Alteration Of The Vision Essay, Research Paper
The Marxist belief being that class struggle plays a primary role in analyzing Western society in general and in understanding its allegedly inevitable development from bourgeois oppression under capitalism to a socialist society and thence to Communism.(American Heritage, 1997) was the guiding beacon of the revolution of Russia. The adoption of the Marxist doctrine was thought to be the answer for turning what was known as a “backward country” around. However, along the road to this vision the major ideals envisaged by Karl Marx were lost. Prior to the rise to power of Joseph Stalin and Stalinism, Russia was thought to be moving in accordance with the Marxist doctrine as first viewed by the group intelligentsia.(Strayer, 1995) Being that Russia had become moderately industrialized with the adoption of Lenin’s New Economic policy it was believed that if this course of liberalism was continued the industrialization Russia was searching for would have become a reality. Stalin believed that the pace of industrialization needed to be increased in order to finally reach a modern industrial society. .(Strayer, 1995) He set in motion a series of five year plans in which total nationalization of industry ensued. These plans regulated production and distribution of all industries. Theses goals led to a dramatic increase in iron, steel, and coal production as well as a 40% jump in urban dwellers, and a 30% jump in literacy. .(Strayer, 1995) However agriculture was still stagnant and the effects of collectivization led to great human suffering and environmental pollution. So were did Stalinism and Marxism differ? Russia seemed as though they were encompassing the Marxist doctrine , the country had become a superpower in the World, and the number of urban dwellers had increased dramatically as a result of the rapid industrialization. .(Strayer, 1995) By The elimination of capitalism through the nationalization of the industry Stalin set in motion and violated one of the key ideals in Marxism. Marxism believed that with Socialism came the elimination of social inequalities on all schemes. .(Strayer, 1995) While Stalin had managed to eliminate inequalities in one area of society he brought about the introduction of a new class as a result, the industrial managers. A highly prestigious position, but because capitalism had been skipped most industrial positions were appointed and not based on private ownership. .(Strayer, 1995)
Another ideal that had been lost was that of internationalism. Marx believed that as a result of setting up this Socialist society, other countries would join in leading to a socialist commonwealth. .(Strayer, 1995) However, this never happened and Russia had only itself to depend on in establishing this socialist way of life. Since Russia had only itself to rely on it had developed a very powerful statehood as a result. Marxism believed that with the formation of a socialist society the state would dissipate and that democracy and personal freedom would prevail. .(Strayer, 1995) But, because capitalism never happened the state could not afford to let go of the industries it had captured, to do so would have been its elimination and the elimination of the socialist ideal that it was working to create. In conclusion as a result of not allowing the Marxist prophecy to fulfill itself , it was missed altogether. By not encompassing all the ideals of the Marxist doctrine it no longer holds true. By skipping through a whole stage of societal development Stalin never could truly fulfill social utopia. Bibliography Strayer, R. (1995). The making of the modern world- connected histories, divergent paths 1500 to the present (2nd. ed. ). St. Martins Press. New York, NY The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, (3rd ed.). (1992).Houghton Mifflin Company. Electronic version licensed from InfoSoft International, Inc. All rights reserved.