sexuallytransmitted diseases, high numbers of sexual partners and inconsistentcondom use still perceived their risk of HIV/AIDS infection as very low.(Sawyer and Moss, 93).College students are probably the best informed about AIDS and yet theystill need more education as their sexual behavior indicates. If thisgroup of well educated individuals needs more education, what does the general public need in the area of AIDS and sexually transmitted disease education. The way most people learn is through the news, magazines andthe newspaper. I do not think that this is enough.This study willinvestigate peoples understanding of AIDS, HIV and sexually transmitteddiseases. It will show that more education is necessary to help controlthe spread of these diseases .The hypothesis for this research is thefollowing. People do not have an accurate understanding of AIDS, HIV andsexually transmitted diseases. More education is needed for the generalpopulation.

SURVEY Survey instructionsThe following questions are a survey being done for a Psychology 221research course. There are 20 questions about your ideas, beliefs andsexual behavior related to HIV and Sexually transmitted diseases. Thetime to complete this survey should be 15 to 20 minutes, so please takeyour time and consider each question carefully and try to answer astruthfully as possible. The survey is completely confidential as I willnot ask for your name or student ID. Number. The purpose of this surveyis to better understand the need for HIV and Sexually TransmittedDiseases education. If at any time you do not feel comfortableresponding to a statement you may skip it or decide to stop taking thesurvey. If you decide to stop taking the survey and leave please takethe unfinished survey with you to discard to assure your privacy. Each statement is responded to by circling the most correct number undereach statement. Your answers are numbered from 1 through 4. Below is achart explaining the rating for each answer.1. Totally disagree or None of the time2. Disagree somewhat or Sometimes3. Agree somewhat or Usually4. Totally agree or All the timeConsentForm Date____________ I, _________________________, state that I am over 18 years of ageand that I voluntarily agree to participate in a research projectconducted by ______________ psychology student at ______. The researchis being conducted in order to better understand the need for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Disease education. The specific task I willperform requires me to fill out a survey about my beliefs about HIV andsexually transmitted diseases, my chances of getting the HIV virus andmy beliefs concerning condom use and safe sex practices.. I will not beasked to identify myself in relation to the survey which I fill out. I acknowledge that ______________ has explained the task to mefully; has informed me that I may withdraw from participation at anytime without prejudice or penalty; has offered to answer any questions Imight have concerning the research procedure; has assured me that anyinformation that I give will be used for research purposes only and willbe kept confidential. I also acknowledge that the benefits derived from, or rewards givenfor, my participation have been fully explained to me-as well asalternative methods if available, for earning these rewards-and that Ihave been promised, upon completion of the research task, a brief description of the role my specific performance plays in this project. There will be no reimbursement for your participation from me(_____________) or the school. __________________________ ___________________________SIGNATURE OF RESEARCHER SIGNATURE OF PARTICIPANT __________________Education Needed for AIDS, HIV and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

AbstractResults of the survey have shown a need for additional education ofmales concerning AIDS awareness and education. Females, (89%) did verywell on the variable which was measured for satisfactory knowledge andawareness of AIDS and sexually transmitted disease. Males, (65%) didalso score well on this variable. This leaves us with 35% of the malesneeding more education and 11% of the females needing to increase thereawareness and education. The rather large number of males needingfurther education tend to support my hypotheses that yes more educationis necessary. On the whole, people are better informed than had originally been hypothesized.MeasuresSurveyMy age is___________My sex is___________My education level is______________Check one, I am single _________, married __________, divorced__________I have children and their ages are 1-10 _____, 11-15______, 16-20_____,21+ _____ 1. Aids is a lower income and gay problem, I don’t need to worry.2. I would never go out with someone who was HIV positive, or who hadAIDS.3. I worry about my children’s future and them getting AIDS or othersexually transmitted diseases.4. People now have fewer sex partners due to AIDS.5. People use condoms more frequently because of AIDS.6. I would be comfortable eating lunch with someone with HIV or AIDS.7. People do not use condoms as much after they have been drinking.8. People know enough about AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases.9. I would be comfortable shaking hands with someone who has AIDS.10. As long as you only have one sex partner you are safe.11. I don’t worry about sexually transmitted diseases.12. I believe that our educational system has been effective inpresenting AIDS related information to students.13. I am very well informed about HIV, AIDS and other sexuallytransmitted diseases.14. We spend too much money on AIDS related research. It would bebetter spent on cancer research which is more important. 15. I do not think HIV and AIDS is such a big problem anymore.16. I would not have unprotected sex with someone unless they gottested first.17. People are more likely to become sexually involved if they havebeen drinking.18. I would feel comfortable discussing condom use with a potentialsexual partner before ever having any sexual contact.19. Most single people usually have had a few drinks before they havesex.20. People who get HIV and AIDS kind of deserve it for being stupid 1———-2—————-3——————4

Circle 1 for totally disagree

2 for somewhat disagree

3 for somewhat agree

4 totally agree

Bibliography

References

Nicholas D. Ritchie, PhD, and Adelaide Getty, RN, BHS, CHES (1994).

Did an AIDS peer education program change first-year college students’

behaviors? The journal of American college Health , January vol 42,

163-166

Dona Schneider, PhD, MPH; Micheal R. Greenberg, PhD; Monica Devanas,

PhD; Anu Sajja, MPH; Fern Goodhart, CHES; and David Burns, AM (1994).

Evaluating HIV/AIDS Education in the University Setting. Journal of

American College Health, vol 43, 11-15.

James Jaccard, PhD; Ruth Andrea Levinson, PhD; and Luann Beamer, MA.

(1994). Student Opinion Leaders and HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Risk

Behavior. Journal of American College Health, 1995, vol 43, (5) March,

p 216- 223

Barbara A De Buono,M.D., M.P.H., Stephen H Zinner, M.D., Maxim Daamen,

M.D., and William M. McCormack, M.D. (1989). Sexual behavior of

college women in 1975, 1986, and 1989. New England Journal of Medicine,

1990 vol 322 (12), March. P 821-825

Robin G Sawyer,Phd, and Donald J. Moss, MD. (1993). Sexually

transmitted diseases in college men: A preliminary clinical

investigation. Journal of American College Health 1993, vol 42 (3)

November, p111-115

Anita Raj, M.S., and Robert H Pollack, PhD., (1995). Factors predicting

High-Risk sexual behavior in hetrosexual college females. Journal of

sex and marital Therapy, Vol. 21, No.3, Fall, 213-223

Francoise S. Kusseling, MOB; Neil S. Wenger, MD, MPH; and Martin F.

Shapiro, MD, PhD. (1995). Inconsistent Contraceptive Use Among Female

College Students: Implications for Intervention. Vol 43,march191-194

Tina M. Brien,MSEd; Dennis L. Thombs, PhD; Colleen A. Mahoney,PhD; and

Larry Wallnau, PhD. Dimensions of Self-Efficacy Among Three Distinct

Groups of Condom Users. Journal of American College Health Vol 42

January

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Centers for Disease Control and

Prevention

1996 Vol. 45, No. 6 February 16

Philip W Meilman PhD. Alcohol Induced Sexual Behavior on Campus.

Journal of American College Health. Vol 42, (1) July 1993 p 27-31

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