Stalin Essay, Research Paper
Lenin, a radical socialist who favored a modified Marxism, believed that because Russia had little industry and only a small working class, the country might not move in the direction Marx had predicted. Because of this, he established a small group of dedicated Marxists; this group worked to become a revolutionary force in Russia. Lenin’s adaptation of Marxism formed the basis of what is now known as Russian communism.
With Lenin being the leader of the Bolsheviks, one particular communist group, he seized control of the government in Russia and became the dominant political power. The Bolsheviks referred to their opponents as the Mensheviks whose leader was Maratov. Although both groups took action in the Russian Revolution of 1905 and went through periods of understanding, their differences eventually increased. The Bolsheviks continued to demand a highly organized and professional party. The Mensheviks, who did not agree with these methods at all, believed that the proletariat could not control the bourgeois revolution. Thereupon, the Mensheviks worked with the bourgeois to persevere a liberal, capitalist government. Immediately after the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks refused to share power with other revolutionary groups; they only shared with the remaining Social Revolutionaries who changed their name to Russian Communist Party in March 1918. This name was changed in 1952 to The Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The Mensheviks presumed the leading role in the soviet and the provisional governments and formally set up their own party in August. After the Bolshevik Revolution, they tried to form a legal resistance, but they were suppressed in 1922 with many Mensheviks constrained into exile.
In the autumn of 1917, the provisional government was headed and lost popular support. Tired of war and the run down economy, the workers, peasants, and soldiers were loosing their patience. Lenin and his party demanded not only peace and bread but also. The Bolshevik line won increasing support among the workers, soldiers, and peasants. By September, they voted in a Bolshevik majority which was in the Petrograd Soviet and the Soviets of the major cities and towns throughout the country. The party immediately began preparations for an armed revolt to get rid of the Provisional Government and to transfer state powers to the soviets. In early September of 1917, Lenin saw Russia’s choice as either a soviet republic or a parliamentary republic, however, the Provisional government was seen by Lenin as a “dictatorship of the bourgeoisie” which kept Russia in the imperialist war. In October, Lenin went into Petrograd and attended a secret meeting of the Bolshevik central committee. Lenin finally won a majority in favor of preparing an armed takeover. Steps to enlist the support of soldiers and sailors and to train Red Guards readily continued under the appearance of self-defense of the Petrograd soviet. In early November, the Bolsheviks led red guards and revolutionary soldiers while sailors overthrew the provisional government and proclaimed that state power had gotten into the hands of the soviets. At this point, the Bolsheviks constituted the absolute majority of the Second All-Russia congress of Soviets. The delegates voted to accept full power and to elected Lenin as chairman of the council of people’s commissars; the new soviet government approved his peace and land decree.
In January 1924, after Lenin’s death, Joseph Stalin quickly gained power; he wanted the Soviet Union to establish a practicable political system without expecting support from the worldwide revolution. The Secretary General started a policy of
“Socialism in one country”. In 1928, Stalin abandoned Lenin’s New Economic Policy because of the impetuous state organized industrialization under a succession of five-year plans. In late 1934, the Secretary General started a new campaign of political terror against the communist members who had previously brought him into power. Stalin’s main cause was the assassination of Sergey Kirov and he used the show trial of leading communists as a means of expanding new terror in the country.
Kirov played an important role in the reign of Stalin. In 1926, Stalin transferred Kirov to Leningrad to head the Leningrad party organization. Kirov was also made a candidate member of the politburo of 1926. And after loyally supporting Stalin against his opponents, he was elected into the politburo. Kirov started the modernization and growth of the city of Leningrad’s industry. Although he appeared to be a Stalinist, Kirov demonstrated increasing independence in directing the activities of his Leningrad organization in the early 1930’s. He gradually began to assume a position of power that rivaled that of Stalin; consequently, this led to his assassination. Because Stalin had an abundance of allies, supporting parties, and secret police, the members of other parties were not able to overthrow Stalin.
Undoubtedly, Lenin is the cause for the establishment of the violent tyranny that followed his death, and it was his supporters that immediately became powerful after his death. These particular leaders took advantage of their power which consequently led to disastrous terrorism. Because of their crude and indecent political decisions, it is difficult to have respect for any of these men.