Hunger Essay, Research Paper
Ever since the beginning of time, all people have been motivated. Motivated to succeed, motivated to conquer, and motivated to be the best. But what is this thing we call motivation? Motivation is the energizing and directing of behavior, the force behind our yearning for food, our longing for sexual intimacy, and our desire to achieve. There are different theories concerning our motivated behavior.
Instincts were one of the theories under Darwin s influence, early theories viewed behavior as controlled by many biological forces, such as specific instincts. This approach fell into disfavor when it became clear that people where naming, and not explaining various behaviors by calling them instincts. The underlining idea-that genes predispose species-typical behaviors is still influential in evolutionary psychology.
Drives and Incentives is another theory created by psychologists. Psychologists say that drives and incentives are psychological needs create aroused psychological circumstances that drive us to reduce or satisfy those needs. The aim of drive reduction is internal stability, or homeostasis. Thus, drive reduction motivates survival such as eating and drinking. Not only are we pushed by our internal drives, but also we are pulled by our external incentives. Depending on our personal and cultural experience, some stimuli will arouse our desires.
Optimum Arousal is one of the latest theories developed by psychologists. This theory provides us with the understanding that rather then reducing a physiological need or tension state, some motivated behaviors increase arousal. Curiosity-driven behaviors, for example, suggest that two little as well as to much stimulation can motivate people to seek an optimum level of arousal. Another example would be that well-fed animals will leave their shelter to explore, seemingly in the absents of any need-based drive. For taking such risks, animal may, however, gain information and recourses.
Some needs take priority over others. At this moment with your needs for air and water satisfied, other motives, such as your desire to achieve, energize and direct your behavior. Abraham Maslow described these priorities, as a hierarchy of needs at its base is our physiological needs, such as food and water. Only if these need are met are we prompted to meet our need for safety, and then to meet our uniquely human needs to give and to receive love, and to enjoy self-esteem. Beyond this, said Maslow, lies in the highest of human needs, or to express the idea that, until satisfied, some motives are more compelling then others.