World War One Peace Settlements Essay, Research Paper
The Fourteen Point Program (January 1918 ? Woodrow Wilson) Open Diplomacy Freedom of Navigation Free trade Disarmament Self-determination Evacuation of all Russian Territory Belgium must be evacuated and restored (from German occup.) Freeing of French territory (Alsace-Lorraine) Readjustment of Italian borders Autonomous dev. for the peoples of A.H. Independence for the Balkan states Securing of Turkish territory/sovereignty / the Dardanelles as a free passage The establishment of an independent Poland The creation of the League of Nations Rejected by Germany immediately The Armistice: (following a change in German Gov.) France and G.B. changed the Fourteen point program Absolute freedom of the seas was not offered Germany would have to pay compensations Signed on November 11th 1918 and WWI ended (after Ebert the Socialist came to power in Germany following the abdication of the Kaiser) The positions of various countries on peace negociations:
USA: Wilson was most concerned with the long term and the adoption of the Fourteen Point program (but not backed by Senate) France: wanted a peace that would never allow German attack on France again (reparations, etc…) — destroy Germany G.B.: The popular opinion was very hostile towards Germany — cripple Germany Italy: wanted to punish A.H. and obtain territory promised in the 1915 Secret treaty — when no backed by allies on this, Italy left the conference table and this later gave rise to Fascism in Italy as Italians were not content on the peace terms Germany influenced the conference in that the allies (especially Lloyd-George from G.B.) feared a communist revolution. The Treaty of Versaille and other post-war Treaties See Notes Criticisms of the Settlement: Didn’t respect the 14 Point Program: Germany was not present Britain did not give up right of search (for ships) Tariff barriers increased (against free trade) No multilateral disarmament G.B. and France gained colonies The Allies intervened in Russia The Italian frontiers’ issue was not fixed Self-determination was not applied Should Germany have been present? Could Germany afford the reparations? Resentment in Germany at having to pay reparations Divisions amongst the allies as over reparations Keyne’s influence Didn’t respect Self-determination It was economic and strategic factors which influenced the establishments of frontiers/countries The ‘War guilt’ clause : was it necessary? Created German resentment against the Versaille Settlement. Were the allies entitled to the reparations they demanded? Long term criticisms: Treaties were completed in haste Procedural difficulties (views of allies on how to deal with matters differed) The treaties were on the whole a compromise btw differing views The treaties assumed the allies would remain united The USSR was excluded (this weakened the settlement) It broke up A.H. This: Created rivalries in the Balkans Prevented economic cooperation in the newly formed states The balance of power in Europe was disturbed The league did not function as had been hoped The changes brought by the settlement were incomplete.