E R? S Metaphysics Essay, Research Paper

H e I d e g g e r? s Metaphysics

and its application to



1.To be able for Filipino to know heidegger?s Metaphysics and apply it to their everyday living.

2.To be able to know that the foundation of success is oneself

3. To be able to encourage Filipino people to evaluate themselves;

4.To be able to maximize Filipinos? good values and minimize their weakness;

5.To be able to develop discipline and initiatives among Filipinos; and

6. To be able to promote ?love of work?, Patriotism and National Pride among Filipino people.



We are all travelers of this long journey, we call life. And as we travel, we aspire to go somewhere else. A place where we think and believe we can succeed. And if that certain place is not sufficient to offer the things we need, again, we search for another place to stay. A place to try our luck. Another place not like what we had stayed before?because it had failed us. It did not serve our satisfactions. We do not want to remain stagnant in a place that has neglected us?

Like Philippines?

Most of the Filipino people think that this country could not be a right place for earning, for survival and even for living. Because they see Philippines as a poor country that do not have the potential to develop nor have the capacity to serve its people. That is why some of our fresh graduates usually apply for a job abroad. Even if the job they apply for, do not require a bachelor degree certificate. Or if in that job, what they have learned is not useful anymore? just to earn for a living? they will fly to Hong Kong or Saudi Arabia as a housemaid or babysitter. They will take all the risk.

And that is also why we always ignore our country?s product. And consider it as a second class. That has no value nor significance in our lives. That we usually call ?baduy?. Then we choose the signatures– the richest country?s products. Which the first class people usually wear or eat or buy. We eat according to what they eat, and it?s a funny thing that we also eat according to how they eat. We talk the way they talk. Uttering foreign languages that is actually foreign to our native tongues that puzzles people about what we say. And even puzzle them about our nationality. And sometimes?about our sanity. We imitate them. Because they are in. From hair color to nail polish, we like to be like them. Thinking that we will be accepted and be liked as well. To be known around the world and succeed.

And because we do not see any potential in this country, we subject ourselves to someone we think is greater than we are. We consider ourselves as INFERIOR. We lose our identity. We lose who we really are. We become another person we are not, because we never want other people see us the way we see our fellow Filipinos?the-out-among-the-ins and the-last-and-the-least.

Which is a very sad story to hear. A story of people who allowed themselves be toxicated of foreign substances. That slowly kills their PRIDE for themselves. They seemed had eaten the known Lotus Blossom of Greek Mythology that fades their memory of their own identity.

They lack self-pride and the virtue of patriotism. That is why Filipino sees many mistakes of his own land

Why do Filipinos always blame our country for their sufferings? Why is it that because Philippines is not like Japan or America, Filipinos do not to want to be Filipinos anymore? Why?

Our country?s inability to help us is the usual reason we used to justify our being submissive to foreign countries. ?Wala kasing buhay sa Pilipinas!?, as we usually say. We find many fouls towards our political and economic systems. We see every single mistakes of our government and of our country that we fail to notice the most important part of development and progress?our own selves.

As charity begins at home, and so is knowledge. Before man can hope to know other people and other things, he must first know himself. And man can possibly know himself only if he can distinguish and comprehend his individuality.

Filipinos like other nationals have their strength and weaknesses. But the problem is seldom know these. Some do not have a clear image of our own?as a result, we still do not know what awaits us all. Filipinos are potential being who has many resources that needs to be utilized for his improvement. But Filipinos do not give much time in analyzing these things which are very beneficial to them. But if we give ourselves chance to have a face-to-face encounter with ourselves, we can maximize our strength. And develop the things which we are not good at and find resolutions for our betterment. As Socrates said: ?An Unexamined life is not worth living.?

We call for changes. Indeed, we must. As Patricia Licuanan ( Schwenk.1989:13) has said, knowing and understanding ourselves is the first step.


Because Filipinos indulge themselves merely on the achievements of their desires and wants, Without knowing their capabilities to achieve it or not, they tend to move a step ahead, without analyzing the every steps that they make. And if they fail on reaching the peak, they stop for searching and loses hope to find another way to start all over again.

The study attempts to describe the positive and negative behavior of the Filipino people.

1.)What are the positive behaviors of the Filipino people that should be strengthened and valued?

2.)What are the negative behaviors of the Filipino that we can consider as hindrances to our country?s development?

3.)What specific strategies or philosophy can be used or applied to eliminate Filipinos negative behavior and enhance their strength?




Lack of discipline



Colonial Mentality


Authentic Being







The author hypothesized that:

1.) Filipinos qualities have two dimensions: The Positive or the strengths and Negative or weaknesses.

The Strengths of Filipinos are




And the Weaknesses are as follows:








2.) Martin Heidegger?s Metaphysics is Dasein which is:


3.) Martin Heidegger?s DASEIN is applicable and helpful towards development of Filipino values especially in inculcating PATRIOTISM and NATIONAL PRIDE through resolving Filipino?s lack of discipline and Colonial Mentality.

4.) That Heidegger?s Metaphysics of DASEIN could be an alternative solution and efficient strategy to Filipino problems about economic progress.


The study discusses the qualities of Filipino people which are responsible for their development and progress as a person and as a society. These qualities are PAKIKIPAGKAPWA-TAO, FLEXIBILITY, ADAPTABILITY, CREATIVITY and ABILITY TO SURVIVE, which the author sees as helpful for Filipino people in competing among other nations. And the other qualities, like LACK OF DISCIPLINE and COLONIAL MENTALITY that hinders them to succeed and achieve their goal in life. Filipinos, in order to succeed is to know these qualities. Without being aware of these qualities they have, one could not possibly maximize the good or avoid the evil qualities. Thus, the application of Metaphysics of Martin Heidegger is an important philosophy which the author sees as useful for Filipino people for them to be able to determine one from the other. The study focuses on how Heidegger?s Dasein can resolve Filipino problems toward their discipline and colonial mentality in order to promote patriotism and national pride.


Anticipation- the feeling of looking forward.

Change- modification for betterment

Dasein- Heidegger?s metaphysics

Death- condition or quality of being dead.

Filipino- somebody who was born in the Philippines or who has Philippine


Imitation- synthetic, intended as a copy of something, or not genuine.

Heidegger, Martin-(1889-1976), German philosopher, who developed existential phenomenology and has been widely regarded as the most original 20th-century philosopher. Heidegger was born in Messkirch, Baden, on September 22, 1889.

Patriotism- pride in or devotion to the country somebody was born in or is a citizen of

Pride- the correct level of respect for the importance and value of your personal

character, life, effort or achievements.

Submit- to give in to somebody?s authority, control or demands

Success- achievement of something



?The Phony State? (p.1-10) in Ang Konsepto ng Lipunan ni Renato Constantino

by Dr. Mark Edwin Aspra

According to the author as he narrated Constantino?s philosophy about society, our country is fake or phony. The reason why he call our society phony is because people living in this country tries to live according to what he sees and imitates to other people. That Filipino do not have an original conception of life but all are borrowed from other nations. That Filipino people continue to deny their identity. That our principles are brought out and was shaped by our colonial mentality.

According to the author, our phony society was rooted in our aspiration to be like the westerners. And because we used to imitate other nations, we tend to rely on them economically, politically and even intellectually. We become American extension. We act like as if we are American people. We freely submit ourselves unto them and surrender our national values allowing the American to shape and control us. For the author, living in a phony society is like lacking purpose and do not have a strong principle toward life. Our conception of Democracy mirrors how phony our society is. Because until now, we consider our government as irresponsible to help us and we do not believe in them as an institutions that could make us a better person. We follow rules not because we believe in what the government has implemented but only because we are afraid of punishment. Until now, we do not consider our government as our own. The kind of mentality that we used to have before.

Corruption as a cancerous disease in our society can be traced along our colonial mentality and according to the author it can only be cured through nationalism. We become corrupt because we try to imitate others. But if we have a strong determination to change by valuing our own and living a life of our own, we can possibly destroy the fantastic view about life.


Venancio Ramos De Los Reyes, Jr.

The author defines Colonial Mentality as believing that everything, from products to people, that are from other country are better than our own. Our desire to look like westerners when we blond our hairs, when we buy whitening products, when we do noselift are some manifestations of having colonial minds. The author added that even in our highways, coloniality among Filipinos can be seen when almost of them wanted to own a car which was from abroad. Most of us prefer to have an imported good rather than products made in Philippines. We have this thinking that a product coming from abroad seems effective and has a greater value compare to ours. Even in our commercials, in order for us to call the attention of the consumers, we even have to say that the product we endorse was tested and approved abroad. Even in our sports, in our film industry, colonial mentality had already stained in the fabric of every Filipinos? mentality. If we continue being this way, we can never attain progress. Unless, we learn the need to know ourselves and begin to love it. If we do not believe in ourselves, who else then will believe us? The author stated that progress and development begin within us. That nobody will do that for us but with our own initiatives and self evaluation, we can possibly grow and be a better person.


by Ralph Waldo Emerson

?Envy is ignorance. Imitation is suicide.? The essay Self-Reliance tackles about human being?s quest for independence and self-fulfillment, through self- reliance. But there are hindrances or obstacles to achieve it. And these are conformity, lack of trust on oneself, imitations, and inconsistency. Man will never know what he can do until he tries and will never be relieved unless he puts his heart into his work and done his best. Because men measure their esteem of each other by what each has and not by what each is, they end up being unhappy and discontented. The author added that we find easy to live after the world?s opinion. When we accords toward what society dictates but he said, great man is he who in the midst of the crowd keeps with perfect sweetness the independence of solitude.


by Og Mandino

?I will win?for I am unique. I am nature?s greatest miracle.? If we have this thinking, success is never impossible to reach. The essay teaches us that man is unique among his brothers. That nobody can walk and talk and move and think exactly the way one does. Nobody has the ability to duplicate one?s ability and strength for man is rare and he has to value his rarity. Because he is indeed, valuable. Man?s skill and mind will stagnate, rot and die if one do not put it in good use but just submit himself to others. Man has unlimited potentials. But only a small portion of this potential is felt because only little effort is exerted. Men are here for a purpose, and that purpose is to grow. Growth means applications of all effort to become somebody not to rely one?s development to others. Man should not be deceived of what he sees but has to be keen to see what is in his inside and realize that he is the nature?s greatest miracle.



Although many studies had already been done about Filipinos nationalism and patriotism, the author still see the need for another additional discussion on the topic and attempts to deliver some not-so-mentioned-strategy toward Filipinos development.

The author chooses the topic and Philosophy of Martin Heidegger for she believes this philosophy is relevant and significant that could somehow help her fellowmen to realize their shortcomings and enhances their potentials.

The main sources of data for this study were from review of some related literature about Filipinos colonial Mentality and submissive to foreign country and some study that also tackles the same topic.

The author used descriptive method in this study. The author went to several libraries to research for necessary materials that she will use in this study. These libraries includes Dasmarinas Library and Aklatang Emilio Aguinaldo where she found some discussions included in the study. The author also surf the internet for a quick access on the materials she needs.



We are facing a grave national crisis in our country–Economic instability, crimes, corruptions of government officials, devaluation of peso, flood, and poverty. These are all felt everywhere and the need for progress is the first goal every Filipino want to achieve right now at the earliest possible time.

We all need development. We all need prosperity and success for a well living. But we never tried longing for CHANGE. We long for a quick progress to lift our economic standard yet we never tried looking on what we really need for what we dream of.

WE NEED CHANGE FOR A CHANGE. And this change can never be attained if we do not change as a community, as a person.


Filipinos, among Asian race has many potentials and qualities to be proud of. Qualities that if only being properly utilized will bring them success.


Filipinos are known to this attitude. They are open to others and feel one with others. They are helpful and has concern for others. They value their friends thus they begin to be loyal to them and regard them with respect and unquestionable concern.. They show gratitude among their fellows and they can easily make friends. They will sacrifice and even offer their lives for other people. They will give as much as they have and will lend you help even they have no longer food to eat.

According to Licuanan, et al, this Pakikipagkapwa-tao of Filipinos brings out camaraderie and feeling of closeness to one another. And it is the foundation for unity as wellas the sense of social justice.


? Unplanned or unanticipated events are never overly disturbing or disorienting as the Flexible Filipino adjusts to whatever happens.? One of the Filipinos attributes which made Filipinos known abroad. Filipinos can perform any task being given to him. They can shift one work from another with the same performance. They can easily adjust to the nature of work given to them. The result is productivity, innovation, and survival.


Filipinos can easily adapt to another place whatever the circumstances maybe. Wherever they go, they can easily learn the nature of the place and the people living in it, thus making them easy to live and get along with them. The results are survival and enterpreneurship.


Filipinos are creative and resourceful people. We are quick learners. Example of this is the Ifugaos? widely known Rice Terraces or Hagdan hagdan Palayan. They can make something out of what they can get from trees or stones and pebbles. Filipinos have always something in mind which if only being supported by the government can compete to foreign resources. Filipino products are indeed more creative and more fashionable than other products. The results are inventions, productivity and development.


Because Filipinos are by nature fighter, whatever pains they have to go through could not hinder them to live.. Filipinos are survivor. They have been conquered by foreign countries but still they get by to survive.

These certain qualities of Filipinos can lead them to overcome poverty. But because of wrong interpretations and misuse of these qualities it has become their weaknesses.

And the Weaknesses are as follows:


Filipino lacks discipline in their work. We have a casual and relaxed attitude toward time and space. We have a poor management of our time. We are disorganized when it comes to obligations and compromisions. For the westerners, ?time wasted is gone foreve?r but for Filipino, ?there is always tomorrow? which is reflected in our maxims, ?Paglipas ng dilim, may umagang darating.? (Mercado.93:112-113). The BAHALA NA SYNDROME are manifested in his attitude toward his work. Bahala na means leaving matters as they are leaving nature to take its course. It is contraction of the word ?bathala na? meaning ?God will take care?. This shows Filipinos strong faith to their creator yet wrong notions such as predestinations, ?suerte?, ?hula?, ?tadhana? were developed among Filipinos. Which led them to endure sufferings, poverty tragedy and enables them to accept pain and frustrations with tolerance. Another is NINGAS COGON.

( a grass fire). It means great enthusiasm of Filipinos to their work that marks the start of a project or of a new organization but the interest eventually dies down as days passes by. This attitude gives them unfinished work and unattained success. Resulting to inefficiency and wasteful work systems, poor service and transgressions.

Filipino?s indolence or ?katamaran? were charged by Spaniards.(Pilar.1981:48) For other people, this attitude brought out our poverty. Because Filipino LACKS INITIATIVE and ambitions they seldom achieve something . They have to wait to be told what has to be done. They always rely on others. Especially in the presence of authority which they securely submit themselves. Filipinos have small dreams thus they have small achievements. Although Rizal refuted this charge as he explained that this perception only came about because of Spanish colonizations, this attitude has become part of Filipinos nature.


?Filipinos have colonial mentality which is made up of two dimensions: the first is lack of PATRIOTISM or of an active awareness, appreciation and love of the Philippines; and the second is an actual preference for things foreign.?( Schwenk. 1989: 17). Filipinos are very passive people. Indeed, they can easily adapt and adjust to new environment yet Filipinos when they have already adjusted to a certain place, they easily give in and incorporate themselves to the nature of the society and forget their own identity. Sometimes, their notion of survival is to be socially accepted and please other people which led them to imitate and desire to be like other people which they think is ?acceptable?. Filipinos submit their identity to another identity to be acknowledged and to succeed. Being like the other is their perception as being ?in? and desirable. Even in the way one speaks, the color of the skin, the food that they eat are all borrowed to foreign countries. This attitude of PASSIVITY among Filipinos was brought about their LACK OF SELF ANALYSIS and SELF REFLECTION. Filipinos seldom know themselves. That is why until now, seldom knows what they want in life. Almost of us long to succeed but the steps to success were taken for granted because we do lack self evaluation and analysis. Knowing what we want is knowing how to get them. And knowing how to get them is knowing our abilities and limitations to achieve it. But Filipinos do not know these and even seldom question what they can do for them to succeed yet often pursue to their dreams without analyzing their capabilities and stand.

Filipinos weaknesses continue to shrink our potentials. And it is very clear that we have much good in us but there is much more that needs to be changed. And if we do not do anything to overcome these? it will not be our weakness anymore? but will become our identity.

So what can we do to overcome this? Is there any possibility that Filipinos can still change and succeed? Maybe yes?If we only be authentic as Martin Heidegger?s Dasein.


Heidegger was influenced by the pre-Socratics of Greek philosophy, by the Danish Soren Kierkegaard, and by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. His most important and influential work, is Being and Time(1927).

Heidegger attempts to uncover the basic structures of human existence-such as concern and mood-in virtue of which knowledge and understanding are possible. He said that we are self-interpreting, deciding entities practically involved along with others in a world that we have not made but that consists of potential useful things, including cultural as well as natural objects. And because these objects and artifacts come to humanity from the past and are used in the present for the sake of future goals, Heidegger posited a fundamental relation between the mode of being of objects and of humanity and the structure of time. He argues that a person?s usual understanding is dictated by the anonymous ?public? or ?them?, and that the individual authenticity-the prospect of which is experienced in the state of anxiety-requires distancing from ?them? and ?resolutely? forging one?s own ?projects? and view of things. The individual is, however, always in danger of being submerged in the world of objects, everyday routine, and the conventional, shallow behavior of the crowd. This sense of potential individuality is reinforced by the sober recognition of mortality, since a person?s own death, and the way he faces up to it, is something that is uniquely his or her own.


The question of being is considered superfluous and is the most general and is undefinable. Being seems to be already included in all that we grasp of things. But because of lack of understanding of what being really is, grave misunderstanding arises.

Yet for heidegger, in the question of being, the one who asks is himself a being. The interrogator of being is already a being himself. By asking what being is, the interrogator asks what he himself is. Heidegger believes, and with reason, that we cannot hope to understand being without first of all understanding what we ourselves are. Man is the key to the understanding of being. But the fact remains that not all men attempt to understand what they are or who they are. Thus, Heidegger was compelled to group men into two classes: the authentic man (Dasein) and the inauthentic man (das Man).


Dasein is Heidegger?s way of referring both to the human being and to the type of being that humans have. It comes from the verb dasein, which means ?to exist? or ?to be there, to be here?. The noun dasein is used by other philosophers, by kant for example, for the existence of entity. But heidegger restricts it to human being. And human being as a dasein is questioners, choosers and self-producers.

Dasein is possibility. And is prior to his actuality. And has three characteristics: He is hurdled into the world and found there (Befindlichkeit) and realizes that he is thrown (Geworfen) and has more control over its own being; he understands (Verstehen) that while being abandoned in the world, he has to realize a future. He therefore must understand the ultimate connection between an impoverished, weakened past and an unfulfilled future. Dasein is an entity that can decide whether to be or not to be. Yet cannot become whatever it wants because circumstamces places restrictions on what one does. On the other hand, das Man never asks himself what he is, hence does not have a sense of abandonment. His existence is that of ambiguity and his involvement is ambiguous because he does even not know what he is or why he is. Instead of understanding which is characteristic of dasein, das Man is impelled by curiosity and because of lack of true understanding, his mode of speech is that of idle or silly speeches. He is not creative


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