Frankish Gaul To 814

– Paul Fourace Essay, Research Paper


Charles Martel 715 ? 41, Pippin 741 ? 68 and

Charlemagne 768 ? 814 ?

Politically conservative, stale Merovingian kingdom in

6th and 7th centuries.?

688 o 714 Pippin II reestablishment political consensus on Francia ?

growing solidarity of next 3 generations inspired by war success under

Carolingians ? Francia position dominance in Western Europe. ?

Charlemagne Romanised Frankish culture, anointed

emperor ? continuity in terms of local rule. ?

Changes ? German speaking lands east of the Rhine

became integrated into the kingdom, new impetus central government, stronger

ties kings magnates, loyalty and military service, dukes less likely to go own

wat ? rulers for the first time could make statements about nature public

authority ?

Charles creates power bloc and concentration of

treasure strong anything else in Europe ? take on other areas of the country

one by one ? 20 years spent enforcing his claim to hegemony. ?

Charles the Hammer ? succession battes Saxony,

BavariamAquitane, Burgindy all getting power ? need to rally around external

threats helped community reintegrate around Carolingian leadership ?

opportunistic war lords around country after turmoil of 714 ? lay bishopsetc,

easy for Ch Mart with resources Austrasia and Neustria behind him. ?

Growth Carolingian power initial military success

allowed Martel to take advantage of balance of power ? reputation for

despoiling church lands and settling warriors on them ? establishing control 8th

century Francia reducing power independent lordships, confiscating resources

replacing with allies not systematic taking of church lands ?

Stregthened power by count, abbo, bishops counts yes a

lot from own imperial aristocracy but continuity between Merovingian

aristocracy ? took Carolingians whole generation to show worth ? engrained that

Clovis descendants could be king of Franks ? Charles Martel still needed

Merovingian mouthpiece. ?

Charles Martel and successors proved themselves in war

against other peoples ? increasingly with religious zeal 0 Afrabs, Frisians,

Saxons all non-Chrisitian invaders ? lead territorial gain ?

741 Charles Martlel dies, last 5 years without a King,

and can give royal property away ? but succession crisis so not foregone

conclusion that he could given power to sons. ?

Divides Kingdom between Carolman and Pippin III ? 3rd

son different wife caused problems.?

Dukes Aquitainr, Alemannia, Bavaria try to throw off Carolingian power ?

Childeric III Merovingian king raised to thrown to show legitimacy Carolingian

rule. ?

Carloman dies ? Pippin releases Grifo ? flees to Saxons

and beats him again ? deep into Eastern Saxony ? Pippin beats him again firmer

Frankish hold over Bavaria ? Tassilo new Duke ? Pippin spends last years life

trying to destroy Aquitainian independence. ?

751 miliatrily Pippin impossible to beat, strengthen

association kingship by associating themselves reform of the church ? to

legitimise power needed divine authority ? Bonface cemented links between

Franks and the Papacy. Lombard pressure on the Romans needed new ally ? reality

endorsed rather than enabled by the Pope, religious backing to royal authority,

furthered later. ?

Pippin III continued war every year ? Saxons Aquitains

? 53 Pope Stephen II winters Franks ? makes sure Carolingians only ruling

family Francia ? ties family St. peter to that of Pippin ? eternally Franks

fight to protect papal interests ? 755, 756 two low key campaigns against

Aistulf (Lombard King) pushing not conquering ? once military power in hands of

Pope only a matter of time before Lombards commit sufficient offence for

independence to be crushed ? 774. ?

753 and 758 fought Saxons – always raided deep into but

religion and comms ade conquest impossible this stage ? needed a generation,

genocide and deportations ? could not be attempted until Aqutainian

independence crushed ?

759 ? 768 to crush Aquitainian independence, since late

7th century independent Dukes and churches, so needed to rid of

Dukes, ecclesiastical reform, recover royal property, reinstituting

ecclesiastical immunities, installing Frankish garrisons ? Pippin dies 768 no

Carolingian succession crisis Charles and Carloman agreed division. ?

Under Pippin III Francia stronger than ever before ?

boundaries not stretch much further ? more power than Clovis especially east of

Rhine ? Hesse, Thuringia, Alemannia and Bavaria diocesan structure like west

Rhine ? Bavaria native leader by submitted to P 3 ? Saxony independent and

Frisia largely untouched. ?

Power of Francia ?massive conglomeration peoples and

territories, never lacked warriors, militarization socity, assertion central

control over military forces, so not used for internal conflict, rebuilt

central government from the palace ? more government material, clerical reform

into welfare of people ? military power, government activity and church reform

grow once civil war dies out and consensus and coordination of resources

returns ? leader, with logistical genius, Charlemagne. ?

768 ? 71 ruled jointly Carloman ? long reign, via

annals and capitularies packed military activity, government reform of church

and government ?

Beat Aquitainians early on ? back only once in 778 on

route to Italy, in Neustria doesn?t got there much, itineraries by military

activity residences near eastern frontier zones ? campaigns Saxony lasted a

whole generation, richer pickings easily n Italy in 774 responds to request

from pope Hadrian U help against Lombards ? king of Lomabrds, rebellion then

Frankish counts in and rich source patronage, further into papal politics

conflict and proximity to Byzantium ? horizons expanded contact enemies

neighbours? so contact Abbasid caliphate and Slavs (Saxons). ?

Charlemagne all out war with Saxons 772 ? always

attacked when Charlemagne another battle ? strength of empire reflects

Charlemagne?s energy as he rushes around kingdom with mobilising force and

energy.? Loyalty, orders of government

crucial ? increasingly ideological proclamations and legislation also military

glory and favour for the elites who competed for royal power. ?

792/3 crisis at Pippin the Hunchback Charemagne?s on

rebels as do Saxons (after fighting for Franks), Arbs, Firsians and Salvs ?

Charlemagne ruthlessly end Pippin ? massive victory with depurations etc in 796

? end Saxons resistance incorporation Saxony into Frankish political and

ecclesiastical order.? 794 Synod of

Frankfurt ? reaffirm Christian form of government even during crisis. ?

Tasislo deprived Bavaria seemingly bloodless campaign ?

Avar kingdom massive coup, without control Avars Bavaria and Italian border of

Friuli never secure, 20 years Avars main power central Europe ? 791 careful

preparation Charlemagne invaded Avar kingdom with massive army of Franks,

Saxons, Frisians and Bavarians ? little resistance, never came civil war and

peoples under their control fled ? 796 Frankish forces plundered Avar ring ?

complex fortifications ? treasure fabulous wealth increase wealth Franks. ?

New wealth used to influence others ? begins to take

Roman characteristics, commissions Frankish definition of orthodoxy, use of

images in worship, condemnation Adoptionist heresy ? Charlemagne as leader of

Western Christendom, new capital residence at Aachen built Roman architecture ?

crowned Emperor 800 ? humility of great and god by Einhrad not want the title ?

does not attach that much importance to it, great reforming capitulary 802

nothing much new. ?

Older more reliant on three sons and less prominent

military activity: advances Spain 801, Bohemian Salvs 805-6, Byzantines,

although beating C in Dalmatia 812, made peace recognised him as emperor ?

toward end reign increasingly concerned getting military service and support ?

magnates les swilling to support ageing leader when spoils dried up ? campaigns

against the Danes far from profitable ? by 811 Louis the sole heir of

Charlemagne ? crowned Emperor in Aachen 813 ? no pope ? entire kingdom to Louis

in 814 on Charlemagne?s death. ?

Thankful to father and grandfather for preparing ground

for success ? directing, like Arabia, forces of civil war outwards ? never

mastered art of living in peace ? 786-7 Charlemagne travels 3,500 kilometres ?

did growth territory under single authority lead to more systematic approach to

government? ?

Optimistic view cpaitulaires and written government

implies innovative institutions ? esp. missi ombudsman and scabini or experts

in law to supplement amateur worthies in localities more scientific law ?

Ties of loyalty to master etc, religious mandate

officers persuaded to do public duty Romanesque, although no direct taxation. ?

Pessimisitc view ? no evidence of missi or scabini in

practice, no new substantial government structure grew, plunder ad tribute

sustained growth, lack of structure exposed when empire stopped expanding,

magnates fight each other instead of plunder, but was Saxony that rich,

monetary gain from was that good, war not just elites peoples from everywhere ?

canal digging not just aristocratic work out. ?

Capitularies some intentions, ideals others orders ?

reflect is revival of intellectual and religious activity in conjunction with

growth in power of the rulers ? revival, reform and expansion went hand in hand

and elite benefited from them ? declared aim to create a justly governed

society collective wisdom to live with spiritual norms. ? cleansing Christian

community strengthen hands of rulers at every turn. ?

Reform church directed as strengthening brief of state

intervention in the individual ? no effort to stop king?s use church lands, or

giving monasteries out, reform government tighter control of subordinates. ?

education taught understanding of commands as well as of scripture ? church

still important ? standardisation an coordination of religious and culture life

strengthened hegemony of the state over these areas ? 794 no new venerations

saints ? cult of saints official list ? unlike Carolingians start of period

reinforce identity and independence with association with saints. ?

Single authority replaced confederations, strands

Christian culture gathered together ? basically conservative nature of culture,

unmoving social order ? custom outweighed innovation when reforming kingdom ?

814 as in 714 power on the ground in hands of counts, bishops who preserved

social order protecting property. ? society could not be reformed, nor basic structures

government changed ? Franks pulled together mobilise massive power ? as long as

Carolingian part of consensus it too was powerful ? efforts made to maximise

production, biug estate management, written records of lands sued to highlight

Charles Martel?s plunder ? increase revenue and yield help to revive depressed

economy during gap when ware fare less profitable ? more of what Lords needed

without participating in politics ? who benefits from that turn in political

economy important question of European history.


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