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a tough, unsentimental style of American crime writing that brought a new tone of earthy realism or naturalism to the field of detective fiction. Hard-boiled fiction used graphic sex and violence, vivid but often sordid urban backgrounds, and fast-paced, slangy dialogue. Credit for the invention of the genre belongs to Dashiell Hammett (1894 1961), a former Pinkerton detective and contributor to the pulp magazines, whose first truly hard-boiled story, Fly Paper, appeared in Black Mask magazine in 1929. Combining his own experiences with the realistic influence of writers such as Ernest Hemingway and John Dos Passos, Hammett created a definitely American type of detective fiction that was separate and distinct from the English mystery story usually set in a country house populated by cooks, butlers, and relatives, a pattern that had been slavishly followed by American writers for generations. The first of Hammett’s detective novels was Red Harvest (1929). His masterpiece is generally believed to be The Maltese Falcon (1930), which introduced Sam Spade, his most famous sleuth. His most successful story, The Thin Man (1932), was the last of an extraordinary quintet of novels.
Hammett’s innovations were incorporated in the hard-boiled melodramas of James M. Cain (1892 1977), particularly in such early works as The Postman Always Rings Twice (1934) and Double Indemnity (1936). Another successor was Raymond Chandler (1888 1959), whose novels, such as The Big Sleep (1939), Farewell, My Lovely (1940), and The Little Sister (1949), deal with corruption and racketeering in Southern California. Other important writers of the hard-boiled school are George Harmon Coxe (1901 84), author of such thrillers as Murder with Pictures (1935) and Eye Witness (1950), and W.R. Burnett (1899 1982), who wrote Little Caesar (1929) and The Asphalt Jungle (1949). Hard-boiled fiction ultimately degenerated into the extreme sensationalism and undisguised sadism of what Ellery Queen’s Mystery Magazine called the guts-gore-and-gals-school, as found in the works of Mickey Spillane, writer of such phenomenal best-sellers as I, the Jury (1947).
The works of the hard-boiled school have been extensively translated into films, often through successive versions tailored to different generations of moviegoers.