регистрация / вход

Coming Plagues Essay Research Paper In the

Coming Plagues Essay, Research Paper In the 21st century there is no doubt that new infectious diseases will appear, and they will grow stronger and more ferocious. There are new viruses that are coming out of nature and ?discovering? the human species. Due to our mistakes and way of life these deadly viruses are expected to increase in the future and possibly come at higher levels.

Coming Plagues Essay, Research Paper

In the 21st century there is no doubt that new infectious diseases will appear, and they will grow stronger and more ferocious. There are new viruses that are coming out of nature and ?discovering? the human species. Due to our mistakes and way of life these deadly viruses are expected to increase in the future and possibly come at higher levels. Will our lifestyle, which we are accustomed to eventually cause an outbreak possibly destroying mankind?

This past decade, at least 50 new viruses have appeared, including new forms of Ebola, Lassa fever, Hanta Virus Dengue fever, Pirital, Black Lagoon virus and Nipah. These kinds of viruses are not only showing up in regions of Africa and South America; there have been cases of West Nile virus in New York City. Cases of Ebola have appeared in Texas, Virginia, and Sienna, Italy. Unexpected outbreaks have occurred in hundreds of countries in the past few years. Is this ?nature?s way? of controlling population? Why are these diseases emerging, and in so many different forms?

There are six main causes for the emergence of infectious diseases. One of the major reasons is the rise in international travel and trade. The world is very accessible now, with airplanes and boats, a virus that is in a very isolated situation may find itself in a position to spread around the world. ?You could be in an African village where people may be dying like flies. Twenty four hours later you?re in downtown Los Angeles and coming down with Ebola or Lassa Fever, and you don?t even know you have it.?# The amount of people crossing international boundaries each year is rising dramatically. ?The current volume, speed, and reach makes today’s modern travel a potent force in emergence of infectious diseases.?# A large percentage of fruits and vegetables consumed in the United States are from developing countries; outbreaks from imported food frequently go unreported, and are very hard to trace. Disease infected products can be transported, within hours, from one country to another.

Another reason for surfacing of infectious diseases is urbanization and human behavior. Tropical cities have more than 10 million inhabitants and have very bad Medicare, little or no transportation and poor sanitation and hygiene; they are the best places for diseases to spread. It is estimated that by 2025, the population will be 9 billion. In developing countries, which will increase overcrowding drastically. In addition, large populations in small areas increase the risk of spreading infectious diseases. If the human behavior of the inhabitants of these people remained, such as unprotected sex and drug use, the disease would spread rapidly. This sort of behavior is the reason that HIV is spread so widely, and close to 40 million are affected worldwide.

Our world also experiences war, which can lead to a breakdown in health care and infrastructure. Microbes thrive on these situations and can be transmitted very easily. Civil unrest can also bring extreme mental and physical stress on people, lowering the immunity to infectious diseases. Movements of refugees and troops are is also an aspect for the spread of disease.

Another factor is the world?s deforestation, urbanization and industrialization. The destruction of our environment leads to habitat loss, which force animals that are potential virus carriers into populated areas throughout the world. Due to Global Warming the climate has started to become warmer, so this could increase the average surface temperature of the earth by a few degrees, perfect breeding grounds for microbes. This will result in expansion of ranges and disease. Global warming will result in deadly comebacks of such diseases as cholera, malaria and tuberculosis. An Ebola researcher at the Center for Disease Control said, ?We?ll be seeing more Ebola. Population is increasing in Africa; so are incursions into viruses habitat. Sooner or later somebody?s going to haul it back out of the jungle.?#

Technology and industry have also contributed to emerging diseases because irrigation dams have spawned new areas for them. Hydroelectric dams in China, Egypt and Senegal have led to an increase in the spread of disease. Dams create new areas for disease vectors.

Finally, microbial adaption to change is causing viruses to become more resistant to vaccines. This is due to virus mutation. ?This is happening at a time when too few drugs are being developed to replace those that have lost their effectiveness. In the race for supremacy, microbes are sprinting ahead. The gap between their ability to mutate into drug-resistant strains and a mans ability to counter them is widening fast.?#

Of the diseases that have emerged in the past 50 years, there are some more terrifying than others. The Ebola virus poses a threat to the entire human race, if the virus became airborne it would circle the world in about six weeks. Ebola is a fatal disease in humans and other mammals. The history of Ebola is unknown, and there is an incomplete understanding of the factors behind it. There is no knowledge of its origin, location or natural habitat; Ebola is an unsolved virus. An understanding of the virus is vital in order to prevent future outbreaks. The Ebola virus emerged in 1976 and is closely related to the Marburg virus. Both viruses are members of the Filoviridae family. Filoviruses are one of the several groups of viruses that cause hemorrhagic fever. Ebola virus has the highest mortality rate ever in a virus; sometimes as high as 90 percent. The Marburg virus has a mortality rate of only 25 percent. The first two outbreaks recorded in Zaire and Sudan claimed over 500 lives, with a fatality rate of 90 percent. Marburg first appeared suddenly in Germany in 1967 with a 23 percent mortality rate. There are four different types of Ebola: Zaire, Sudan, Ivory Coast and Reston. Ebola has a period within the first 4-10 days called the incubation period. During this period there could be no symptoms or symptoms to that of the flu. ?That’s more then enough time for someone who is incubating a case of Ebola to board and international flight from Africa to JFK airport in New York – Possibly stopping over in Europe on the way.?# The virus starts with headaches, then leads to a high fever, progresses to diarrhea and abdominal pains, vomiting, chest pains and eventually enters into the hemorrhagic stage. Basically Ebola destroys the immune system, causing lesions in all human organs and the patient will end up bleeding to death. Death occurs usually between 7 and 16 days. A recovery from Ebola is very rare, if this does occur it is a long process. There is loss of hair, anorexia and some patients are left with psychotic disturbances. Ebola is transmitted many ways: syringes, blood, sharing meals, face to face contact, touching a corpse or coming in contact with one, excretions of bodily fluids and sex. There have been a few major outbreaks in the past, a recent outbreak was confirmed in Uganda on October 14 2000 and the death toll is rising every day. This outbreak is trying to be contained, but the Ebola is winning the battle at the moment. Outbreaks have been brought under control by quarantining of patients and by using the technique of barrier nursing. In 1989, the Ebola virus threatened the United States. Hundreds of people were exposed to airborne Ebola virus strain on at least three continents. The Ebola was later proved harmless to humans, but it showed scientists that Ebola had the potential to be airborne. The appearance of Ebola in Texas and Italy was a result of shipments of a Philippine monkeys. The head of the CDC?s Special Pathogenic Branch, C.J Peters says, ?I think that Filoviruses in general, are the one group of viruses, that I find to be the most disturbing in terms of emerging infections. They have an alveolar aerosol transmissibility, they have a high lethality for man, they are highly mutable RNA viruses, and we understand so little about what their natural reservoir is, and what their properties are, in nature. That I think we have a very volatile mixture here, that could be the next emerging virus.?# Aerosol transmission of Ebola virus has occurred between non-human primates and guinea pigs, but no evidence exists for inter-human transmission by airborne infection, but ?Ebola has the potential to go airborne and be spread like the flu.?# There is no known treatment for Ebola. Current treatments involve administering of blood and plasma to control bleeding. It is possible for the virus to be isolated by the proper sanitization of waste and equipment used. Bodies must be burned, barrier nursing needs to be in operation and handling of infected tissues must be properly contained in laboratories. Due to the mutation factor in many viruses, Ebola could become more violent and incurable. This means that the Ebola that is currently being faced in Uganda may not be the same as the outbreak in Southern Zaire in 1995.

More education and research must be done on this virus to gain a better understanding of how this deadly virus works. This will prevent spreading, and help to control the Ebola virus.

Hantavirus is a disease that could strike fear into many communities in the Southwestern U.S.A. This virus first appeared in rodent?s inn 1976 in Korea. Cases have also been found in Japan, Russia and Sweden. The virus was first recognized in 1993 in the U.S.A. This disease causes a high fever, muscle pain, low blood pressure, vomiting and the lungs fill up with fluid and death results from respiratory failure. There have been over 100 cases in the U.S.A with a mortality rate of 50 percent. The host of the virus is deer mice and therefore controlling deer mice can control the virus. If a rodent control program is applied, the disease could be wiped out for good in the U.S.A. Hantavirus has caused a decline in tourism in the Southwest. The general public needs to be aware of the disease to make sure they avoid contact with deer mice. The carrier for Ebola is unknown making the prevention of the virus impossible, unlike Hantavirus.

Although Dengue fever does not sound familiar there are up to 100 million cases each year. This virus is found in tropical Asia, South America and the Caribbean. The disease causes fever, muscle pain, rash and can sometimes lead to hemorrhagic fever and internal bleeding. Epidemics of this disease are continually increasing, and the disease is now reported in 18 countries in Americas. Dengue is now plaguing large cities in Southeast Asia and is a leading cause of hospitalization and death among children in many Southeastern Asia countries. Mosquitoes transmit disease and currently there is now treatment or cure. New strains are appearing constantly. Dengue can be prevented by eliminating the carrier – mosquitoes. About 200 cases are introduced into Canada and the U.S.A every year. Healthcare officials in North America need to be trained to recognize and diagnose the disease so that the patient can be looked after.

Lassa fever was recognized in West Africa in 1969 and currently there are 30,000 cases a year resulting in 5000 deaths. More and more outbreaks are occurring in western Africa today as a result of civil war. The virus causes high temperature, muscle pain, diarrhea, internal bleeding and patient can become delirious and confused. Little research is underway in West African countries. Monitoring of the disease is virtually nonexistent, little is known about it. Rodents carry Lassa fever and, once again, eliminating the carrier can control this virus, just like the Hantavirus.

The majority of these emerging diseases do not have treatments, cures or vaccines. We need to recognize these diseases as a threat. Is our world ready for a massive outbreak or epidemic of a deadly, incurable disease such as Ebola or Lassa fever?

Although detection of an infectious disease is the first element of response, what follows, may in fact, determine the final impact of an emerging disease on the public?s health. The faster one of these diseases are recognized the easier it will be to contain, if action is not taken the outbreak could pose a threat to mankind. Effective means against such diseases would involve efforts by many individuals, government agencies and private organizations.

Infectious diseases are the major cause of death worldwide and will remain so during our lifetime. With the application of new scientific knowledge, well-planned strategies, political will and adequete resources, many of these diseases may be prevented by immunization, contained by the use of drugs or control methods, and, rarely even wipe out the deadly disease. We will eventually be faced with an outbreak that has the potential to become the next ?Black Death?, in our time. There is no doubt that new infectious diseases will appear in the future, and possibly be at higher levels.

In the 21st century there is no doubt that new infectious diseases will appear, and they will grow stronger and more ferocious. There are new viruses that are coming out of nature and ?discovering? the human species. Due to our mistakes and way of life these deadly viruses are expected to increase in the future and possibly come at higher levels. Will our lifestyle, which we are accustomed to eventually cause an outbreak possibly destroying mankind?

This past decade, at least 50 new viruses have appeared, including new forms of Ebola, Lassa fever, Hanta Virus Dengue fever, Pirital, Black Lagoon virus and Nipah. These kinds of viruses are not only showing up in regions of Africa and South America; there have been cases of West Nile virus in New York City. Cases of Ebola have appeared in Texas, Virginia, and Sienna, Italy. Unexpected outbreaks have occurred in hundreds of countries in the past few years. Is this ?nature?s way? of controlling population? Why are these diseases emerging, and in so many different forms?

There are six main causes for the emergence of infectious diseases. One of the major reasons is the rise in international travel and trade. The world is very accessible now, with airplanes and boats, a virus that is in a very isolated situation may find itself in a position to spread around the world. ?You could be in an African village where people may be dying like flies. Twenty four hours later you?re in downtown Los Angeles and coming down with Ebola or Lassa Fever, and you don?t even know you have it.?# The amount of people crossing international boundaries each year is rising dramatically. ?The current volume, speed, and reach makes today’s modern travel a potent force in emergence of infectious diseases.?# A large percentage of fruits and vegetables consumed in the United States are from developing countries; outbreaks from imported food frequently go unreported, and are very hard to trace. Disease infected products can be transported, within hours, from one country to another.

Another reason for surfacing of infectious diseases is urbanization and human behavior. Tropical cities have more than 10 million inhabitants and have very bad Medicare, little or no transportation and poor sanitation and hygiene; they are the best places for diseases to spread. It is estimated that by 2025, the population will be 9 billion. In developing countries, which will increase overcrowding drastically. In addition, large populations in small areas increase the risk of spreading infectious diseases. If the human behavior of the inhabitants of these people remained, such as unprotected sex and drug use, the disease would spread rapidly. This sort of behavior is the reason that HIV is spread so widely, and close to 40 million are affected worldwide.

Our world also experiences war, which can lead to a breakdown in health care and infrastructure. Microbes thrive on these situations and can be transmitted very easily. Civil unrest can also bring extreme mental and physical stress on people, lowering the immunity to infectious diseases. Movements of refugees and troops are is also an aspect for the spread of disease.

Another factor is the world?s deforestation, urbanization and industrialization. The destruction of our environment leads to habitat loss, which force animals that are potential virus carriers into populated areas throughout the world. Due to Global Warming the climate has started to become warmer, so this could increase the average surface temperature of the earth by a few degrees, perfect breeding grounds for microbes. This will result in expansion of ranges and disease. Global warming will result in deadly comebacks of such diseases as cholera, malaria and tuberculosis. An Ebola researcher at the Center for Disease Control said, ?We?ll be seeing more Ebola. Population is increasing in Africa; so are incursions into viruses habitat. Sooner or later somebody?s going to haul it back out of the jungle.?#

Technology and industry have also contributed to emerging diseases because irrigation dams have spawned new areas for them. Hydroelectric dams in China, Egypt and Senegal have led to an increase in the spread of disease. Dams create new areas for disease vectors.

Finally, microbial adaption to change is causing viruses to become more resistant to vaccines. This is due to virus mutation. ?This is happening at a time when too few drugs are being developed to replace those that have lost their effectiveness. In the race for supremacy, microbes are sprinting ahead. The gap between their ability to mutate into drug-resistant strains and a mans ability to counter them is widening fast.?#

Of the diseases that have emerged in the past 50 years, there are some more terrifying than others. The Ebola virus poses a threat to the entire human race, if the virus became airborne it would circle the world in about six weeks. Ebola is a fatal disease in humans and other mammals. The history of Ebola is unknown, and there is an incomplete understanding of the factors behind it. There is no knowledge of its origin, location or natural habitat; Ebola is an unsolved virus. An understanding of the virus is vital in order to prevent future outbreaks. The Ebola virus emerged in 1976 and is closely related to the Marburg virus. Both viruses are members of the Filoviridae family. Filoviruses are one of the several groups of viruses that cause hemorrhagic fever. Ebola virus has the highest mortality rate ever in a virus; sometimes as high as 90 percent. The Marburg virus has a mortality rate of only 25 percent. The first two outbreaks recorded in Zaire and Sudan claimed over 500 lives, with a fatality rate of 90 percent. Marburg first appeared suddenly in Germany in 1967 with a 23 percent mortality rate. There are four different types of Ebola: Zaire, Sudan, Ivory Coast and Reston. Ebola has a period within the first 4-10 days called the incubation period. During this period there could be no symptoms or symptoms to that of the flu. ?That’s more then enough time for someone who is incubating a case of Ebola to board and international flight from Africa to JFK airport in New York – Possibly stopping over in Europe on the way.?# The virus starts with headaches, then leads to a high fever, progresses to diarrhea and abdominal pains, vomiting, chest pains and eventually enters into the hemorrhagic stage. Basically Ebola destroys the immune system, causing lesions in all human organs and the patient will end up bleeding to death. Death occurs usually between 7 and 16 days. A recovery from Ebola is very rare, if this does occur it is a long process. There is loss of hair, anorexia and some patients are left with psychotic disturbances. Ebola is transmitted many ways: syringes, blood, sharing meals, face to face contact, touching a corpse or coming in contact with one, excretions of bodily fluids and sex. There have been a few major outbreaks in the past, a recent outbreak was confirmed in Uganda on October 14 2000 and the death toll is rising every day. This outbreak is trying to be contained, but the Ebola is winning the battle at the moment. Outbreaks have been brought under control by quarantining of patients and by using the technique of barrier nursing. In 1989, the Ebola virus threatened the United States. Hundreds of people were exposed to airborne Ebola virus strain on at least three continents. The Ebola was later proved harmless to humans, but it showed scientists that Ebola had the potential to be airborne. The appearance of Ebola in Texas and Italy was a result of shipments of a Philippine monkeys. The head of the CDC?s Special Pathogenic Branch, C.J Peters says, ?I think that Filoviruses in general, are the one group of viruses, that I find to be the most disturbing in terms of emerging infections. They have an alveolar aerosol transmissibility, they have a high lethality for man, they are highly mutable RNA viruses, and we understand so little about what their natural reservoir is, and what their properties are, in nature. That I think we have a very volatile mixture here, that could be the next emerging virus.?# Aerosol transmission of Ebola virus has occurred between non-human primates and guinea pigs, but no evidence exists for inter-human transmission by airborne infection, but ?Ebola has the potential to go airborne and be spread like the flu.?# There is no known treatment for Ebola. Current treatments involve administering of blood and plasma to control bleeding. It is possible for the virus to be isolated by the proper sanitization of waste and equipment used. Bodies must be burned, barrier nursing needs to be in operation and handling of infected tissues must be properly contained in laboratories. Due to the mutation factor in many viruses, Ebola could become more violent and incurable. This means that the Ebola that is currently being faced in Uganda may not be the same as the outbreak in Southern Zaire in 1995.

More education and research must be done on this virus to gain a better understanding of how this deadly virus works. This will prevent spreading, and help to control the Ebola virus.

Hantavirus is a disease that could strike fear into many communities in the Southwestern U.S.A. This virus first appeared in rodent?s inn 1976 in Korea. Cases have also been found in Japan, Russia and Sweden. The virus was first recognized in 1993 in the U.S.A. This disease causes a high fever, muscle pain, low blood pressure, vomiting and the lungs fill up with fluid and death results from respiratory failure. There have been over 100 cases in the U.S.A with a mortality rate of 50 percent. The host of the virus is deer mice and therefore controlling deer mice can control the virus. If a rodent control program is applied, the disease could be wiped out for good in the U.S.A. Hantavirus has caused a decline in tourism in the Southwest. The general public needs to be aware of the disease to make sure they avoid contact with deer mice. The carrier for Ebola is unknown making the prevention of the virus impossible, unlike Hantavirus.

Although Dengue fever does not sound familiar there are up to 100 million cases each year. This virus is found in tropical Asia, South America and the Caribbean. The disease causes fever, muscle pain, rash and can sometimes lead to hemorrhagic fever and internal bleeding. Epidemics of this disease are continually increasing, and the disease is now reported in 18 countries in Americas. Dengue is now plaguing large cities in Southeast Asia and is a leading cause of hospitalization and death among children in many Southeastern Asia countries. Mosquitoes transmit disease and currently there is now treatment or cure. New strains are appearing constantly. Dengue can be prevented by eliminating the carrier – mosquitoes. About 200 cases are introduced into Canada and the U.S.A every year. Healthcare officials in North America need to be trained to recognize and diagnose the disease so that the patient can be looked after.

Lassa fever was recognized in West Africa in 1969 and currently there are 30,000 cases a year resulting in 5000 deaths. More and more outbreaks are occurring in western Africa today as a result of civil war. The virus causes high temperature, muscle pain, diarrhea, internal bleeding and patient can become delirious and confused. Little research is underway in West African countries. Monitoring of the disease is virtually nonexistent, little is known about it. Rodents carry Lassa fever and, once again, eliminating the carrier can control this virus, just like the Hantavirus.

The majority of these emerging diseases do not have treatments, cures or vaccines. We need to recognize these diseases as a threat. Is our world ready for a massive outbreak or epidemic of a deadly, incurable disease such as Ebola or Lassa fever?

Although detection of an infectious disease is the first element of response, what follows, may in fact, determine the final impact of an emerging disease on the public?s health. The faster one of these diseases are recognized the easier it will be to contain, if action is not taken the outbreak could pose a threat to mankind. Effective means against such diseases would involve efforts by many individuals, government agencies and private organizations.

Infectious diseases are the major cause of death worldwide and will remain so during our lifetime. With the application of new scientific knowledge, well-planned strategies, political will and adequete resources, many of these diseases may be prevented by immunization, contained by the use of drugs or control methods, and, rarely even wipe out the deadly disease. We will eventually be faced with an outbreak that has the potential to become the next ?Black Death?, in our time. There is no doubt that new infectious diseases will appear in the future, and possibly be at higher levels.

?An Ebola virus risk assessment.?(13 October 2000).[On-line]. Available:

http://www.outbreak.or/cgi-unreg/dynaserve.exe/ebola/risk.html

Anderson, H. ?Are we prepared for a ?Super Ebola? Pandemic??(14 October 2000).

[On-line], Available: http://www.outbreak.org/cgi-unreg/dynaserve/ebola.html

?Center for disease control.? (October 18 2000)[On-line]. Available:

http://www.cdc.gov.html

?Ebola is back in the U.S? (October 18 2000).[On-line]. Available:

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/archive/1996/dom/health.html

?Epidemics.? (19 October 2000). [On-line]. Available:

http://www.pbs.org/fredfriendly/epidemic/pages/epidemics.html

?Filoviruses in nonhuman primates: Overview of the investigation in Texas.?

(20 October 2000)[On-line]. Available:

http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/virlfvr/ebola528.htm

Lederber, J. (1990). ?Emerging Viruses.? Discovery, p.30-46.

Morse, S. (1996). Emerging Viruses: Aids and Ebola. Rockport: Tetrahedron Publishing.

Peters, C.J. &Olshaker, M. (1997). Virus Hunter. New York: Anchor Books.

?Press Release: Ebola in Uganda, Death toll rises.? (24 October 2000). [On-line]. Available: http://www.cnn.com/search/ebola/news1354.html

Radetsky, P. (1994). The Invisible Invaders. Toronto: Back Bay Books.

?Return to the Hot Zone.? (20 October 2000). [On-line]. Available:

http://www.time.com/tome/magazine/articles/0,3266,33478-1,00.html

?What new things are going to kill me.? (20 October 2000). [On-line]. Available:

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/articles/0,438328,943.html

?Where does Ebola hide?? (23 October 2000). [On-line]. Available:

http://www.time.com/time/magazine/archive/1996/dom/medicine.html

Wills, C. (1996). Plagues: Their origin, history and future. London: Harper Collins.

?World Health Organization Infectious Diseases Report – 1999.? (24 October 2000). [On-line].

Available: http://who.int/infectious-disease-report.html

ОТКРЫТЬ САМ ДОКУМЕНТ В НОВОМ ОКНЕ

ДОБАВИТЬ КОММЕНТАРИЙ [можно без регистрации]

Ваше имя:

Комментарий