, Research Paper
In the past, toxins released into the environment were not a large concern toofficials in Italy. However, there, and in every country of the world, it is a growingconcern. Delegates from Italy and other countries from the United Nations met in 1995to discuss this matter, and implement settlements that would aid in the reduction of thisproblem. The meeting was called to discuss this and other issues of human relations, butit fell among the most consequential subjects considered. With a coastline of approximately 7,100 km, it is crucial that Italy makes a strongeffort to protect the oceans from being contaminated with toxins. Over 1500 km of thecoast is in a state of erosion. But with the addition of ports, wharves, and protectiveworks, there are over 600 km that are lined with concrete defenses. The quality of he seawater has improved since the institution of these borders, and in studies the percent offavorable water samples increased from 91.4% in 1992, to 93.9% in 1995. In 1993,16,244 tons of chemical wastes were moved in Italian Ports, of which 12,048 were beingimported, and 7,196 being exported. Eight marine reserves have been instituted. In Italy, nuclear waste and radiated fuel derived from the operation ofelectronuclear centers are managed by the plants producing them. They are temporarilyhoused in engineered depots built specifically for this purpose. Radioactive waste frommedical, hospital, industrial, and research activity is managed mostly by authorizedindustrial workers. The limited diffusion of depots and the concentration of managementin a limited number of installations with a resricted number of qualified officialsdesignates better control over the activities, and assures the necessary guarantees of
nuclear security and protection of workers and the entire population. Based on DPR 175/1988 and later laws of implementation, there are 440 industrialplants at risk of a significant accident, a large percentage of which is represented bychemical and petrochemical industries and depots. Many decrees, the most recent inearly 1996, have introduced stricter criteria for the preparation and assessment of safetyreports for risky plants. A new drive to control the risk of chemical industry activitieswill be adopted by the EU Directive called seveso 2 , which Italy will attempt toincorporate into national law quickly. Approximately 90 Italian chemical firms, with 233production centers, belong to the Responsible Care program, which strives to lowerenvironmental pollution, as well as the risk of accidents. They also aim to make morerational use of prime materials. It is the opinion of the Italian delegation to the UN that it is the responsibility ofthe United Nations to aid and support each country individually as needed to manage anddispose of hazardous materials. We believe that a fund should be designated to aidimpecunious nations in building treatment and storage facilities for hazardous material,and that it should be dispensed after case-sensitive evaluations are made of nations whoapply for financial assistance. Furthermore, it is our belief that the UN forces should beinstituted to contain hazardous materials immediately, that create an unsafe situation forinhabitants of areas incapable or unwilling, for whatever reason, to do so themselves. Lastly, we believe that it is necessary for the United Nations to aid in the maintenance ofalready existing laws and establishments regarding treatment, storage, and disposal oftoxic waste and chemicals, as well as amend these and produce new ones as deemednecessary by the Special Committee.