– Paul Fourace Essay, Research Paper
Charles Martel 715 ? 41, Pippin 741 ? 68 and
Charlemagne 768 ? 814 ?
Politically conservative, stale Merovingian kingdom in
6th and 7th centuries.?
688 o 714 Pippin II reestablishment political consensus on Francia ?
growing solidarity of next 3 generations inspired by war success under
Carolingians ? Francia position dominance in Western Europe. ?
Charlemagne Romanised Frankish culture, anointed
emperor ? continuity in terms of local rule. ?
Changes ? German speaking lands east of the Rhine
became integrated into the kingdom, new impetus central government, stronger
ties kings magnates, loyalty and military service, dukes less likely to go own
wat ? rulers for the first time could make statements about nature public
Charles creates power bloc and concentration of
treasure strong anything else in Europe ? take on other areas of the country
one by one ? 20 years spent enforcing his claim to hegemony. ?
Charles the Hammer ? succession battes Saxony,
BavariamAquitane, Burgindy all getting power ? need to rally around external
threats helped community reintegrate around Carolingian leadership ?
opportunistic war lords around country after turmoil of 714 ? lay bishopsetc,
easy for Ch Mart with resources Austrasia and Neustria behind him. ?
Growth Carolingian power initial military success
allowed Martel to take advantage of balance of power ? reputation for
despoiling church lands and settling warriors on them ? establishing control 8th
century Francia reducing power independent lordships, confiscating resources
replacing with allies not systematic taking of church lands ?
Stregthened power by count, abbo, bishops counts yes a
lot from own imperial aristocracy but continuity between Merovingian
aristocracy ? took Carolingians whole generation to show worth ? engrained that
Clovis descendants could be king of Franks ? Charles Martel still needed
Merovingian mouthpiece. ?
Charles Martel and successors proved themselves in war
against other peoples ? increasingly with religious zeal 0 Afrabs, Frisians,
Saxons all non-Chrisitian invaders ? lead territorial gain ?
741 Charles Martlel dies, last 5 years without a King,
and can give royal property away ? but succession crisis so not foregone
conclusion that he could given power to sons. ?
Divides Kingdom between Carolman and Pippin III ? 3rd
son different wife caused problems.?
Dukes Aquitainr, Alemannia, Bavaria try to throw off Carolingian power ?
Childeric III Merovingian king raised to thrown to show legitimacy Carolingian
Carloman dies ? Pippin releases Grifo ? flees to Saxons
and beats him again ? deep into Eastern Saxony ? Pippin beats him again firmer
Frankish hold over Bavaria ? Tassilo new Duke ? Pippin spends last years life
trying to destroy Aquitainian independence. ?
751 miliatrily Pippin impossible to beat, strengthen
association kingship by associating themselves reform of the church ? to
legitimise power needed divine authority ? Bonface cemented links between
Franks and the Papacy. Lombard pressure on the Romans needed new ally ? reality
endorsed rather than enabled by the Pope, religious backing to royal authority,
furthered later. ?
Pippin III continued war every year ? Saxons Aquitains
? 53 Pope Stephen II winters Franks ? makes sure Carolingians only ruling
family Francia ? ties family St. peter to that of Pippin ? eternally Franks
fight to protect papal interests ? 755, 756 two low key campaigns against
Aistulf (Lombard King) pushing not conquering ? once military power in hands of
Pope only a matter of time before Lombards commit sufficient offence for
independence to be crushed ? 774. ?
753 and 758 fought Saxons – always raided deep into but
religion and comms ade conquest impossible this stage ? needed a generation,
genocide and deportations ? could not be attempted until Aqutainian
independence crushed ?
759 ? 768 to crush Aquitainian independence, since late
7th century independent Dukes and churches, so needed to rid of
Dukes, ecclesiastical reform, recover royal property, reinstituting
ecclesiastical immunities, installing Frankish garrisons ? Pippin dies 768 no
Carolingian succession crisis Charles and Carloman agreed division. ?
Under Pippin III Francia stronger than ever before ?
boundaries not stretch much further ? more power than Clovis especially east of
Rhine ? Hesse, Thuringia, Alemannia and Bavaria diocesan structure like west
Rhine ? Bavaria native leader by submitted to P 3 ? Saxony independent and
Frisia largely untouched. ?
Power of Francia ?massive conglomeration peoples and
territories, never lacked warriors, militarization socity, assertion central
control over military forces, so not used for internal conflict, rebuilt
central government from the palace ? more government material, clerical reform
into welfare of people ? military power, government activity and church reform
grow once civil war dies out and consensus and coordination of resources
returns ? leader, with logistical genius, Charlemagne. ?
768 ? 71 ruled jointly Carloman ? long reign, via
annals and capitularies packed military activity, government reform of church
and government ?
Beat Aquitainians early on ? back only once in 778 on
route to Italy, in Neustria doesn?t got there much, itineraries by military
activity residences near eastern frontier zones ? campaigns Saxony lasted a
whole generation, richer pickings easily n Italy in 774 responds to request
from pope Hadrian U help against Lombards ? king of Lomabrds, rebellion then
Frankish counts in and rich source patronage, further into papal politics
conflict and proximity to Byzantium ? horizons expanded contact enemies
neighbours? so contact Abbasid caliphate and Slavs (Saxons). ?
Charlemagne all out war with Saxons 772 ? always
attacked when Charlemagne another battle ? strength of empire reflects
Charlemagne?s energy as he rushes around kingdom with mobilising force and
energy.? Loyalty, orders of government
crucial ? increasingly ideological proclamations and legislation also military
glory and favour for the elites who competed for royal power. ?
792/3 crisis at Pippin the Hunchback Charemagne?s on
rebels as do Saxons (after fighting for Franks), Arbs, Firsians and Salvs ?
Charlemagne ruthlessly end Pippin ? massive victory with depurations etc in 796
? end Saxons resistance incorporation Saxony into Frankish political and
ecclesiastical order.? 794 Synod of
Frankfurt ? reaffirm Christian form of government even during crisis. ?
Tasislo deprived Bavaria seemingly bloodless campaign ?
Avar kingdom massive coup, without control Avars Bavaria and Italian border of
Friuli never secure, 20 years Avars main power central Europe ? 791 careful
preparation Charlemagne invaded Avar kingdom with massive army of Franks,
Saxons, Frisians and Bavarians ? little resistance, never came civil war and
peoples under their control fled ? 796 Frankish forces plundered Avar ring ?
complex fortifications ? treasure fabulous wealth increase wealth Franks. ?
New wealth used to influence others ? begins to take
Roman characteristics, commissions Frankish definition of orthodoxy, use of
images in worship, condemnation Adoptionist heresy ? Charlemagne as leader of
Western Christendom, new capital residence at Aachen built Roman architecture ?
crowned Emperor 800 ? humility of great and god by Einhrad not want the title ?
does not attach that much importance to it, great reforming capitulary 802
nothing much new. ?
Older more reliant on three sons and less prominent
military activity: advances Spain 801, Bohemian Salvs 805-6, Byzantines,
although beating C in Dalmatia 812, made peace recognised him as emperor ?
toward end reign increasingly concerned getting military service and support ?
magnates les swilling to support ageing leader when spoils dried up ? campaigns
against the Danes far from profitable ? by 811 Louis the sole heir of
Charlemagne ? crowned Emperor in Aachen 813 ? no pope ? entire kingdom to Louis
in 814 on Charlemagne?s death. ?
Thankful to father and grandfather for preparing ground
for success ? directing, like Arabia, forces of civil war outwards ? never
mastered art of living in peace ? 786-7 Charlemagne travels 3,500 kilometres ?
did growth territory under single authority lead to more systematic approach to
Optimistic view cpaitulaires and written government
implies innovative institutions ? esp. missi ombudsman and scabini or experts
in law to supplement amateur worthies in localities more scientific law ?
Ties of loyalty to master etc, religious mandate
officers persuaded to do public duty Romanesque, although no direct taxation. ?
Pessimisitc view ? no evidence of missi or scabini in
practice, no new substantial government structure grew, plunder ad tribute
sustained growth, lack of structure exposed when empire stopped expanding,
magnates fight each other instead of plunder, but was Saxony that rich,
monetary gain from was that good, war not just elites peoples from everywhere ?
canal digging not just aristocratic work out. ?
Capitularies some intentions, ideals others orders ?
reflect is revival of intellectual and religious activity in conjunction with
growth in power of the rulers ? revival, reform and expansion went hand in hand
and elite benefited from them ? declared aim to create a justly governed
society collective wisdom to live with spiritual norms. ? cleansing Christian
community strengthen hands of rulers at every turn. ?
Reform church directed as strengthening brief of state
intervention in the individual ? no effort to stop king?s use church lands, or
giving monasteries out, reform government tighter control of subordinates. ?
education taught understanding of commands as well as of scripture ? church
still important ? standardisation an coordination of religious and culture life
strengthened hegemony of the state over these areas ? 794 no new venerations
saints ? cult of saints official list ? unlike Carolingians start of period
reinforce identity and independence with association with saints. ?
Single authority replaced confederations, strands
Christian culture gathered together ? basically conservative nature of culture,
unmoving social order ? custom outweighed innovation when reforming kingdom ?
814 as in 714 power on the ground in hands of counts, bishops who preserved
social order protecting property. ? society could not be reformed, nor basic structures
government changed ? Franks pulled together mobilise massive power ? as long as
Carolingian part of consensus it too was powerful ? efforts made to maximise
production, biug estate management, written records of lands sued to highlight
Charles Martel?s plunder ? increase revenue and yield help to revive depressed
economy during gap when ware fare less profitable ? more of what Lords needed
without participating in politics ? who benefits from that turn in political
economy important question of European history.