Cavour Essay, Research Paper
When the Italian Unification was achieved in 1970 with the acquisition of Rome, it was too the surprise of many people. When the whole unification process started around 1854 with the Crimean War, an independent Italy was believed impossible to achieve. It was not without much time and effort that the two greatest influences, Count Camillo Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldy, were able to achieve there dream of a free and unified Italy. The very thought of unifying states that were separate and apart from each other and were yet controlled by one foreign power was unrealistic to most, and as seen here, not entirely acceptable. The revolutionists of 1848 were united only in their hatred of the foreign yoke; their views for the future were of the most conflicting character, and must have led to dissension if they had been clearly formulated. Yet these two leaders were able to shift the views of enough people to enable them to connect there separate nations.
Count Camillo Cavour, at the outset of his career, was not a well-liked man. His particular views, those of conservatism, monarchies and a united Italy under Piedmont, were not very popular. The views that Mazzini supported from Rome were much more prevalent, yet when Cavour showed up it was the military leader Garibaldy who was becoming very popular. Cavour, during this time was using his position to instigate opposition of Austria. When in 1859 the Franco Austrian war began, Cavour had gained a secret alliance with Napoleon III, who was fighting for more land. This alliance allowed for the defeat of Austria, however with Prussia beginning to descend on the situation as ally with Austria, France backed out on Cavour. Napoleon left Cavour and made a treaty with Austria which left Venetia to Austria and gave Lombardy to Italy. Cavour, during the formation of this treaty, was outraged. He asked for the resignation of the king and subsequently resigned himself. In doing this Cavour eluded many disturbances which were taking rise around him. He was being branded as a traitor to Italy and in resigning he no longer had to openly face the assaults.
Perhaps one of the greatest contributions Cavour could have made to the unification was the annexation of the states of Parma, Romagna, Modena and Tuscany. Although he was once again regarded as a traitor, he was performing an act that would open the door to all future events concerning the unification. Had Cavour not succeeded in giving a plebiscite to these states Italy could not have become unified, simply because the interference of France was so great that no steps could have been taken to reduce her grip on the king, Victor Emmanuel. In proceeding with such a bold action Cavour was to gain the favor of those states in which the plebiscite had been given as well as the favor of Britain, who did not want France involved with Italy. Therefore in going against popular beliefs, Cavour was able to reinstate himself into the affairs of Italy and become once again the major leader. After constructing and preparing the many necessary arrangements to complete the unification of Italy, Cavour died. He died in 1861 after seeing his work completed with the formation of the Kingdom of Italy.
Giuseppe Garibaldy, the second major leader for the unification, was, during the beginning of his career, aggressively opposed to Cavour and his beliefs. It was only after Garibaldy had returned from the United States that he agreed with Cavour. When he left, he had fled for his life in the face of the Austrians, who had defeated him at Rome and thereafter on his retreat. He had come from his life in the US as a candle maker and bought himself a house on an island near Sardinia. The losses that Garibaldy faced with war must have affected him because he now allied himself with his previous enemies and found that he could trust in the use of politics to gain unification rather than relying on war alone. Allying himself with Cavour and Victor Emanuel, Garibaldy soon became a major influence to his followers, who now saw and agreed with the views of Cavour. Perhaps the greatest accomplishment of Garibaldy s was when he invaded Sicily and Naples and attempted the conquest of Rome. Taking approximately one thousand men clad in bright red shirts, Garibaldy successfully conquered Sicily and Naples, claiming them for the king, Victor Emanuel. After completing the conquest of these two states, Garibaldy believed it was the time to attempt the same to Rome. However, fearing French intervention, Cavour halted Garibaldy before he could reach his destination. By the time Garibaldy had finished his career, he had organized and completed many battles, most under the name of Victor Emanuel. He had taken Sicily and Naples and became one of the most respected leaders. He had become so popular by the time he finished that volunteer s and aids were never hard to find; his popularity was so great that he had to but mention the need for volunteers and they would flock to him.
Count Camillo Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldy were perhaps the most influential thinkers of their time. Their shared ideal of a Unified Italy was, in its basic form, the tie between both men. Despite the rivalries that were produced throughout the course of events, these two men never faltered in there believe that Italy could be united and their attachment to it was almost frightening. They were willing to fight and die for cause, and they believed in its effect with such conviction that they would disobey even their king to achieve their goals. Garibaldy was a great fighter and believed in the power of the sword to achieve his end. He wielded his sword with great dignity and would not be persuaded that there was another way. Cavour, on the other hand, was more diplomatic. Instead of sending a destructive army in to conquer the states, he would give an illegal plebiscite and have them join willingly. The combination of ideals and principles from these two men was what was needed if a unified Italy was to be achieved. From the rogue-like tactics produced by Garibaldy to the diplomatic and social stance provided by Cavour, a unified Italy was achieved.
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