Immigration To US Essay, Research Paper
many, immigration to the United States during the late 19th to early 20th
century would be a new beginning to a prosperous life. However there were many
acts and laws past to limit the influx of immigrants, do to prejudice, such as
the Chinese Exclusion Act. Later on into the 20th century there would be laws
repealing the older immigration laws and acts making it possible for many more
foreigners to immigrate to the United States. Even with the new acts and laws
that banned the older ones, no one can just walk right in and become a citizen.
One must go through several examinations and tests before he or she can earn
their citizenship. The Immigration Act of March 3, 1891 was the first
comprehensive law for national control of immigration
established the Bureau of Immigration under the Treasury Department to
administer all immigration laws (except the Chinese Exclusion Act). This
Immigration Act also added to the inadmissible classes. The people in these
classes were inadmissible to enter into the United States. The people in these
classes were, those suffering from a contagious disease, and persons convicted
of certain crimes. The Immigration Act of March 3, 1903 and The Immigration Act
of February 20, 1907 added further categories to the inadmissible list.
Immigrants were screened for their political beliefs. Immigrants who were
believed to be anarchists or those who advocated the overthrow of government by
force or the assassination of a public officer were deported. This act was made
mainly do to the assassination of President William McKinley in 1901. On
February 5, 1917 another immigration act was made. This Act codified all
previous exclusion provisions and added the exclusion of illiterate aliens form
entering into the United States. It also created a ?barred zone?(Asia-Pacific
triangle), whose natives were also inadmissible. This Act made Mexicans
inadmissible. It insisted that all aliens pay a head tax of $8 dollars. However,
because of the high demand for labor in the southwest, months later congress let
Mexican workers (braceros) to stay in the U.S. under supervision of state
government for six month periods. A series of statutes were made in 1917,1918,
and 1920. The sought to define more clearly which aliens were admissible and
which aliens were deportable. These decisions were made mostly on the aliens?
political beliefs. They formed these statutes in reaction to the Bolshevik
Revolution in Russia, which led to a Russian economic recession and a surge of
immigrants used to communistic ideals bringing along with them a red scare. The
Immigration act of May 26, 1924 consolidated all of the statutes and laws in the
past. It also established a quota system designed to favor the Northwestern
Europeans because others were deemed less likely to support the American way of
life. The act also barred all Asians as aliens ineligible for citizenship in the
U.S. The act of June 14, 1940 permanently transferred the Immigration and
Naturalization Service from the Department of Labor to the Department of
Justice. The Act of April 29, 1943 provided for the importation of temporary
agricultural laborers to the U.S. from North, South, and Central America. The
Program served as the Legal basis for the Mexican bracero program, which lasted
through 1964. The Displaced Persons Act of June 25, 1948 was a respond to the
large numbers of Europeans who had been turned into refuges by World War Two. It
also marked the first Major expression of U.S. policy for admitting persons
still had a quota however, of 205,000 displaced persons in a two-year period.
(3,1096) The priority went to aliens who were farm laborers and those who had
special skills. Racial and Religious factors also affected the implementation of
the Act. From June 30 until July 1 half of the German and Austrian quotas were
available exclusively to persons of German ethnic origin who were born in
Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, or Yugoslavia and who resided in
Germany or Austria. The Immigration and Nationality Act of June 27, 1952 also
known as the McCarran-Walter Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 was passed
over the veto of President Harry S. Truman. The Act made all immigration laws
compact into one comprehensive statute. All of the races were made eligible for
naturalization. Sex discrimination was eliminated with respect to immigration.
However it still had a quota in preference to skilled aliens. It also broadened
the grounds for exclusion and deportation of aliens. The Immigration and
Nationality Act of October 3, 1965 abolished the national-origins quota system,
elimination national origin, race, or ancestry as a basis for immigration. It
also established a limit of 170,000 immigrants from the Eastern Hemisphere per
year and 120,000 limit per year on the Western Hemisphere. The Act also
established a 20,000 per-country limit within numerical restrictions for Eastern
Hemisphere, applied in 1976 to Western Hemisphere in 1976. The Refugee Act of
March 17, 1980 was the first omnibus refugee act enacted by congress. The act
passed through congress mainly because of the hundreds of thousands of refuges
that come to the U.S. in the 50?s, 60?s, and 70?s because of communist
oppression. The Refugee Act established procedures for consultation between the
president and congress on the numbers and allocations of refugees to be admitted
in to the country in each fiscal year. It also established procedures on how to
respond to emergency refugee situations in conformity with 1967 United Nations
protocol on refugees. Through this act, refugees attained permanent resident
status. The wanted to lower the number of refugees admitted but that plan was a
failure. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of Nov 6, 1986, was signed by
President Ronald Reagan. Through this act illegal aliens who had resided in an
unlawful status since January 1, 1982 could be legalized. This act also
prohibited employers from knowingly hiring an illegal alien. It increased
immigration by making adjustments for Cubans and Haitians who had entered the
U.S. without inspection prior to January 1, 1982. Through this act at least
700,000 visas were issued. A Person becomes a citizen of the United States of
America through a rigorous application. The First step is to get an application
and, except for children under 14 years of age, a fingerprint card and a
biographic information form from the nearest office of the Immigration and
Naturalization Service or from a social service agency in the community. For him
or herself one must fill out Form N-400. If it is for a child fill out Form N -
402. The Application, the fingerprint card, and the Biographic Information form
if appropriate, must be filled out correctly and returned to Immigration and
Naturalization Service. Three unsigned photographs as described in the
application must be submitted. A fee is required when filling out N-400 or
N-402. After the application is completed by the Immigration service, the
applicant must go for a test. If eligible, after the test, the applicant is to
feel out a paper known as a petition for naturalization, in the court. The Final
court hearing is after the examination is completed, the petition filed in
court, and all investigations of fitness for citizenship completed.
the petitioner will be notified to appear before the court for the final
hearing. If the examiner agrees that the applicant should be a citizen, he or
she becomes a citizen. If the examiner does not agree, he or she will have to
come to court with or without an attorney and the judge will hear what the
petitioner has to say. The judge then has the final call on whether the
petitioner becomes a citizen or not. You can become a citizen if you meet the
following requirements: you have been a legal permanent resident for five years,
or three years if you are married to a U.S. citizen, you have lived in the U.S.
for at least 2-1/2 years (50%) of the five year period, or 1-1/2 years (50%) if
you are married to a citizen, you have lived for more than three months in the
state where you apply for citizenship, you have good moral character. To become
a citizen today one must go through a whole process of tests and trials and that
is only if the applicant meets all of the requirements first. Who were/are the
immigrants to the U.S.? 1607-1830 Scotch-Irish had been working on farms that
they did not own. when they could no longer afford to rend their homes, they had
no alternative but to seek new homes.
poorest faced the prospect of starvation if they did not get away. Africans were
brought involuntarily, as slaves. they made up the lowest social class. All ages
were brought here, men and women. They were forced to come here and work on
plantations as slaves. Scotch Irish were Catholics and
Nationality Primarily Irish and British immigrated to?Presbyterians.
Circumstances Irish: The Irish immigrated to?America
during this time period.
America for several reasons, one of which was the potato famine that
killed over a million. Along with this, they resented the British rule of their
country, and the British landlords. This included the British Protestantism and
British taxes. With this there was the onset of prolonged depression and social
hardship. Ireland was so ravaged by economic collapse, that in rural areas, the
average age of death was 19. By the 1830’s Irish immigration was growing
quickly, and in 1945 with the potato famine, the number of immigrants sky
rocketed. British: The reasons the British came to America are not nearly as
detailed as the reasons for the Irish coming here. The British came to simply
Social Classes Irish:Most Irish had?look
for better opportunities of work.
been tennant farmers before they came to the United States. They had
little taste for farm work and little money to buy land in America anyway.
British: The ?British
were mostly professionals, independent farmers, and skilled workers.
Age Irish: Teenager to Young Adult British: Most immigrants from Britain
young, although not quite as young as their Irish counterparts.
1830-1890 Immigrants were primarily white Europeans.
Catholic British: Protestant 1890-1924
Russian Jews ?Catholics
and Roman Catholics
Eastern Orthodox ?
Eastern European Jews ?Christian
Many middle-upper class Cubans?
Christian 1968-Present ?