Queen Isabella Timeline Essay, Research Paper
Timeline of Queen Isabella
1451-Isabella was born (April 22) to King John II of Castile and his second wife, Isabella of Portugal in Madrigal de las Altas Torres, in Castile.
1452-Ferdinand was born (March10) to King John II of Aragon and Juana Enriquez in Sos, Aragon.
1454-King John II of Castile died.
1454-Isabella s half-brother Henry IV became King.
1455-Isabella s brother Prince Enrique married Princess Juana.
1460-King Henry IV offered the hand of Isabella to Don Carlos, Prince of Viana.
1463-Prince Enrique met with King Louis XI of France about possible marriage candidates for Isabella.
1464-Isabella was brought to the King s court to be under the King s eye.
1465-King Henry IV attempted to arrange a marriage between Isabella and Afonso V, the King of Portugal.
1465-Isabella decided she wanted to marry Prince Ferdinand of Aragon.
1466-Upset by attempts to arrange her marriage, Isabella left the King s court and moved to Segovia.
1467-Isabella s younger brother Alfonso became involved with forces in opposition to King Henry IV.
1468-After coming of age Ferdinand is named King of Sicily.
1468-Alfonso died and opposition forces turned to Isabella for help.
1468-Isabella decided not to join the opposition and is rewarded by King Henry IV with recognition that she is the heiress of the King. This agreement is known as the Accord of Toros de Guisando.
1468-Isabella refused the title of Queen offered to her and said that while her brother Enrique lived, she would never accept the title of Queen.
1469-Prince Ferdinand of Aragon married Isabella of Castile in Valladolid (October) and the two Spanish kingdoms ended their conflicts, but remained separate powers.
1470-Upset that Isabella married without his approval, King Henry IV rejected Isabella s claim to the throne, preferring his own daughter Princess Juana.
1470- Isabella s first daughter Isabella was born.
1472-Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia, later to be Pope Alexander VI, visited Spain.
1473-Concerned about her safety, Isabella entered Segovia only after posting Ferdinand at the castle of Turegano in case there was any trouble.
1474-Henry IV died.
1474- Isabella s brother Enrique died.
1474-Isabella became Queen of Castile (Dec. 11.)
1474-With the proclamation of Isabella as Queen, thus began a war of succession.
1474-Portugal joined the war of succession when Afonso V invaded Castle and married Juana.
1475-Ferdinand s will proclaimed Isabella his heir in Aragon, openly declaring to his subjects the advantages they would derive from a union with Castile.
1476-Afonso V attacked Castile and Leon, but was defeated by the Castilian army.
1478-Ferdinand and Isabella established the Spanish Inquisition to enforce religious uniformity and ban all religions other than Roman Catholicism.
1478- Isabella s only son John was born.
1479-All opposition to Isabella is finally defeated.
1479-King John II of Aragon died.
1479-Ferdinand succeeded his father as King of Aragon, becoming Ferdinand II.
1479- Isabella s second daughter Joan was born.
1479- Isabella became Queen of Aragon (1479-1504).
1480-Juana abandoned her claims to the throne, taking a veil in the monastery of Santa Clara of Coimbra.
1480-The fall of Tranto.
1480-The Inquistion spreads to Andalusia.
1480-Ferdinand and Isabella signed a royal decree authorizing the appointment of inquisitors for Seville.
1482- Isabella s third daughter Mary was born.
1482-Ferdinand and Isabella sent their army to take over the last Muslim stronghold in Spain, the Kingdom of Granada.
1484-Isabella took a new interest in education and acquired proficiency in Latin.
1485-The city of Ronda surrendered (May 15.)
1485-Ferdinand took possession of Ronda (May 22.)
1485-Catherine, Isabella s fourth daughter was born.
1486-The city of Loja was seized.
1486-Isabella established a military hospital to take care of the wounded.
1487-Ferdinand and his 70,000 troops marched to Malaga.
1489-Ferdinand and his troops marched into Baza.
1489-Ferdinand and his troops entered Guadix.
1491-Ferdinand and Isabella set up a forward headquarters at Santa Fe, close to their objective.
1491-Christopher Columbus made his first visit to speak with Isabella about supporting a voyage to secure a new route to China.
1492-Granda fell (January 2.)
1492-Territorial unity of the Spanish monarchy was established.
1492-Ferdinand and Isabella annexed Granada and expelled all Jews from Spain.
1492-The Inquisition was empowered to expel anyone who refused to be baptized as a Catholic.
1492-Terms were drawn up for an expedition led by Columbus to discover a new route to the Indies (April 17.)
1492-Any new lands discovered by Columbus were annexed to the crown of Castile, according to existing practices and with the approval of the Pope.
1492-Columbus discovered land in the New World (Oct. 12.)
1492-Isabella encouraged the work of scholars, including Antonio de Debrija, who wrote the book Gramatica Castellana, the first book of grammar for the Castillian language.) The book was dedicated to her.
1492- Isabella appointed Francisco Ximenes as her royal confessor.
1493-Isabella became a patron of Spanish and Flemish artists, and part of her extensive collection of artwork survives to this day.
1493-Ferdinand is wounded in battle in Barcelona.
1494-Isabella and Columbus clashed over the rights of Indians brought back from the New World. She ordered some that had been brought back as slaves to be released.
1494-The Italian Wars started.
1495-The Archbishop of Toledo died.
1495-Isabella persuaded the Pope to appoint Ximenes as the new Archbishop.
1496-Pope Alexander VI gave Ferdinand the honorary title The Catholic.
1497- Isabella s only son John died.
1498-Isabella s daughter Isabella died during childbirth. She was the queen of Portugal. Second daughter Joan becomes heiress to the throne.
1498-Joan gave birth to Elinor.
1500-Joan gave birth to Charles V.
1500-Isabella II s son Miguel died in Portugal.
1501- Isabella s granddaughter Isabella was born.
1503-Isabella organized the Secretariate of Indian Affairs, which was the origin the Supreme Council of the Indies.
1503-Joan gave birth to Fernando.
1504-Isabella died of the fever.
1504-Upon her death, Joan and her husband Phillip I became heirs to the throne.
1505-Joan gave birth to Mary.
1505-Ferdinand married the niece of the king of France.
1506-Joan s husband Phillip I died.
1506-Ferdinand went to Italy for two years.
1507-Joan gave birth to Catherine.
1509- Catherine of Aragon married Henry VIII King of England.
1512-The Spanish part of Navarre was conquered and Ferdinand occupied the kingdom, making it part of Castile.
1516-Ferdinand of Aragon died in Madrigalejo.
1516-Joan s son Charles V became the King.
1516-Ximenes became regent of all Spain for the young King Charles V.
1516-The crowns of all the Spanish kingdoms were passed to Charles V.
1517- Isabella s third daughter Mary died.
1536-Isabella s daughter Catherine of Aragon died.
1542-France declared war on Spain.
1543-Charles V made his son Phillip his regent in Spain.
1545-Charles V obtained a truce with France.
1555- Isabella s daughter Joan died.
1555-Turks seized two of Spain s strongholds in North Africa.
1559-Phillip permitted governors of Sicily and the Knights of Malta to recover Tripoli.
1559-The Italian Wars ended.
1565-The Turks besieged Malta.
1571- The Balle of Lepanto.
1575-Phillip declared bankruptcy and renegotiated his debts with his Genoese creditors.
1580-Phillip seized Portugal, and Spain held it for 60 years.