Somilia Essay, Research Paper
Purpose: To explain current U.S. involvement in Somalia, particularly in the area of how the International Strategy Equation relates to Somalia along with elements of Security Assistance. How the New World Order applies to Somalia. In closure discuss two of the FY 91 Security Assistance program Objectives.
II. International Strategy and Somalia
a. Why U.S. is involve with Somalia
b. What types of support has the U.S. provided
III. The New World Order and Somalia
IV. Security Assistance and Somalia
V. Five Major Objectives of Security Assistance Program
In 1980, Somalia offered American rapid deployment forces access to its ports and air facilities in exchange for a significant commitment of military and economic assistance that was to last for a decade. Over the next ten years, U.S. support for Somalia exceeded $680 million, elevating the country to the top ranks of American aid recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. Troubled by Siad Barre’s mismanagement, continuing territorial ambitions, and worsening human rights record, congressional critics questioned and, at times, restricted the flow of U.S. weapons and funds. ( Reed Kramer & Tamela Hultman, Africa News Service.) Listed below is a year by year account of U.S. support to Somalia from 1980 to 1990.
U.S. Aid To Somalia, 1980-1990
(in millions of $)
MILITARY ECONOMIC TOTAL AID
1980 20.0 25.0 33.0
1981 20.4 56.9 77.3
1982 25.5 55.8 81.3
1983 25.5 57.7 83.2
1984 33.1 81.0 114.1
1985 34.2 82.4 116.6
1986 20.1 68.5 88.6
1987 8.2 41.8 50.0
1988 6.6 23.0 29.6
1989 .8 19.4 20.2
1990 .0 5.5 5.5
Total: 194.4 492.0 686.4
( Reed Kramer & Tamela Hultman, Africa News Service.)
It was discovered after a 1986 study be the General Accounting Office, the investigative arm of Congress that only 12% of U.S. emergency food aid to Somalia was reaching the targeted most needy population. The Bush administration agreed to send troops to ensure food deliveries to the worst affected famine areas with the intention of bringing American soldiers home in a relatively short period of time.
Somalia wasn t the only area needing assistance the Horn of Africa, a region which includes Ethiopia, Eritrea, Sudan, Djibouti, Somalia and the unrecognized Republic of Somaliland needed our assistance. Twenty-three million residents of the Horn are at risk of starvation; 7 million have been uprooted due to violence and famine, and 7,000 are dying each week as a result. A complete breakdown in many places of both traditional and state structures has made Somalia the worst humanitarian crisis in the world today. In April 1992, the U.S. Congress passed the Horn of Africa Recovery and Food Security Act. Bread for the World, the Center of Concern and scores of other humanitarian and religious organizations, as partners in the Coalition for Peace in the Horn of Africa, supported this bill. In previous decades, U.S. policy emphasized military and economic aid to despotic regimes perceived to be useful in the context of the Cold War. The new law mandates an active U.S. role in peace making and directs U.S. aid to grass-roots development programs. ( Reed Kramer & Tamela Hultman, Africa News Service.)
Under President Bush the U.S. started a new Foreign Policy call The New World Order ( U.S. Army Sergeants Major Academy subcourse BD40-C, U.S. International Strategy SR-2-45) What is this New World order, it is the advancing of Americanism . That is Freedom and Democracy with the U.S. as the leader and example for all others to follow. The U.S. started this policy in Somalia by providing Humanitarian Relief, Peace Initiatives, Reconstruction and Democratization.
Ambassador Robert Oakley was called from retirement and named the U.S. envoy to Somalia in a push to show the U.S. determination for their New World Order policy. Prominent Somalis living in the United States met in Washington, DC, to develop recommendations for improving relief efforts and promoting political reconciliation. The effort was sponsored by the United States Institute for Peace, a congressionally established and funded “institution” where Oakley served as coordinator of a Middle East peacemaking project. The two major outcomes were that the U.S. should provide adequate Security for Emergency Relief and Promote Reconciliation within Somalia.
Security Assistance is another important part of U.S. policy. Security Assistance is the combination of military support programs that include, Foreign Military Financing (FMF), International Military Education and Training (IMET) and Peacekeeping Operations (PKO). These programs combined with assistance programs designed to foster economic development and growth, known as Economic Support Fund (ESF), all come together to form Security Assistance. In the FY 91 Security Assistance budget, Somalia received $900 million in IMET funds alone. As mentioned earlier the U.S. in the 1980 s provided Somalia with $194.4 million in military and $492 million in economic support.
In 1991 the Security Assistance program developed five major objectives to be achieved. First promote regional stability in such vital areas of the world as the Middle East. Second, aid U.S. friends and allies as they seek to defend against major threats to their security interests. Third, Maintain U.S. defense alliances and related cooperative arrangements in a time of rapidly changing security requirements. Fourth, defend democratic values and institutions, and last, support friendly country economies as they experience the disruptions associated with the process of modernizing and liberalizing their economic policies.
The first objective is exactly what the U.S. is doing in Somalia today. We are there to provide security and ensure that the food and supplies are getting to where they need to be without interference. In this process the U.S. is merely setting up security zones in portions of Somalia, which in turn is causing people to leave their homes and go to where they will be protected. These people are the farmers, who have been unable to plant their crops due to fighting, so the main question is when will these farmers who populate the feeding camps be able to reclaim their former property?
The last objective is being support by the U.S. and United Nations officials. They have put a program together, a plan that would help turn Somalia around, but like anything else will take time. This plan includes the following elements:
· secure roads, airports and harbors to speed delivery of humanitarian assistance;
· disarm the population in the whole country (north and south);
· rehabilitate the physical infrastructure;
· establish a national police force accountable to a United Nations commission, which should ensure that new arms don’t filter back to the country either by sea or land;
· Rehabilitate the economy and, in particular, rejuvenate education, health and social services.
If the U.S. continues to support Somalia with all the different types of aids we have been providing and encourage Somalia to take a part in their own fate, they will succeed. Somalia in my opinion is a perfect example of the U.S. International Strategy Equation and what the U.S. means when it talks about the New World Order. We are a caring nation and as always we remain the Policemen of the world.
Africa News Service, Reed Kramer & Tamela Hultman
U.S. International Strategy , U.S. Army Sergeants Major Academy subcourse BD40-C,