Biology Essay Research Paper A Controlled experment

Biology Essay, Research Paper

A Controlled experment allows a researcher to isolate and test a single virable

A kilogram is approx. equal to 2.2 pounds

A meter is a little longer than a yard

An astronaunt would expect her weight to be different on the moon

A milliliter is equal to cc, ml, cubic centemeter

A meter Contains 100 cm.

The weight of an object is the measure of the pull of gravity

0-100 is freezing to boiling on the celcus scale

Living orginsims produce new orginsims of the same species by reproduction

All living orginsims must obtain and use energy

The ability to react to something in the enviroment is called irritability

The metric system is based ot scaled on the powers of 10

Recorded observations are called data

The ability to reproduce your results is an important part of science.

The first step to the scientific method is to observe the problem

Sexual reproduction is nessary because it provides for verity in the offspring

The amount of matter in a substance determines its mass

Scientists measure temp. in degrees Celsius

The basic unit of liquad volume in metric is the liter

The unit measure for length is the meter

The information that you can see, hear, or smell in an experment is called data

Biology is the study if all living things

In outer space you can expect that your mass will stay the same.

There are at least 3 types of microscopes

Never Test more that 1 varable

The general term for Catabolism and anabolism us Metabolism

The life span of each organism ends up with death

The 5 branches of biology are Botanists, Zoology, Miabiology, Palentology,Ethology

Photosynthesis- Process in which autotrophs make their own food usuing the energy in light, CO2 and H2O

3 parts of the cell theory:

1.all cells come from pre existing cells

2.all living prginsims are made up of cells

3. cells are the basic unit of structure and function of a living organism

What is the difference between a plant cell and an animal cell?

A plant cell has chloroplast and some other organelles that an animal cell doesn?t. A plant cell does a process called photocenthesis which animal cell doesn?t

A nucleus is found in Eukaryotes

Ribosomes- make proteins

Cromosomes- DNA

Mitochondira- Transform energy from food into more useful substances in the cell

Lysosmoes- Break down molecules within the cell

2 methods for materials to move through cells:

1. Osmosis

2. Diffusion

Active transport requires energy

Water will travel from an area of high concentration to low contration when seprated by a semi permible membrain.

If red cells are added to water they will explode

Another name for a cell eating a particle is Phagocyte.

When a cell drinks a liquid it is called pimocytosis

The core the atom neucleus

The building block of all matter in the universe is mostly empty space.


9c = 5f ? 160 Centigrade to Fahrenheit

K = C + 273 Kelvin to Centigrade

675 ? 5f ? 160 F to C

The basic unit of all matter is the Atom

When elements combine to form substances consisting of to or more different atoms, Chemical Compounds are produced

2 kinds of chemical Bonds

H2O, NaCl

An acid is a compound that releases hydrogen ions

A base Is a compound that releases Hydroxide ions

The most important aspect of the water molecule is polar

The basic Groups of organic compounds found in living organisms.

1. Protons

2. Carbohydrates

3. Fats (liquids)

4.Nucleic Acid

Carbohydrates- Organic compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, or sugars and the body?s main source of energy

Proteins- Amino acids

Fats are made of ? A long chain of carbon atoms with a corbox of a ylic acid on the end

Fat Molecule:

C-C-C-C- = O


The 3 major roles of Lipids in living organisms:

1. Form membranes

2. Chemical messengers

3. Store energy

The primary cellular energy source for almost all living things is the sun

The 4 elements that make up most living organisms:

1. Carbon

2. Hydrogen

3. Oxygen

4. Nitrogen

Mixture- A substance composed of 2 or more elements or compounds that aren?t chemically combined

A chemical formula for a simple acid: H20

A chemical formula for a simple base: NaOh -* NA+) + Oh-

2 kinds of nucleic acids: RNA (ribonucleic acid) DNA deoxyribonucleic

Pure water has an equal number of acids and base molecules. 7ph

The range of a ph scale is 0-14

Catalyst- A substance that speeds up the role of a chemical reaction

Ex of Saturated Fat- Found in meat and dairy products.

Ex of Non Saturated Fat- Corn oil

Carbon is a unique element and the basis for fats, carbs, proteins and nucleic acid because it has a valance of 4 and combined with 4 different things

Photosynthesis- Process in which autotrouphs make their own food using the energy in light and CO2 and H2O.

General Formula for photosynthesis (balanced):

CO2 + H20 ?light (CH2O) n+O2

Autotrophs- Organisms that are able to use a source of energy such as sunlight to produce food from simple molecules in the environment

Heterotrophs- Organisms that obtain energy from foods they eat.

When a plant releases oxygen the oxygen comes from H2O


Cromosomes are made DNA

Mitochondira- Give the cell energy

Lysosomes- Break down molecules in the cell

Methods that materals move threw cells:

Diffusion, osmosis

Active transport requires energy

If red blood cells are added to water they will explode.

Another name for a cell eating a particle is called phagocytosis

When a cell drinks a liquid is called Dinocytosis

There are 2 stages of photosynthesis

A lot more energy is in glucose than there is in ATP

Glucose- Sugar with formula C6 H12 O6 that is a product of photosynthesis; can be broken down for energy

Formula for Glucose: 6CO2+6H2O

The Citric acid cycle takes place in the inner mitochondria

Oxygen is the end product of electron transport in the Mitochondrion

36 is the total number of ATP molecules produced by both glycolysis and the kerbs cycle

Fermentation- Process that enables cells to carry out energy production in the absence of oxygen

2 kinds of Fermentation: actic acid alcondic

At 12% alcohol yeast will die

Scientific Notation: .000000456 = 4.56 x 10-7

2 compounds responsible for the Genetic Code: DNA RNA

DNA- is the nucleic acid that stores and transmits the genetic information from one generation of an organism to the next

Bacteriophage- A virus that infects bacteria?s

4 Nitrogen bases DNA:

1. Quanine

2. Adenine

3. Thymin

4. Adenine

The woman who was instrumental in the discovering the structure of DNA is Roseline Franklin

Shucline and Crik were credited for the discovery of DNA

The discovery of DNA was made in 1953

The sugar used to make DNA is deoxy ribose

4 Nitrogen bases for RNA:

1. Quanine

2. Adenine

3. Adenine

4. Vracil

3 kinds of RNA:

1. messenger

2. ribosome

3. transfer RNA

Formula for Glycolysis

Q2 + glue ? CO2 + H2O

36 ATP is released by Glycolysis

3 nucleotcdes that cool for a single amino acid makes up a codon

Proteins are assembled in the cell

Proteins are made in the cell. The bond that holds them together is the hydrogen and peptide B bond.

64 codons are in the genetic code

The entire genetic program needed to produce a human cell is found in any cell with a nucleus

Protein is a long chain of Amino Acids

The genetic code is universal to all animals, but it isn?t the same genetic code.

Carbohydrates- Long chain of sugars


Helps you study for a Bio Test


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