Oliver Cromwell Essay, Research Paper
Tom Hyde 5/11/00
Rough Draft Cromwell
Sir Oliver Cromwell was a strong and well-outspoken person. Though he came from an average middle-class family. He became a member of parliament in 1640; he used his resources such as fellow parliament relatives to be elected. He became active in parliament with subjects on religion and
They?re where three major characteristics of Cromwell?s childhood. They were his social connections, his parents, and his schooling.
Cromwell?s family was neither poor nor rich. Once he spoke to Parliament saying ?I was by birth a gentleman, living neither in any considerable height, nor yet in obscurity?howel. He came from a middle-class family with a mark of gentility. He grew up in Huntingdon, England. gaunt He went to the local grammar school where he met a major Puritan influence in his life Dr. Thomas Beard his schoolmaster. He clearly had shaped some of Cromwell?s views on life, and his faith. There is little official evidence on whether this is true because there are sources with many discretions and little is known about his childhood because he usually little is known on people who reach fame as an adult, but Beard is described as a uncompromising greedy puritan. It was said he hated Catholics, and when Cromwell fought the Irish who were very deep Catholics he saw them as a threat and massacred them in a very brutal battle. He was known as ?messenger of hell?coward to the Irish, and Scottish, but in England was considered to be a man with Divine right. Beard was the only known anti-Catholic that Cromwell was influenced by. So it is safe to assume he got his prejudices from Beard. The only real evidence we have is Beard?s book The Theatre of God?s Judgments, ?which stressed the direct and active intervention of God in the affairs of the world. Particularly in punishing those who transgressed?. howell
Oliver was one of ten children to survive birth from Robert and Elizabeth Cromwell. The chance of survival to the age forty during his time was less than by ten percentFraser. He was the only boy to survive of three and was key to why he became a key figure. Being the only boy he had a lot of pressure to succeed in school, and to carry on the family name. He was the receiver of much attention from his mother and father. He was very close to his mother, and loved, respected, and influenced by his father. Fraser He was born on April 25, 1599 just four years after the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. He attended a protestant school Sidney Sussex College (Cambridge University) and after just his first year his father died in June of 1617.Coward He was called back to Huntingdon to take care of his father?s lands, and to enter the local government for Huntingdon, which his father did before him. In 1620 he married Elizabeth Bouchier. Little information is on her or Cromwell life during this time. They had eight children together between 1621 and 1638. It is assumed that they were very close because of the abundance of children.
By now Oliver had many ideas on life. He grew up with King James and King Charles in office. These times where tough in England. Cromwell saw many problems with the government and wanted to become involved so he could have power. He was against Absolutism, sinners, and wanted King Charles to loose his power so he could abolish Absolutism in England. Before he could follow out his dream during his twenties he went through a spiritual search. He ha developed most of his ideals on life during this time. He became very mysterious he went to see a doctor for illnesses that he swore was life threatening. The doctor said it was just depression that caused him pain. In his forties he finally made a decision saying god chose him to become a leader for England and his faithCoward. Following his father?s footsteps he joined parliament in hopes a simple man could fight the evils of King Charles. This was his first term in parliament so he was easily elected. In 1628 the first time he approached Parliament he had nine cousins in parliament and six more cousins who became members later. Parliament wanted to help Charles but for fear of losing power he dismissed parliament. He still though had a cocky attitude with his supposed divine right and joined the House committee on Religion and participated in the Petition of Rights. He was gaining confidence and started preaching on divine right a dangerous topic. Not only did he worry the clergy in England , but Charles were also in his speeches. He called Parliament and accused him along with four other Parliament members with trying to start a civil war. Whether he was or not is unclear. Luckily he wasn?t a popular member and was able to escape Charles unscathed. This had only fueled the fire for his growing hatred of Charles. Cromwell knew only a civil war would break Charles hold on England. Oliver needed power to change the whole government and Parliament agreed.
This started the most crucial time for Cromwell to become lord protector. It was Cromwell and the Parliamentary forces versus Charles and his army. Also at this time A war didn?t break out right away. Charles tested Cromwell?s patience stalling for time. During this time many rumors spread about him. The Leaders of the Puritan Church claimed Oliver had slept with many women and had many children. There were rumors that Cromwell was a hypocrite and with Control of England would only be worse than Charles. Cromwell didn?t let this bother him though he was losing his temper it wasn?t to the rumors , but with Charles stalling. Charles was looking for resources for his army from the Scots and Irish. He eventually fled to Scotland and the first civil war was over. Charles said he would compromise but when he came back to England refused . Also Parliament was starting to be sick of fighting and wanted the armies to go away. They decided not to financially assist Cromwell?s army as they had in the past. Cromwell?s army was fedup with the shortage of food and supplies. Charles saw this and knew it was the time to attack . Cromwell was also building his army choosing only men that were ?honest, sober, Christians?hayes. Oliver and Charles?s battles started. In the beginning Charles won most of the battles. Fortunately more Englishmen joined Cromwell to fight the uprising Irish who saw a perfect time to revolt against English rule. Cromwell was the head of the army and won many battles against the Irish , and Scots. He outnumbered them in troops , and in spirit. England was thrilled with Cromwell?s success . The Parliament was fully funding the war , while Charles had no where to go for help. His only hope were the Irish and Scots who were continually massarcerd. Cromwell had a great prejudice against other religions , as England had a prejudice for foreigners. Cromwell was considered a ?angel? to the people . In every speech Cromwell thanked God many times. He said it was all the will of God. Though really it was the great nmber of troops he had. Fighting the Irish was almost a joke. The Irish were a divided people and couldn?t sum up the numbers like Cromwell. Eventually the Scots saw this and unlike the Irish teamed up to form a 21,000 army versus Cromwell?s 8,600 . Remarkably Cromwell won , whether this was divine power or the fact Scottish ineptitude was the reason for the great loss.Now the King?s threat , and the Scttish threat was eliminated. December 2nd , 1648 was a proud time for England with the English army marching through the streets of London. The army had control over the government now , with now compromising with a selfish king. Talks of Charles going on trial submerged in the capital. During December of that year a important question arose. Publicated in a English newspaper ?what sort of government should replace the monarchy ?? Than it listed traits of a virtuous man who had great faith and was wise. Two men were deemed to have these qualities Fairfax who was another general in the war and won many battles or Cromwell one who?s actions god had blessed.
Radicals in Parliament soon wanted to take action on Charles. On January 30, 1649 Charles I was executed. Much of England and the rest of Europe was horrified from this swift deed. Louis XIV of France was outraged. He was upset with this and published a warning to parliament . He vowed to kill the people responsible for Charles death , and their wives and children. England became isolated and looked to Cromwell who was very popular at the time for guidance. Once the civil war was over in England Cromwell sent troops to end the revolt in Ireland in 1649. Also Charles II had started to appear , with Louis vow for protection he was looking to get public support. He to use the war against Ireland to his advantage and become popular to gain the throne. He sent Cromwell with 12,000 men on a expedition to Ireland with every intent to start a war. Cromwell with his ?fierce prejudice? against the Irish massacred them right away. He practically admitted every atrocity said about him he once said ?I had rather be overrun by a Cavalierish interest than a Scotch interest, I had rather be overrun by a Scotch interest than an Irish Interest , I think that of all this the most dangerous ? for all the world knows of their barbarism.? He killed Irish soldiers by the thousands in every battle, and even friars saying were ?knocked on the head promiscuously? . Cromwell?s few short victories broke the rebellion. Cromwell went back to England and returned to Ireland for every time he left a uprising broke out. Many rumors circulated of his death around several times he was believed to be dead with this a Irish poet wrote :
?Cromwell is dead , and risen; and dead again
and risen the third time after he was slain:
No wonder! For he?s a messenger of hell:
And now he buffets us now posts to tell
Whats past : and for more game new counsel taks
Of his good friend the devil, who keeps the stakes.coward
Next the Scottish started to rebel and as swiftly as he took care of the Irish he eliminated the Scottish. Through a series of dominationg battles. On April of 1653 Cromwell and the army forced Parliament to dissolve