Catalogue Of Christian Herasie Essay, Research Paper
St Alexander, bishop of Alexandria, called the Council of Nicea to deal with some of the heresies of the time, such as Arianism and Novatianism. This council lasted 2 months and twelve days, and had 318 bishops in attendance.
The benefits from this council were important to reaffirming the faith. It stated that all people could be forgiven of their sins, no matter how bad the sin is, as long as the person was truly sorry for what he has done. The Nicene Creed is also a product of this council. The Nicene Creed is a proclamation of our beliefs as Catholics.
Council of Ephesus (431)
The Council of Ephesus was called to deal with the heresies of Nestorianism and Pelagianism. There were over 200 bishops present, under the guidance of St. Cyril, who was representing Pope Celestine.
The major contributions to faith brought forth from this council was that Mary is truly the mother of God (Theotokes), and that Jesus was both God and man in one being.
Council of Chalcedon (451)
The Council of Chalcedon was called by Pope Leo the Great to handle the heresy of Menophytism. The Emperor Marcian was in attendance, along with over 150 Bishops.
This council denounced Menophytism, and stated that Christ had two natures, divine and human, which were both in one being.
Fourth Lateran Council (1215).
Pope Innocent III held the Fourth Lateran Council as a call for spiritual reform. Over 1,200 of the world s leading churchmen were in attendance at this council.
This council did many things to affirm the faith. It brought about a reform in clerical life, religious instruction in vernacular, condemned many of the heresies going on at the time, seal of confession (priests cannot release what you confess during reconciliation), annual confessions and Eucharist at Easter time, and reaffirmed the seven sacraments and transubstantiation.
Council of Constance (1414-1418)
The Council of Constance was called during the Western Schism to do two things. The first was to end the separation of the church, and the second was to declare who would be the pope out of the 3 popes who were claiming papacy.
This council did two important things. It ended the Schism that had 3 factions of the church arguing over whose views were right, and whose pope was the rightful pope. Secondly, it named Pope Gregory XII as the rightful pope, but he steps down and hands the position over to Pope Martin V.
Fifth Lateran Council (1512-1517)
The Fifth Lateran Council was called by Pope Julias II to put and end to the corrupt practices in the church. There were around 95 high members of the church present at this council.
This council put an end to many of the corrupt practices of this time period within the Catholic Church.
Council of Treant (1545-1563)
The Council of Treant was called by Pope Paul III to battle the Protestant beliefs and clearly lay out the catholic beliefs. There were over 450 people present at this council over the 18 years it was held. Also, 5 popes presided over it during the time it was held.
This council affirmed 12 doctrines on the church, papal supremacy, divine revelation consists of scripture and tradition, Faith and good works are necessary for salvation, reaffirmed transubstantiation, the mass is a true sacrifice, Penance is the way in which sins are forgiven, reaffirmed the seven sacraments, Purgatory exists, souls in purgatory benefit from our prayers, indulgences have a true spiritual value, condemned superstitious uses of relics and indulgences.
First Vatican Council (1869-1870)
The First Vatican council was called by Pope Pius IX to reaffirm papal authority and to clarify church teaching to attacks from enlightenment thinkers. There were 803 in attendance, including 46 from the United States.
The major contribution to faith from this council is the doctrine of Papal Infallibility, which means the Pope cannot make error when teaching church doctrine or on the faith.
Second Vatican Council (1962-1965)
The Second Vatican Council was called by Pope John XXIII to renew the church spiritually, and to reconsider the church s place in the modern world.
This council made many changes to the liturgy, such as making it vernacular so the common person could understand God s message. It also allowed for more participation in mass by the common person.